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Full text of "Evansville, her commerce and manufactures : a descriptive work of the business metropolis of Indiana ..."

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977.202 
Evl7r 
1369461 



<3ENEAL.OGY COL-L-ECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 02292 7542 



EVANSVILLE : 

HER 

Commerce and Manufactures, 

A PESCRIFTIVE WORK OF THE 

BUSINESS METROPOLIS 



Containing Information relative to the Past Condition and Present Develop- 
ment of the City's Commerce and Manufactures; Its Capabilities for 
Future Enlargement and Extension ; Facilities and Advantages for 
Conducting Trade, both Natural and Artificial. Also, its Geo- 
graphical Position, Climate, Water, Sanitary Status, Railroad 
and River Transportation ; together with Full Notes of 
the Population, — their Educational and Religious 
Institutions, Benevolent Orders,Public Buildings, 
&c., &c., &c. 

A Hand-book full of Information for the Intelligent Reader, at 
Home or Abroad; Resident or Immigrant; Merchant, Manu- 
facturer, Capitalist, &c., &c. 



BY CHARLES K ^ROBERT. 

(Author of " Nashville and Her Trade," &c., &e., and recently Associate Editor 
Evansville Courier.) 



EVANSVILLE, INDIANA: 
Courier Company, Job and Book Printers, Stationers and Binders, 

1874, 



13G346i 



dedicated, with much (Respect^ 



Merchants, Manufacturers, and (Business Men, of the 
City of Evansville, 

:»piITH an earnest hope that this extensive written exhibit of 
the Commercial, Manufacturing, Industrial and Eesident 
Advantages and Important Considerations of a city, indebted 
alone to their integrity and mercantile rectitude; their liberality 
and fair dealing, and their individual and collective spirit of enter- 
prise ; for the proud position so well maintained in the front rank 
of commercial cities ; and in the belief that it may benefit as well 
as interest the Merchants and Tradesmen tributary to and relying 
on this great center for supplies — the latter being undoubtedly 
directly and personally concerned in knowing the advantageous 
claims of this, the Fountain-head of the Central, Southern and 
Southwestern States. 



By the Way. 



fUSTOM has made it quite necessary that every book that is sent out 
among the people, should have a Prefatory page which may serve to in- 
troduce it to favor and consideration, just as the rhymes do one another in 
the memorable "House that Jack Built." But, for the life of me, I never could 
understand why a Preface need always be an apology. If a man has written a 
book, and fairly put his heart and soul into what he has done, it is not so easy 
for him to tell what there is for him to be ashamed of. A Preface should not 
be a sniveling whine. It may be made a vehicle for either this, that or the 
other sort of deliberate opinion respecting the book, bespeaking for it nothing 
more than fair play in its turn; or it may be the avant courier — the clear-the- 
way guard to the main army of facts just ready to come up — but whatever na- 
ture it partakes of, there is no use in sorely grieving over its imperfections at 
so late an hour, and just as the battle for popularity is on the eve of being 
waged. Therefore, for my own part, while I have no such design as that of 
"boosting" my own literary wares through the world, neither will I consent to 
beg a generally well-disposed and liberal-minded Public to wink at what they 
honestly want to condemn. 

It has been said that when a man sets doggedly in his study, and says to 
himself, "I mean to write a good book," it is certain from the necessity of the 
case, that the result will be quite the contrary. If the result of my labors are 
of that stripe, it cannot be from this cause. I think I may claim a better stand- 
ard, for no one except those who have been occupied in similar researches can 
have any just conception of the amount of harassing labor required to accom- 
plish a fair work, where but precious little is left to the imagination, and every 
sentence contains a fact of greater or less importance. As a pioneer work, then, 
I have encountered in its preparation, even more of the difficulties than are 
ordinarily incident to pioneer enterprises. It is presented to the public with 
the belief that it is as nearly accurate as such works can be. In a city, like 
ours, where improvement and change are the order and the watch-words, it 
would be strange, indeed, if we did not find here and there an error. While 
houses are removed with almost equal facility as the people who occupy them, 
unavoidable mistakes and omissions will occur. If, however, my pen shall 
have recorded one fact of interest to the future historian of the city; if I shall 
succeed in directing the attention of trade to its manifold superiorities; or draw 
to this vicinage a population that shall seize upon its possibilities and go for- 
ward to glad fruition — controlling its agencies and shaping its destinies ; if I 



6 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

do all, or any, of these, I shall be munificently rewarded, and my chiefest aim 
will be reached. Such records are part of the material necessary to make up 
the general history of the State and Nation, and it is the duty of the citizens of ' 
each particular locality to see to it that no material for its own history be lost, 
or a page left unwritten. 

Should it be asked, "by the way," what constitute the distinguishing features 
and advantages of this volume, I would reply : In the first place, clear7iess and 
timplicity. Though the work is designed as a descriptive account of the sub- 
jects mentioned, yet it has been deemed of primary importance to abnegate 
technicalities and set forth every point perspicuously and intelligibly. Second- 
ly, it embraces, in small compass, a variety of important subjects, which have 
a common connection, and mutually illustrate each other; but which no prede- 
cessor has seen fit to gather together for my benefit. In the third place, it is 
eminently practical, unexaggerated, truthful. For being aware that whatever 
is published in book form is generally looked on as more reliable and creditable 
than mere newspaper publications, hence I have exercised diligent search and 
careful inquiry into all the subjects treated of. 

It remains for me now to acknowledge obligation to the various sources 
from whence I have received assistance in the prosecution of my investigations. 
My object throughout having been to produce a useful book, I have not felt at 
liberty to reject aught that could be turned to practical use. Therefore, as far 
as was consistent with my own plan, I have carefully gleaned whatever perti- 
nent and of value I have discovered in other directions. Particular reference 
is here made to works which have for years been considered as of sterling 
worth on the subjects of which they respectively treat: to M. Say's Political 
Economy, Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, Bishop's History of American 
Manufactures, Phillip's Progress of Great Britain, Freedley's Practical Treatise 
on Business, and other books of a similar stamp, from which ideas and occa- 
sional language have been freely drawn. Nor have the newspaper and period- 
ical publications of our locality been overlooked. In a word, it is my belief 
that, while originality of plan and execution have been strictly maintained, 
whatever may have been elsewhere contributed to the elucidation of the sub- 
ject under discussion, will not be wanting here; at the same time it has been 
the author's aim, in drawing from others, to improve upon, that is simplify, 
their language, to adapt their style to the comprehension of all, and to localize 
such facts as were found capable of local application. I furthermore would 
ask a careful consideration of the question whether something advantageous 
has not been gained in pursuing a regular, consistent plan, as I have done ? As 
in the various departments of industry, much more can be accomplished, in a 
limited time and with a given amount of labor, by those who work according 
to a definite system, than by those of equal energy, who, with an end alone in 
view, without regard to a choice of means, go blindly to tlieir task, directed by 
no higher principle than chance; so it is claimed that an equal advantage has 
been gained by pursuing a well-digested plan, matured by some experience, and 
elaborated by careful thought and unremitting labor. 

In conclusion, I will say, on my part, the book has been written and pub- 
lished that I might make money. Therefore I can, with grace and gratitude, 



BY THE WAY. 7 

return my thanks to the liberal-hearted citizens — the Merchants, Manufacturers 
and Business Men of the city of Evansville who have bestowed such generous 
patronage on my efforts and admitted me as a candidate for the reception of 
dollars and tangible sympathy — encouragement. But as to the sincerity of my 
efforts in furnishing reliable data, my readers may form their own conclusions 
when I take occasion to remark that, inasmuch as a full description of our 
Commerce and Manufactures was proposed, in order to attain it I have in many 
instances admitted the names of Arms who have not contributed one cent to its 
success, while on the other hand there are Advertisers who do not receive edi- 
torial notice. In all communities, though, there are those who " reap where 
they have not sown," and but for contrast with the stupidity and short-sighted- 
ness of "old fogyism," modern enterprise would scarcely ever appear to such 
favorable advantage. To the City Press, always live, progressive and fair 
minded, earnest obeisance is also made for many kind notices during the pro- 
gress of my labors. a 

CHARLES E. EGBERT. 
EvANSvii,LB, Ind., September, 1874. 



EVANSVILLE : 

Her Commerce and Manufactures, 



Commerce — Its Influence and Power. 

«OMMERCB is King, says Carlyle, the great English philoso- 
pher and political economist, the truth of which can but be 
admitted by all men, for it is the great power next to Christianity 
which holds in check the ambition and passions of nations. It 
develops agriculture and manufactures ; stimulates the construc- 
tion of railroads, canals and all industrial enterprises ; increases 
population by affording it employment ; promotes the growth of 
great cities; encourages and fosters the arts and sciences, and 
does everything to strengthen the bonds of man's brotherhood. 
Without commerce our great forests and almost illimitable fields 
would have remained in idleness ; for unless the products of man 
and man be brought together in barter and exchange, indigence, 
barbarism and social declension are unavoidable. Trade is an 
instinct of the animal man, and unless .there be opportunity for 
its indulgence, he sinks to the level of the other animals. Well 
has it then been said to be the "Golden Girdle of the Globe ; " and 
referring to its achievements, the poet has beautifully declared : 

" Her daughters have their dowers 

Prom spoils of nations, and the exhaustless East 
Pours in her lap all gems in sparkling showers," 

Without commerce what would be our great cities and towns? 
Simply silent communities of living dead people. Take away the 
music of machinery, the presence of the railroad, the activity of 
steamboat levees, the rattling roll of wagons, drays and carts, 

9 



10 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

the busy hurrying to and fro of hundreds and thousands mixing 
and commingling in the turbulence of trade, and what would be 
the result? Silence deeper than death and ruder than discord 
would pervade everything. A nameless inactivity would curdle 
the blood of everyone, for what is more miserable to contemplate 
than a community of unemployed people. Where would be the 
need of your splendid warehouses, and your elegant and costly 
salesrooms? Temples, minus their presiding deity — minus Com- 
merce, the genius loci. A-dipose and sapient seniors ; dapper and 
business-like juniors; figure-wise accountants; lively, pushing 
salesmen and bronzed and stalwart porters all dispensed with — 
" Othello's occupation gone." We will not contemplate the change, 
for Carlyle was right — " Commerce is King." 

We may mark the progress of nations in revealed facts, not 
by their glorious conquests of arms, not by their feats of valor, 
not by the lands they have overcome and the thrones they have 
made subservient to their own superior force ; but by the exten- 
sion of that great civilizer — Commerce, into the boundaries of the 
conquered provinces. Science, and Art, and Literature are but 
the handmaidens of Trade, for were it not for its incalculable aid 
the " monuments of human grandeur " would not only perish, but, 
indeed, would never have had their birth. We may draw an in- 
stance in the Koman Empire, a dominion whose history more or 
less, is familiar to every one : Do we find her most stable succes- 
ses when the swords of her Caesars, her Pompeys and her Scipios, 
like the lurid course of the meteor swept the sky of humanity, or 
when the torches of her advancing legions were glaring in the 
lands of her enemies? No; but when she carried her trade, her 
arts and her sciences with her arms, then do we note pacification 
and prosperity — for Commerce is also, as the sun, beneath whose 
broad and genial smiles the seeds of success and plenty germinate 
and blossom and fructify. Or take Britain, a still more applicable 
illustration. To what cause does she owe her unexampled pitch 
in the scale of wealth, power and civilization? Is it to military 
generalship or superior conquering battalions? By no means. 
Jilngland may, with far greater pride, boast that her success is due 
only to that pervading spirit of commercial activity that has 
marked her policy and characterized her mode, until now her 
provinces seem like a mighty garden strewn over with cities, 
palaces, villages and country seats, for she " has dotted the globe 



COMMEECE— ITS INFLUENCE AND POWER. U 

with her possessions and military posts, whose morning drum- 
beat, following the sun and keeping company with the hours, cir- 
cles the earth daily with one continuous and unbroken strain of 
the martial airs of England." Nor can the United States — invin- 
cible in arms, so considered, attribute its career of enlightenment, 
refinement and bx'oad, generous, uncontracted happiness, to any- 
thing other than its powerful and conquering trade and self-sus- 
tenance. By a most liberal encouragement of commerce, by prodi- 
gality in stimulation of the interchange of commodities, who will 
say that our nation has not become more to the present age than 
was Eome to the by -gone centuries when she ruled the world. 
The sword, then, destroys. Commerce builds up. The sword of 
the Roman was like the fame of Erostratus who destroyed a tem- 
ple he had not the cunning to build. The Commerce of the 
American is most God-like, for it is creative. Creative of happi- 
ness, of power, of influence, of inestimable good. Truly, truly, 
Carlyle uttered wisdom — " Commerce is King ! " 

Coming, then, to consider the relation that it bears toward 
one of the most important sections of the Union ; the develop- 
ment that has thus far been made of its powers ; the capabilities 
for future extension ; the facilities for its successful conduct ; the 
natural and artificial means it employs ; the auxiliaries, direct and 
indirect, it brings to aid it ; we at once, and most sensibly, realize 
the immensity of the subject, its almost inexhaustible food for re- 
flection, and sigh for a pen far worthier the theme. 

Southern Indiana ! Glorious Southern Indiana ! a land right- 
ly taking front rank among the fairest beneath the sun ; with a 
clime gentle and inviting ; aland dotted with opulent cities and 
smiling villages ; a land whose fertile fields and arable plains can 
produce almost everything that can tempt the palate of man — 
certainly, everything that is absolutely needful and of utility — a 
land tracked and intersected by clear and bright and swift-rolling 
streams; with mountains and hills teeming with mineral abun- 
l^ance, which does not lie hidden and buried far beyond the ken of 
man, but seemingly wearied of lethargy has outcropped and is 
now summing its wondrous richness ungathered. Its geographi- 
cal advantages are peerless. It is the choicest section of one of 
the most powerful States ; it is the pivot of the circle of that Hea- 
ven-favored valley stretching from the Alleghany Mountains to 
the Mississippi River; it is almost the very heart of the American 



12 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Continent ; its metropolis crowning the most excellent harbor on 
the Ohio River and lying at the intersection of converging and di- 
verging railroads — railroads coming and going in all directions, 
will make it the focal point between North and South ; and with 
the grand Pacific route, from northeast to southwest, crossing here 
will be rendered a half-way station between the oceans which 
unite the Asias with Europe via the grand Trans-American Con- 
tinental Line — thus consummating the series of the globe's cycle ; 
rendering this a great central emporium for the distribution of 
products to the South and Southwest. This destiny we believe is 
inevitable. It is the glorious necessity of physical geography. 
It is the lavish favor of a provident God. 

It is the boast and pride of the native citizen, and the wonder 
and admiration of visitors and strangers. What land has called 
forth more encomia, either for its lovely climate or its fertile soil ; 
for its mineral stores or its agricultural advantages ; for its varied 
and picturesque landscapes, or its marvelously excellent topo- 
graphy ; for the thrifty, industrious, enterprising spirit of its 
business men or the genial, hospitable welcomings of its inhabi- 
tants, and yet, scarcely the half has been told. The compliments 
have rarely been extravagant, more frequently understating the 
actnal facts. Indeed, it is so dotted with the treasures of nature 
and art and the wonders of industry, that a man has only to use 
his eyes and he grows accomplished. Southern Indiana has a 
fame abroad, but no one tells the story of her latent, or even de- 
veloped wealth as it is, and as it is seen by the intelligent eye on 
a liberal survey. And yet what marvelous changes have been 
wrought. Eighty years ago and the solitude of these surround- 
ing forests was unbroken by the sound of the white man's voice. 
Seventy years ago and the pioneer struggles with the Indians 
came, when the watch-dog was stationed sentinel at the harvest 
field ; when the trusty firelock went as regularly to the field as 
the plow, when the ear of the herdsman was ever on the alert, 
listening for sounds of danger, and the silent foot-steps of tSe 
stealthy foe, and when the return to his lodge at night was the 
occasion for recounting the perilous adventures of the day, and 
the rendering of thanks to the Great Father of all for His protect- 
ing mercies. Sixty years ago and the winding trail led from one 
trading post to another, where some hardy adventurer had plant- 
ed himself far in advance of civilization, for the purpose of trafiic 



COMMERCE— ITS INFLUENCE AND POWER. 13 

and gain with the native tribes. The waters of our beautiful 
Ohio shimmered beneath the laughing beams of a Summer's sky, 
bearing on their bosom the red man's canoe, but they turned no 
ponderous water-wheel, nor contributed aught to the comfort of 
civilized man. Our broad acres, blooming in all the loveliness of 
wild and uncultured charms, presented their virgin bosoms to the 
sun, having wearily awaited, during the long lapse of ages, the 
fructifying hand of the husbandman. 

Time, since then, we say, has wrought many changes, not only 
in our social and domestic relations, but in the physical asj)ect of 
the country. The forests have been subdued, the prairies brought 
under cultivation, the rivers spanned with bridges, and on their 
gladsome breasts the "white-winged navies ride;" cities and 
towns have sprung up in every quarter, and the sound of the me. 
chanic's hammer, the rattle and whir of machinery keep quick- 
measured time with the rumbling of wheels and the clank of en- 
gines. The spire of the Church points its mute j^et suggestive 
finger heavenward, the school and college meets us, a familiar 
friend, on every street. Our surplus products crowd the ware- 
house, and weigh down the car. We are no longer compelled to 
toil unceasingly "from early morn to dewy eve," to procure a 
bare subsistence, but have time for relaxation, for mental improve- 
ment, for "elegant leisure," while our tables groan with plenty, 
and we stand erect in every presence with a feeling of competence 
and independence. These results have been achieved by no mag- 
ical or supernatural influence; nature has not stepped aside from 
her beaten track, to work these changes ; no good genii have come 
from their hiding places to accomplish this task ; no enchanter's 
wand has bid these structures rise ; no fabled Hercules, with giant 
arm, has come to the aid of our pioneers. But all that is rich 
and beautiful around us, contributing to our sustenance and hap- 
piness, is the result of Labor. For the accomplishment of this 
end, have the weary days and anxious nights been spent ; for this 
have the strong sinews been taxed to weariness ; for this men have 
eaten the bread of carefulness. 

And what has not labor accomplished ? Dignified by the hand 
of the Infinite, it spread abroad the firmament, lit up the dark- 
ness of the space illimitable with greater and lesser lights, sent 
worlds on worlds careering in their orbits, fashioned hill and val- 
ley, bird and beast, humblest shrub and tiniest animalculse, and 



14 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEKCE AND MANITFACTUKES. 

then, created man in the image of his Maker. " He spake and it 
was done. He commanded and it stood fast ! " From that hour 
it has been man's destiny to live, to labor, and to die. The world 
has furnished no resting place for the drone. " In the sweat of 
thy face shalt thou eat bread," was the language of the curse, and 
for ages upon ages man has toiled beneath it. 

But labor has had its triumphs. Wherever human foot has 
trod, wherever the waves of ocean have been divided by the oaken 
keel, wherever tower and spire have pierced the clouds, wherever 
the glittering ore has been delved a thousand fathoms beneath the 
green earth; wherever broken column and arch, statue and vase are 
found — wherever palace and chapel, pagoda and pyramid, wall and 
moat ; wherever the steamship wings its way over unsounded, 
soundless seas, wherever the iron-horse courses his fiery advance 
o'er thundering track, or awakens the slumbering echoes with his 
snort and scream ; wherever the curling smoke in plain or forest, 
on mountain side or deep in valley shades indicates a human habi- 
tation, wherever the earth yields up her bounties for the comfort 
or sustenance of man, there are its written triumphs indellibly 
stamped and glorified realities. The sting of the curse has been 
plucked out, the antidote of perseverance applied, and pleasui'e ex- 
tracted from its pain. 

Thank Heaven, too, a new and brighter era is unfolding to 
our people. The shackles of force are broken, and the fetters of 
ignorance and superstition, and prejudice are falling off. The 
world of mind is triumphing over matter. The very elements that 
once carried terror to awe-stricken man, are now tame in our 
hands, and serve us at our will. In the days of the Patriarchs the 
women ground the corn. In the days of the wisest King, the 
" Ox of Solomon tread out the corn ;" now it is accomplished by 
steam and as rapid as thought. In our boyhood the mail and 
passenger coach was drawn by slow-coach, jog-trot horse-flesh; 
now the engineer handles the throttle valve and drives the iron 
monster by the concentrated powers of most wondrous elements. 
Our fathers navigated yon river by the might of muscle ; now the 
boiling fluid from its own fair bosom drives the ponderous ark 
against the torrent, as if all the heathen gods composed the crew 
and sat grinning at the wheels. But few of us that do not re- 
member the " spurred and booted " mail boy with clarion slung 
by his side and his budget of news. Now the harnessed lightning 



J 



COMMEECE— ITS INFLUENCE AND POWEK. 15 

does the work, and leaves the " express rider " to " drive the plow 
ahoy." We have our itinerant " eight-horse seperators " thresh- 
ing in the field, and close behind them comes the " itinerant " 
steam engine to do the same work. Soon this steam engine will 
be plowing as never steam plowed before. Already steam reduces 
manure to a fluid and sends it over the field through movable con- 
duits. It cuts, grinds, cooks food, and feeds stock. All is changed 
and much will change. We shall see no future Burns " following 
his plow upon the mountain side." The peasant poet of Scotland 
henceforth rides an iron horse and disturbs the quiet of golden 
fields with the harsh sounds of a steam whistle. Judean Boa/, 
drives an "Improved Harvester," talks learnedly of "center 
draft," easy "convertibility,'' " wide cut " and " well-laid gavels." 
And as for the peaceful shepherds and gay reapers in many a fair 
and quiet Andalusian vale 

"Where peace hangs tinkling in the shepherd's bell, 
And singing with the reapers," 

They oil the machinery now, or feed the thresher, or stand mute 
with astonishment, while the "patent wool clipper" relieves the 
South Down, the Cotswold or the Merino of his warm Winter 

fleece. 

"Old times are changed, old manners gone — 
A stranger fills the Stuart's throne." 

The sickle has no poetry in its curve, no grace in its motion; even 
the young and blushing Houri of the farm has stopped her spin- 
ning wheel, and now fingers the pearly keys of a " Knabe Grand " 
in some brilliant aria or operatic gem. 

Intellect devises and directs. We were raised in the music of 
the Spinning Jenny and that loom of blessed memory. The chil- 
dren of to-day are lullabied by the symphony of the matchless 
sewing machine — the " iron-needle-woman " of the age, which, 
yoked with steam, " stitches, hems and gathers," whilst "Mamma" 
eagerly turns the fashion plates, or follows the fortunes of some 
mad-cap '^Alonzo the Brave and his Fair Imogene." Steam has 
turned the axeman and sawyer out of the lumber-yard, and it does 
more than half the work of carpenters. It makes our barrel- 
staves and shingles. In iron manufacture it is hard to say what 
it does not do, save that it has not disturbed the " cross-road 
smithy." Steam now runs ahead of the " boys " to the fire, and 
works the "machine." "Mose" has betaken himself to rural 



16 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 

latitudes for a "Summer's siesta." Here in the city it is the 
dough tray and the bakery, taking in flour at the back door by the 
dray load and delivering the bread baked, weighed and counted, 
in the sales-room. It cooks, washes dishes, scours ware, washes, 
irons. Soon it will churn and rock the cradle. The traveling 
steam saw mill is sending the man of the broadax and whip-saw 
homeward to the " Garden of Eden," to the society of "Betsy and 
the little ones." Lo ! that same untiring steam is there already 
sawing his stove-wood. 

It is intellect that has harnessed the elements and is working 
arms and muscles of iron. It is the mental man dispensing with 
his animality. We must be up with and equal to this new and 
higher position that is upon us. The mind is now the engine. We 
must know the laws that God has impressed upon matter. Our 
minds must be schooled in the sciences, or we cannot keep up 
with the car of progress, but must " go under." We must get out 
of that small treadwheel cycle in which our fathers were wont "to 
grunt and sweat under a weary life." 

But a few more years will pass before our " short and simple 
annals " shall be compiled by the future historian. But a few 
more years will elapse before our progress shall be dwelt upon by 
students with that same degree of curiosity with which we have 
traced out the course of more ancient people. But a few more 
years before our descendants will wonder and laugh at the dullards 
of the Ninteenth Century, who lost so many opportunities and 
made such little advancement. We feel this every day in the 
children we meet, at school, at home or on the street. Already 
thej^ begin to show contempt for the beaten paths that we, their 
progenitors, tread. Already they are breaking the shackles of 
inactivity that have held us captives long. At ten and twelve 
years of age they show more proficiency in learning than we did 
at sixteen and eighteen. They are improving upon our improve- 
ments, just as we have upon those who have gone before. The 
Darwinian theory, therefore, in this light does not seem so highly 
improbable after all. Call them " Young America," call them for- 
ward prodigies, precocious chaps, or what you will, it matters not. 
They are the vanguard of a grand army of improvement, who, with 
the advantage of our actions and all commendable precedents, 
will achieve conquests more brilliant than present pen can picture. 
Inaugurating new systems, adopting new policies, seizing our un- 



COMMEKCE— ITS INFLUENCE AND POWER 17 

employed opportunities, gatliering up the treasures we have never 
appreciated, fashioning and contriving, manufacturing joy from 
what we consider pain, turning what we deem as disadvantages 
into most propitious advantages, avoiding the lethargy that their 
" rude forefathers " grew sleek and fat in, making our country 
and their country a land which will glow in realization with all 
the gorgeous imaginations that the romancer employs in the daz- 
zling creation of an Eastern tale. What a happy condition will 
be theirs ! What regality of existence ! 

An English writer, living some half-century ago, says : "There 
is, I think, a kind of inexpressible pleasure in being contempo- 
rary with great men — to witness their dawn and enjoy their ris- 
ing. Posterity can only echo the plaudits that attend their bright- 
ening, and in contemplating their noon, but not the wonder of 
those who traced them from their horizon." In some respects, 
this would be a privileged condition ; to have lived in the days of 
the Kings of Israel, to have wondered at the sapience of Solomon, 
and heard the music of the "Koyal Psalmist; " to have been aeon- 
temporary with sightless Homer and listened to his matchless 
rhymes of Troy ; to have enjoyed the maiden popularity of Eng- 
land's "myriad-minded bard ;" to have beheld the ecstacy of 
hapless Galileo when he discovered the earth's revolution ; to 
have rejoiced at the wondrous invention of Guttenberg and Faust; 
to have marveled at the genius of Watt, and the philosophy of 
Franklin ; to have lived in the days of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle ; 
to have helped Diogenes in his " search for an honest man ; " to 
have prated of acquaintance with men of virtue and glory and 
fame — philosophers, reformers, inventors, statesmen, generals. 
This would have been flattering. But who would forego witness- 
ing the accomplished splendor of their glory? Who, if he could 
predestine his life, would not rather set it in that near and swift 
advancing future — that eventide of excellence which seems so 
close at hand, when terrestrial things shall have reached perfec- 
tion and " earth hold jubilee a thousand 3'ears ? " 

That insatiable spirit of man that impels to action — that ever 
struggling desire for a better and happier sphere, tells us that we 
have not fulfilled our highest destiny — that a better and a higher 
order of being is wanted, and is in store for us if we be true to our- 
selves. The riper and better geniuses of the age sigh for a better 
and higher development of our civilization, for the practical better 

3 



18 EVAN8VILLE: HEE COMMEKCE AND MANUEACTUEES. 

day hoped for in the teachings of our religion. We wisii for the 
reign of mental, moral and social worth, and must have it. We 
feel that force, chicanery and fraud should no longer govern civil 
society, or shape our destiny or that of the State. It is time we 
strike boldly for a reformation. Let productive industry take the 
reins of empire. 

Not long since we were passing over one of our railroads in 
company with an intelligent gentleman from one of the " Down 
Bast States ; " he was admiring our fine timber, and in ecstacies 
about our farms and the soil — the evidences of splendid advantage 
on every hand ; and yet, he seemed impatient to see what Yan- 
kee labor and Yankee taste could do for them ; but he was almost 
non-believing when told of the coal and iron that underlie almost 
this entire section of the State. He had thought Indiana only 
capable of raising corn and wheat and a few other common-place 
staples. He had, indeed, never heard of this grand and wealthy 
commonwealth only as the "Hoosier State," and by that title was 
prepared to believe that the people wore only "butternut cloth- 
ing " and still cast their votes for Jackson. He had never learned 
that Indiana has not only mineral wealth, agricultural advantages, 
commercial and inanufacturing considerations, second perhaps to 
none, and why ? Because our people are not convinced of the 
power of j)riuter's ink ; because they allow these slanders and 
these overshadowing injuries to go uncorrected, unrefuted ; be- 
cause they elect too many coffee-house politicians to the Legisla- 
ture — " third-rate county court lawyers," who know nothing and 
do nothing, outside of the street-corner school of politics. Be- 
cause we elevate too many of those politicians bent on legislating 
themselves rich by bank charters and other corporation and special 
privileges and not enough of the more practical, honest, common 
sense men. Of late we have heard the opinions of this class on 
" liew Departures " and on " Third Party," on this, that or the 
other Htyictly political question, as the word signifies at the present 
time. But who has heard a word about an effort to aid and elevate 
the laboring and producing thousands, by the light of science ? 
We have State and National institutions to make the arts of war 
a learned profession ! and that, too, in a boasted Christian age, in 
the light, the brightest of the afternoon of LheNinteenth Century; 
but where is the State School of Science in which to improve and 
advance productive labor, and make the useful arts of peace posi- 



CAUSES OF SUCCESS IN MANUFACTUEES. 19 

tive science ? We must up and into this work of inaugurating a 
better order of things at once. We will hear the howl and wail 
of the frothy clique, and of the "old fogy" who always holds back. 
Let such rave — 'tis all they know — all they can do. That was a 
severe, yet just and truthful, remark of the wag: "We want a 
number of first-class funerals before our country can be fully de- 
veloped." 

Causes of Success in Commerce and Manufactures. 

We think we have sufficiently apologized for the introduc- 
tion of matter that cannot be strictly classified as " local," and 
yet, which we believe in the meanwhile is of local application. A 
successful reasoner must at all times be able to present patent 
facts, or his argument is at once unmasked and disclosed as illogi- 
cal and flimsy. Therefore, in this work we have unhesitatingly 
gathered such points of proof as best might suit us. Political 
economy has served us some irrefragable testimony and evidence. 
If, then, we are capable of presenting a system of well-established 
and consentaneous truths, and we think it quite likely ; if our 
investigations lead us to disclose the sources of our success in 
trade and wealth ; if we are able to point out the means of render- 
ing it more abundant and can show the way to obtaining a still 
greater amount of both without drainage on its powers ; it we 
demonstrate that the city of Evansville may at the same time be 
more populous, command greater commercial strength and be 
better supplied with the necessaries of life ; if we satisfactorily 
prove that the interests of the rich and the poor resident, or the 
"stranger within our gates," are founded on broad principles of 
mutual benefit and are by no means opposed to each other, and 
that all narrow and contracted rivalships and jealousies are mere 
folly. If from all these demonstrations, it necessarily results 
that a multitude of evils supposed to be without remedy, may not 
only be said to be curable, but even easy of cure, and that we need 
not suffer from the pangs of inattention and unadvertised advan- 
tage, any longer than we are willing so to suffer, it must be ac- 
knowledged, then, that there are few emprises of greater import- 
ance, few labors more deserving the attention of elevated, liberal 
minds. This accomplished, and we shall " have done the State 
some service " and deserve well of the republic. 



20 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

It is an axiom none the less true because trite, that no city 
has been or can be permanently prosperous without Manufactures. 
A prosperity based exclusively upon a Commercial Business, must 
necessarily be ephemeral. A city which, for instance, depends 
upon any one or more of the great Agricultural staples for support, 
business and growth, is liable to become paralyzed in her energies 
and interests, not only by failure in the production of such staples, 
but from their diversion to other points whose eligibility gives 
them the advantage and preference as markets. Such, also, are 
the fluctuations in the prices of articles of Produce that no cer- 
tainty of successful operations can be relied upon ; and where un- 
certain, feverish and exciting speculation underlies the business 
of any community, or city, there is no guarantee of permanent 
and stable prosperity ; whereas, where manufacturing is carried 
on successfully there is a steady, healthful and substantial growth. 
These facts, then, however unwelcome they may be to strictly 
Commercial men, prompt us to the consideration of an eminently 
favorable Manufacturing Point. 

The term manufacture, in its derivative sense, signifies mak- 
ing by hand. Its modern acceptation, however, is directly the 
reverse of its original meaning; and it is now applied particularly 
to those products which are made extensively by machinery, with- 
out much aid from manual labor. The word, therefore, is an ex- 
tremely flexible one and capable of much "stretching;" and as 
Political Economists do not agree in opinion, whether millers and 
bakers are properly manufacturers or not, we shall, if need be, 
take advantage of the uncertainty, and consider as Manufactures 
what strictly may belong to other classifications of productive in- 
dustry. The end of every manufacture is to increase the utility 
of objects by modifying their external form or changing their in- 
ternal constitution. In some instances, substances that would 
otherwise be utterly worthless, are converted into the most valu- 
able products — as the hoofs of certain animals into Prussiate of 
Potash ; the offal into Groldbeater's Skin ; and especially rags into 
Paper. Thus beneficent in their general object, it is scarcely re- 
markable that modern manufactures are principally distinguished 
for their ameliorating influence upon man's social condition. 

The possession of a decent competence, or the ability to in- 
dulge in other pursuits than those that directly tend to satisfy our 
animal wants and desires, is necessary to soften the selfish pas- 



CAUSES OF SUCCESS IN MANUFACTURES. • 21 

sions, to improve the moral and intellectual character, and to in- 
sure any considerable proficiency in liberal studies and pursuits. 
Without the tranquility and leisure afforded by the enjoyment of 
accumulated riches, those speculative and elegant studies which 
enlarge our views, purify our tastes and lift us higher in the scale 
of being, could not be successfully prosecuted. The barbarism and 
refinement of nations depend more on their wealth than on any 
other circumstance. No people have ever made any distinguished 
figure in philosophy or the fine arts, without having been at the 
same time celebrated for their riches and industry. Pericles and 
Phidias, Petrarch and Eaphael, adorned the flourishing ages of 
G-recian and Italian commerce. The influence of productive wealth 
is, in this respect, almost omnipotent. It raised Venice from the 
bosom of the deep, and made the desert and sandy islands on 
which she is built, the powerful " Queen of the Adriatic ; " and it 
rendered the unhealthy swamps of Holland the favored abodes of 
literature, science and art. In our own country its effects have 
been equally striking. The number and eminence of our philoso- 
phers, poets, scholars and artists, seem to increase proportionally 
to the increase of the public wealth, or to means of rewarding and 
honoring their labors. Increased consumption stimulates efl'ort, 
and the rich rewards of labor excite invention. The more en- 
lightened and refined a nation becomes, the greater the demand 
for all the results of productive industry, both in matters of util- 
ity and in matters of ornament. By cheapening manufactured 
products they put within the reach of the poorest classes what in 
former times was accessible only to the wealthy and noble. The 
servant, the artisan and the husbandman of England, at the pres- 
ent time, have more palatable food, better clothing and better fur- 
niture, than were possessed by " the gentilitie " in the " golden 
days " of Queen Bess. And we find also, if the patience of our 
reader will pardon a pen very prone to wander, that mechanics 
and traders in ancient times seem, indeed, to have been a very 
poor, mean set of people, who used to travel about with their 
goods from place to place, and from fair to fair, like the hawkers 
of England, or the peddlers of this country at the present time. 
Adam Smith, in his Wealth of Nations, gives us a very discourag- 
ing account of commercial affairs in the earlier centuries : " The 
citizens of Greece and Eome considered it degrading fo engage in 
those branches of manufacturing and commercial industry which 



22 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

form, perhaps, the principal business of the inhabitants of modern 
Europe. This prejudice doubtless descended from those ages of 
violence and disorder, antecedent to the establishment of regular 
governments, when man, constantly exposed to hostile attacks, 
depended on his sword alone for protection, and devolved on the 
softer sex, or on the captives whom the fortunes of war had put 
in his power, all those sedentary and laborious occupations which 
were considered as incompatible with the higher functions he was 
called upon to discharge. The constitution of the ancient repub- 
lics tended to foster and perpetuate the early opinions with respect 
to the inferiority of mechanical pursuits. The citizens of Sparta 
and of some of the other Grecian States, were prohibited from en- 
gaging in manufactures or commerce ; and though this prohibi- 
tion did not exist in Athens, the same opinions prevailed in it ; 
and these employments being regarded as unworthy of freemen^ 
were, in consequence, carried on either by slaves, or by the very 
dregs of the populace. Aristotle uniformly speaks in the most 
contemptuous terms of artisans and merchants ; and Plato goes so 
far as to propose banishing them entirely from his imaginary re- 
public. The same prejudice had a still more powerful influence at 
Eome, which had less of an industrial character than Athens. 
Instead of endeavoring to enrich themselves by their own exer- 
tions, the Eomans trusted to the reluctant labor of their slaves, 
and to subsidies extorted from conquered countries. Even Cicero, 
who had mastered all the philosophy of the ancient world, and 
raised himself above many of the prejudices of his age and coun- 
try, does not scruple to affirm that there can be nothing ingenu- 
ous in a work-shop ; that commerce, when conducted on a small 
scale, is mean and despicable, and, when most extended, barely 
tolerable. *'iVow admodum vituperanda.^ " 

But in the intervening centuries both commerce and manu- 
factures were more dignified and more appreciated. The inhabi- 
tants of trading cities, by importing the improved manufactures 
and expensive luxuries of richer countries, afforded some food to 
the vanity of the great proprietors who sagely purchased them 
with great quantities of the rude produce of their own lands. 
The commerce of a great part of Europe in those times, accord- 
ingly, consisted chiefly in the exchange of their own rude, for the 
manufactured produce of more civilized nations. Thus the wool 



*De Officiis, lib. i., cap. 42. 



CAUSES OF SUCCESS IN MANUFACTURES. 23 

of England used to be exchanged for the wines of Prance, and the 
fine cloths of Flanders, in the" same manner as the corn in Poland 
is at this day ^:changed for the wines and brandies of Prance 
and for the silks and velvets of Italy. 

It is the honest belief, too, of persons well-posted on the sub- 
ject, that manufacturing enterprise in the United States is yet in 
its experimental stage. The people have but recently recovered 
from the strange delusion that manufactures are injurious to 
national prosperity. They have barely had time to study the con- 
ditions ujDon which success in manufactures depends, or to com- 
prehend the lines that naturally and properly separate human 
pursuits. But in future times, a manufacturer will no more think 
of consulting merely his personal inclinations, or one solitary 
favorable circumstance in the location of his manufactory, than 
the agriculturist, for a similar reason, would choose for a field of 
his operations the rugged lands of the Pilot Knob of Missouri, or 
the gold-seeker the worthless sands of the New Jersey coast. It 
is the object, then, of the present volume to submit, with due 
deference, to the consideration of all classes some suggestions based 
on careful survey, with some experience ; and to endeavor to aid 
them. PiRST : by considering the Requisites necessary for prosperity 
or the causes of economical production in Manufactures. Secondly: 
hy indicating a locality possessing the advantages for manufacturing 
in an eminent degree of perfection. Thirdly; hy showing the pro- 
gress already made in manufactures in that locality. 

I — 1. "Writers on Political Economy divide the essential requi- 
sites of production into two-— Labor, and appropriate natural ob- 
jects. When applied to Manufactures, we must certainly add 
Capital. The efficacy of all productive agents, however, varies 
greatly at different times and places, and depends upon a variety 
and due combination of circumstances, partly moral and partly 
physical. Poremost among the former conducive and essential to 
prosperity, especially in Manufactures, Sive freedom of industry and 
security of property. We need but glance at the history of any 
European nation, France, in particular, to discover that govern- 
mental interference with industry, is baneful in its effects, and that 
monopolies and corporiition privileges retard progress. Fluctu- 
ating legislation on manufacturing enterprises has somewhat 
modified and limited our success while on the subject of foreign 
competition, the question being too vast for popular solution, the 



24 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

opinions of the people have changed with the current of argument, 
like the judgment of the Dutch Just'ice. Still, happy for us, our 
republican form of government not only protects but fosters and 
encourages industry, while true republican principles make its 
faithful pursuit the " ojDen sesame " to the enjoyment of its mani- 
fold benefits ; and property is adequately protected by govern- 
mental and legislative enactment wherever honesty is the ruling 
policy. 

2. Another moral cause contributing and, in truth, essential 
to eminence in Manufacturing Industry, is the general diffusion of 
intelligence aynong the people. By intelligence, in this connection, 
we do not mean merely the understanding necessary to enable an 
individual to become the creator, maker or lord of a machine — for 
capacity to contrive and invent seems a part of the original con- 
stitution of man. The mind is Grod's machine, with powers seem- 
ingly unlimited, and capable of producing anything, say, from a 
bad pun to the lever of A-rchimedes, the flying pigeon of Archytas, 
or the^alculating machine of Babbage. Eather we refer to the 
exercise of the better faculties in the direction of practical im- 
provements — successful enterprise in invention and mechanical 
labor depending largely upon the approbation and rewards be- 
stowed upon them. It is in vainto hope that ambition will spur in- 
tellect to achieve mechanical triumphs, where an inventor is re- 
spected less than a tinseled soldier or a ragged and seedy lawyer. 
It is the veriest nonsense to expect that mechanics will strive to 
acquire any extraordinary skill where mechanical labor is degraded 
to a species of serfdom, or at best is not appreciated. We observe 
this in the histories of nations, whose rise and fall are classical 
studies, where the application of mind to invention, ag well as 
handicraft operations, was regarded as unworthy of freemen. "In 
my time," says Seneca, "there have been inventions of this sort — 
transparent windows, tubes for diffusing warmth equally through 
all j^arts of a building; short-hand, which has been carried to such 
perfection that a writer can keep pace with the most rapid speaker. 
But the inventing of such things is drudgery for the lowest slaves. 
Philosophy lies deeper. It is not her office to teach men how to 
use their hands." And another eminent ancient teacher, who has 
his disciples here and there, considered the true object of all edu- 
cation and philosophy to be — to prepare men for war. Then, need 
we wonder there have been dark ages in the world's history. 



CAUSES OF SUCCESS IN MANUFACTURES. 2 5 

^eed we elaborately affirm that in an atmosphere tainted with 
such sterile, nay, such dangerously fruitless philosophy, the arts 
which improve man's material condition cannot flourish ? The 
eminent positions at present occupied by the New England and 
other manufacturing States, are due rather to their sound, intel- 
ligent and practical philosophy than to any physical advantages 
■or original intellectual superiority. The venomous tongue of 
slander, however, has caused to be circulated abroad that here, in 
the fairest region of the States, mechanical labor does not meet with 
that reward and respect that it is so well entitled to. These slan- 
ders, for such they are, have been, no doubt, more effective in 
hiding our noble section from the attention and consideration it 
actually deserves, perhaps, than any other cause. We here assert 
it, and appeal to the intelligence of our country for confirmation 
thereof, that in no portion of America's broad domain is an honest 
and industrious mechanic held in higher esteem ; and that, instead 
of frowning down on such, our children are educated to regard 
ignorance and idleness as vices commensurate and co-equal, and 
that to add something to the aggregate product of their country's 
wealth, whether materially or intellectually, is both honorable and 
praiseworthy. In support of this argument we propose producing 
elsewhere an account of our admirable school system and other 
sources and causes of intellectual prominence. 

3. An abundant supply of the most effective laborers, and of those 
qualified to direct labor ^ may be considered a third cause of emi- 
nence in manufacturing and essential to economical production. 
Our descriptive and more graphic consideration of the houses en- 
gaged in business with the reputation already secured, properly 
illustrates this section of our argumentation but there are some 
facts we desire stating on " general principles." Labor is effective 
according as it is dextrous or as it is skillful. There is, then, a 
difference in the efficacy of laborers, and it is obvious that the 
higher we ascend in those departments of mechanics and manu- 
factures, the greater must be the advantage in favor of intelligence 
and skill. And such is the fact. '-As iron sharpeneth iron, so a 
man sharpeneth the countenance of his friend," and away from 
the centers of population and intelligent competition, the face 
loseth its sharpness, and the hand its cunning. Cities are in 
nothing more remarkable than in their attractive magnetic influ- 
ence upon talent of every description. " In some of the secluded 

4 



26 EVANS VILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

manufacturing villages of New J*]ngland," observes Freedley, " it 
is the custom of the proprietors to fasten such superior workmen 
as they may have seduced thither, by aiding them to invest their 
earnings in a house and lot, which they cannot afterward dispose 
of except at a great, sacrifice ; but the practice, it would seem, is 
rather to be commended for its shrewdness than its wisdom." 
Which is quite true ; for a dependent or dissatisfied workman can 
hardly be an efiicient one. " The progress of Manufactures in the 
West is largely indebted in their present development to men who 
have relied confidentially in the capabilities of the country, and 
we believe they have thus discovered new sources of wealth, 
that at a future day will give employment and competence to 
millions of human beings. 

II — 1. Passing to the consideration of the Physical causes of 
eminence in manufactures, we may remark, they are more obvious 
than the moral causes and, by some, deemed the more important. 
To produce manufactured goods of a given quality with the least 
expense, being the great desideratum, it follows, that whatever 
contributes to economy in production ; whatever saves labor or 
ti-ansportation, or raw materials, cannot be safely overlooked or 
despised. But to investigate carefully all the circumstances that 
have an influence upon economical production, would fill a con- 
siderable volume, and be foreign to our main inquiry. The phys- 
ical advantages which have contributed to England's eminence in 
manufactures, and which, we tTiink, would apply as well to our 
country, are epitomized by the Edinburgh Review^ in the follow- 
ing summary : 1st. Possession of supplies of the raw materials 
used in manufactures. 2d. The command of the natural means 
and agents best fitted to produce power. 3d. The position of the 
country as respects others; and, 4th. The nature of the soil and 
climate. 

" As respects the first of these circumstances," says the writer, 
" every one who reflects on the nature, value and importance of 
our manufactures of Wool, of the useful metals — such as Iron, 
Lead, Tin, Copper — and of Leather, Flax, and so forth, must at 
once admit that our success in them has been materially promoted 
by our having abundant supplies of the raw material. It is of less 
consequence whence the material of a manufacture possessing 
great value in small bulk is derived, whether it be furnished from 
native sources, or imported fi-om abroad, though even in that case 



CAUSES OF SUCCESS IN MANUEACTUKES. 27 

the advantage of possessing an internal supply, of which it is im- 
possible to be deprived by the jealousy or hostility of foreigners 
must not be overlooked. But no nation can make any consider- 
able progress in the manufactui*e of bulky and heavy articles the 
conveyance of which to a distance unavoidably occasions a large 
expense, unless she have supplies of the raw material within her- 
self. Our superiority in manufactures depends more at this 
moment on our superior machines than on anything else ; and had 
we been obliged to import the Iron, Brass and Steel, of which 
they are principally made, it is exceedingly doubtful whether we 
should have succeeded in bringing them to anything like their 
present j)itch of improvement." 

"But of all the physical circumstances that have contributed to 
our wonderful progress in Manufacturing Industry, none has had 
nearly so much influence as our possession of the most valuable 
Coal Mines. These have conferred advantages on us not enjoyed 
in an equal degree by any other peojDle. Even though we had 
possessed the most abundant supply of the ores of Iron and other 
useful Metals, they would have been of little or no use, but for our 
almost inexhaustible Coal Mines." 

2. Water power, until recently, was considered cheaper, 
especially for small manufacturing establishments, than steam 
power; but eminent engineers have carefully investigated the 
subject, and are of the opinion that in any position where coal can 
be had " at ten cents per bushel,'' steam is as cheap as water power 
at its lowest cost. Steam, therefore, until superseded by some 
more effective agent, will be the power principally relied upon to 
propel Machinery ; and as wood for the generation of steam upon 
an extensive scale is out of the question, we may safely conclude 
that at no very distant day, the center of our Manufacturing in- 
erests will be in or near a district possessing inexhaustible supplies 
of cheap coal. Coal lies at the bottom of all successful manufac- 
turing operations, and it surpasses all the natural products in the 
power of attracting an industrious population to the vicinity where 
it can be cheaply and abundantly obtained. In the coal districts 
of England, we find all her great manufacturing cities and towns 
— Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield and others ; while 
the principal manufacturing cities of the United States — Phila- 
delphia, Pittsburgh and Wheeling — present similar situations, and 
are located in districts abounding with Coal and its usual accom- 



•28 EVANSVILLE; HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

paniment, Iron. And so it is, despite the present pre-eminence of 
New England, where the sites of her chief manufacturing towns 
seem to haVe been chosen solely with reference to abundant water 
power, we find her glory is destined soon to be overshadowed, for 
the sceptre will eventually, and ere long, depart from Judah, and 
fall into the hands of other cities possessing all their other advan- 
tages, and having, in addition, a convenient proximity to our im- 
mense coal beds. For the virtues which make a great people 
seem indigenous to our Western soil, and will animate and en- 
noble our population, whenever our capitalists and ingenious men 
have given its physical advantages the fulfillment of its " manifest 
destiny," 

3. With regard to the third point, viz: favorable situation as 
respects commerce with other sections, its importance is second only 
to that which we have just considered. It is in the nature of 
manufactures to be regardful of over-distant markets and to 
supply with promptness its customers as well as to obtain the raw 
materials on easy terms. Therefore, it is highly important.tiiat 
there should be a complete communication with all parts of the 
adjacent country, by railroad or river, and an established com- 
merce or facilities for comm^erce. Inasmuch, also, as steam is now 
the motive power in every leading branch of manufacture, true 
economy will locate the manufactory in the midst of the market, 
all else being equal. There is no necessity for taking the cotton 
from the South and the wool from the West, to the Eastern States 
to be manufactured for a Southern and Western market. Here in 
Southern Indiana in the midst of the grain and meat-growing 
district, where the wool and cotton are both grown almost in sight, 
where coal can be had as easy and as cheap as granite in Massa- 
sachusetts, cannot long be overlooked as a central locality for the 
concentration of great manufacturing concerns. We speak thus 
ex cathedra, freely and confidently on this subject, because facts 
sustain us. For the saving in fuel, in freight, and the price of 
living, must be a large percent, on any manufacturing investment. 

4. A suitable Climate is also a consideration of very great im- 
portance. The influence of climate upon the productiveness of in- 
dustry, especially in Manufactures, is very marked. A warm 
elimate not only enervates the body, but enfeebles the mind, and 
frequently produces laziness and neglect. In very cold climates, 
on the other hand, the powers of Nature are benumbed, and the 



CAUSES OF SUCCESS IN MANUFACTUEES. 29 

difficulty of preserving life or of keeping comfortable, overriding 
all other considerations, the operations of manufactures are often 
seriously impeded. The climate, too, has a direct influence upon 
the durability of buildings, the excellence of manufactured goods, 
the workings of machinery — points that we may subsequently 
consider — and thus becomes an element of important considera- 
tion in many kind of Manufactures. 

5. Most writers on the subject, insist that the Soil of a country 
or district well-adapted for Manufactures, need not be naturally 
very fertile ; for, where the soil is naturally so rich, that Agricul- 
ture is an easy art, it will not afford sustenance to many kinds of 
Manufactures. This, to us, seems an exceptive idea and not the 
fault of the soil ; for it is reasonable to suppose that the cost of 
transportation to and from manufactories, outside, and we might 
say, far removed from, the districts abounding in raw materials 
that enter largely into manufactures, could be obviated by the 
erection of similar Manufactories nearer to hand. 

III. There is yet another thing extremely essential for the 
cheap production of manufactured commodities, and without 
which much of the claimed moral and physical advantages are in- 
effectual. It is nothing more nor less than combination of labor. 
In union there is strength. In combination there is mystery like 
that of the oak in the acorn. Like the philosopher's stone, it 
transmutes all to gold — like the lever or the screw, it adds to 
man's power many hundred fold. Aggregation, in fact, is the 
only effectual means of accumulating and combining all econo- 
mies. It is unnecessary to show that man, unaided by his fellow 
men, is a helpless being. If it were, we might refer to New Hol- 
land savages, who, they say, never help each other, even in the 
most simple operations; and their condition, as may be supposed, 
is hardly superior, in some respects, it is inferior to that of the 
wild animals, which they now and then catch. The first step in 
social improvement, is association for mutual security and mutual 
assistance ; and every advance in civilization is directly the result 
of some new combination of efforts. All the marvels of past 
times, produced by human agency — the Temples, Pyramids and 
Catacombs — and all the wonders of the present — its Eailroads, 
Steamboats, Telegraphs, Mines and Manufactures — have a common 
origin in association of numbers for a common purpose. All in- 
dustrial pursuits depend more or less upon this principle for 



30 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MAKUPACTURES. 

development, but in none are its advantages more strikingly 
manifest than in manufacturing operations. 

But further argument in this respect, we believe, is super- 
fluous. The principle is settled. And from all these considera- 
tions, which in substance we believe to be thoroughly sound, and 
to which we inyite the closest scrutiny, we are led irresistibly to 
the conviction — that but few places indeed, are well adapted for 
general manufactures, and that the best possible locality in the cen- 
tral West for general manufacturing, is an attractive and suitable 
centre of wealth, population and intelligence, situated in a populous 
district, abounding in coal and iron, and possessing established and 
superior facilities of intercommunication with all parts of our country 
in addition to having already a great number of large and well- 
managed manufacturing concerns in successful operation, thus afford- 
ing the best market in which to buy the commodities manufactured 
there, as well as presenting an inviting nucleus for the chief seat of 
manufactures in the future. 

The next question is, have we such a locality ? The centers 
of wealth, population and intelligence in the United States are 
by no means numerous. Suitable centers for manufacturing, situ- 
ated in close proximity to well-developed mines of coal and iron, 
and possessing established facilities of procuring raw materials 
on the easiest terms, and sending away manufactured produce in 
turn, are very few, and of centers of wealth, population and intel- 
ligence, we know of but one that possesses all the essential and 
most of the desirable advantages for manufacturing almost every 
variety of products, and which already contains many large and 
well-managed manufacturing establishments. To that one we 
invite the attention of all those who manufacture elsewhere, or 
who deal in, or consume manufactured commodities. The subject 
is one in which all tliese have a deep concern. If it be true, then, 
that the highest degree of economy in pi-oduction depends upon 
a combination of certain circumstances, rarely found, but which 
exist in the highest degree of perfection in a certain place, those 
who desire manufactuing cheaply, and who are at present manu- 
facturing elsewhere, as well as those who desire to buy cheaply, 
have a direct pecuniary interest in knowing the facts, and in aid- 
ing to develop its capabilities, standing greatly in their own light 
if they fail to reflect on such advantages or to give trial to such 
inducements. The place then to which we invite earnest and 



EVANSVILLE'S ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURES. 31 

sagacious attention, as the Commercial and Manufacturing Capi- 
tal of the Lower Ohio Valley and the Central Western States, is 
EvANsviLLE, in the State of Indiana. 

Evansville's Advantages for Manufactures. 

We truly believe that it needs no further argument at our 
hands, to convince those who are engaged in the search for de- 
sirable places, that Evansville, regarded from every p^int, is a 
favored city, it needs no additional proof that Evansville in every 
respect is a center of Wealth, Population and Intelligence. These 
facts, if proof be necessary, can be further substantiated in the 
graj)hic descriptions of the numberless branches of business that 
follow and in which we have endeavored to be as concise, as truth- 
ful and effective as possible. 

How, then, stands freedom of industry and security of property? 
In the first place, the citizens of Evansville, who now give tone 
and direction to its popular sentiment, it may be relied upon, are 
far too clear-headed and practical in their views to do anything 
tending to degrade labor and check useful enterprise. In truth, 
realizing as they do, their important advantages, they are not slow 
to encourage, in fact court, the establishment of well-directed in- 
dustry in their midst. The Press is emphatically a People's Press, 
and but few cities can claim bolder or more earnest advocates of 
development, in all its phases ; and, were every mind disabused 
of the damaging reports of insecurity that have gone forth but 
to retard our progress ; if the walls could be torn down, which 
now hide us from view, then would such a spirit of activity pervade 
all classes, that our beautiful city would take a new lease of Pros- 
perity, and perpetuate the glory and the enterprise of her thrifty 
citizenship. 

This, then, is the moral status of Evansville; and these cir- 
cumstances, Political Economists say, are essential to manufac- 
turing operations. Passing over its commercial facilities for an- 
other article, we proceed immediately to examine those that are 
properly denominated physical. 

In considering Evansville as a Manufacturing Center, it must 
be obvious from previous remarks, and still more obvious from 
minute observation respecting the topographical and geological 
features of Indiana — published at various times by various au- 



32 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

thors — and the intimacy of connection between the metropolis 
and the pi'incipal mineral sections of the State, that Evansville and 
its vicinity command the most important raw materials used i7i manu- 
factures. But the celebrity of Indiana for its vast deposits of Iron 
and Coal — those jDi'imary sources of England's manufacturing 
greatness — is so widely extended that to dilate upon their abund- 
ance would hardly convey additional information to any person of 
ordinary intelligence. Various reports from eminent Geologists 
and others, have shown that the Iron which we obtain compares 
most favorably with any produced in the United States, while our 
mines of "black diamonds," it is a proverb, are only surpassed in 
national importance by the gold diggings of California; hence we 
do not think ourselves j)re8umptious, if we claim we are situated in 
that district entitled to be called the center of the Iron and Goal 
production of the Central United States. 

We have been furnished some excellent details of the coal 
supply gathered from the report of a survey made by Prof. E. T. 
Cox, State Geologist for Indiana, which we present below : 

INDIANA COAL. 

" The measures cover an area of about 6,500 square miles, in the south- 
western part of the State, and extend from "Warren County, on the North, to 
the Ohio river, on the South, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles. 
The following Counties lie within its area: Warrick, Fountain, Parke, Ver- 
million, Vigo, Clay, Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Davies, Martin, Gibson, Pike 
Dubois, Yanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry, and a small part of Crawford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

The coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well marked varieties: 
Caking coal. Block coal and Cannel coal. 

The total depth of the measures is from six hundred to eight hundred feet, 
with twelve to fourteen distinct seams of coal, though they are not all present 
throughout the entire area of the field. The seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness, and the field may, from the character of the coal, be 
divided from north to south in two zones — the western contains the seams of 
caking coal and the eastern the non-caking or block coal. 

There are from three to four workable seams of caking coal, ranging from 
three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. In most of the localities where 
these are being worked, the coal is mined by adits driven in on the face of the 
ridges, and the deepest shafts in the State are less than three hundred feet ; the 
average depth to win the coa) being not over seventy-five feet. 

The eastern zone of the coal measures has an area of more than four hun- 
dred and fifty square miles. The celebrated block coal is a fossil fuel, which is 
used in the raw state for smelting pig iron. This coal, from its physical struc- 



EVANSVILLE'S ADVANTAGES FOE MANUFACTUKES. 33 

ture and freedom from impurities, is peculiarly suited to metallurgical purpose. 

There are as many as eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three 
of which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In some 
places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, forty to eighty feet 
deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines and the coal is usually mined 
with powder, and may be taken out in blocks, weighing a ton or more. "When 
entries or rooms are driven angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the 
mine present a zigzag notched appearance, 3"esembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1871 there were about twenty-four block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Now there are upwards of fifty mines in 
operation, and the amount mined daily will reach nearly 6,000 tons, and the 
demand is constantly increasing. 

There are no faults met with in the Indiana coal-field, but there are places 
where the coal has been cut away by subsequent abraiding forces, or where its 
place has been usurped by beds of shale or sandstone, constituting what the 
miners call horsebacks. 

The coal-field is less than one hundred and fifty miles by railroad from 
Chicago, Illinois, or Michigan • City, in this State, from which ports the Lake 
Superior specular and" red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. 

Lake Superior ore is similar in quality to that from the Iron Mountain, in 
Missouri, and is as well adapted for making Bessemer pig. From the Iron 
Mountain to the Block coal-field, the distance is two hundred and sixty-six 
miles by railroad. 

There are five railroads running from the coal-field to St. Louis, and three 
to Chicago, and two to Michigan City. 

The advantages, therefore, oflered by Indiana for the manufacture of iron 
and steel are : Superior coal for making fine grades of iron, especially Besse- 
mer pig, and a shorter distance to the most available iron ore beds." 

In this connection we take pleasure in transferring to our 
pages an article from the Evansville Courier of July 12, 1874, 
written by Maj. E. S. Hubbard, of St. Louis, a gentleman endorsed 
as a practical and experienced iron-master, and a man of varied 
information, whose opinions are entitled to respect. Speaking of 
"Block Coal," he says : 

"Shall it be made available to attract to Evansville a manufacturing pop- 
ulation? Yes — but how? Let us see the formation of the deposit of coal, 
knowing from its toughness and the peculiar fracture that characterises it (cubi- 
cal) as block coal extends from Clay county in nearly a north and south direc- 
tion to the south part of Spencer county and varies in width from three to fif- 
teen miles, reaching the narrowest limit in Spencer county, about five miles 
from the Ohio river. Outside of this limit, a similar coal is found, but not the 
true block coal. The nearest points to Evansville where the true block is found, 
is believed to be at or near Huntingburg, in Dubois county, and in the south 
part of Spencer county. In the same coal field, and not unfrequently in ad- 

5 



34 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

joining shafts, there is found such a diiference in the quality of the coal as that 
while from one shaft, the coal is found to be superior for smelting purposes, the 
other is, by reason of certain chemical ingredients, totally unfitted for such use. 
Pure block coal is, under all circumstances, the best and cheapest fuel for all 
metallurgical purposes, when it can be reached over short lines of transporta- 
tion by rail, or cheaper transportation by water. Its value as a smelting coal 
is no longer a question. It has been mined and used in furnaces in "Western 
Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio, and in Clay county in this State, with success. 
But it is found that all block coal will not do for smelting purposes, and hence 
the necessity that it should be tested by actual use in considerable quantities in 
blast furnaces, steam forges, &c.; the quality of the iron made in the furnaces 
and the quantity of coal used per ton of iron, determining in the one case, the 
strength and smoothness of the weld in the other. Under these conditions it 
will be seen that the accessibility and cheapness of block coal to any point has 
but little significance, considered alone, the real question in addition to these 
being, will it make good iron economically; that is, by the use of a reasonable 
quantity per ton? 

Evansville, it is conceded on all hands, is favorably located for a manufac- 
turing city, having the advantage of both river and railroad connections with 
all points of the country, a healthful climate, surrounded by a rich agricultural 
country, settled by enterprising and thrifty farmers, who raise and bring to its 
markets all the necessaries of life in the greatest abundance. So far we have 
all the requisites, but this is not all ; an abundant supply of a cheap and suit- 
able fuel for manufacturing purposes is the next and most necessary requisite, 
and without this all its boasted advantages as a manufacturing point are of no 
practical value. If, therefore, Evansville would invite a manufacturing popu- 
lation to establish themselves in her midst, she must show to them that she has 
all the requisites, and having done this she must make it known in the East 
and in Europe. Not the least of the resulting advantages to be derived will be 
the large addition that will be made to the taxable value of all property, thus 
reducing the rate of taxation to a point that will leave no reasonable ground 
of complaint, under an intelligent, economical, and honest administration of 
the affairs of our city government. The cost of mining block coal in Spencer 
county is less than at mines where the coal is reached by shaft with steam en- 
gine, and the necessary machinery for hoisting and pumping, as the coal crops 
out at the base of the hills, and is mined by drifting, the dip of the vein being 
sufBcient to afford the necessary drainage when water is in excess. The vein 
averaging five feet six inches the coal is brought out by small mules, thus cheap- 
ening the working of the mines and the delivery of the coal into barges, con- 
siderably over any mines where steam is used with expensive hoisting and 
pumping machinery. After the coal is once in barges, it can be transported to 
any market at rates that no railroad can compete with. Block coal can be de- 
livered in Evansville from the mines in Spencer county, by water, at less than 
$3 00 per ton, or lOJ to 12 cents per bushel, and afford a reasonable profit to 
the owners of the mines. Fortunes have been made in mining coal in the river 
above Pittsburgh, boating it to Cincinnati and Louisville, over 500 miles, and 
selling it at 10 cents per bushel. Surely, where mining is as cheap, and only 



EVANSVILLE'S ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURES 35 

13694G4 

fifty miles of water transportation to this market, there ought not to be any 
question about the paying character of the investment. Block coal, suitable 
for smelting iron ores, cannot be delivered in Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati 
Indianapolis, Chicago or St. Louis, at less than an average cost of $5 per ton. 
Estimating two tons of coal, the average is a little more, to the ton of pig iron, the 
difference in the cost of fuel in favor of Evansville over the points named would 
be $4 per ton of pig, while she would have decided advantages over any of them 
in obtaining cheap iron ore. Thousands of tons of the best quality of iron ores 
from the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers and from Missouri, pass here annu- 
ally on their way to meet cheap fuel at Cincinnati, Wheeling and Pittsburgh, 
with the added cost of hundreds of miles of expensive towage against the cur- 
rent of the Ohio. Can the profitable results of iron smelting at this point, in 
the light of the foregoing facts, be doubted, provided we have a good and cheap 
smelting coal ? 

"The owners of real estate, and the business men of Evansville, have a 
deep interest in the practical solution of this question, they can well afford to 
contribute all the necessary means to have satisfactory tests made on a scale that 
will forever settle the question, by shipping, say, a barge load to each of the 
blast furnaces to be selected, donating the coal on condition that they would 
make fair tests and report results. No furnace can aiford to take the risk of 
using a new fuel if it will cost them anything to try it. Should the tests be 
satisfactory, and the coal be found equal to all the requirements of a good 
smelting coal, then Evansville will have demonstrated that she possesses all the 
requisites of a large manufacturing center, and will at once enter on a career 
of rapid growth and prosperity." 

Thus it will be seen, that in the calm and deliberate opin- 
ions of parties, nonresident of Evansville, we possess in abundance, 
at least, two of the greatest constituents of manufacturing success. 
But, what these immense depositories, and fields of precious ele- 
ments will do for us, will depend altogether upon the enterprise 
and effort put forth by our citizens to control their products. 
Our Indiana coal-fields may be set down as inexhaustible — even 
by unnumbered generations. Many of them have now been thor- 
oughly opened, and the quality of the coal tested for all purposes, 
so that the quantity and quality are no longer matters of doubt or 
speculation, being well adapted to all the uses to which coal has 
been or can be applied by the mechanical ingenuity of man. The 
development of the immense fields in which it lies imbedded, will 
add to the wealth of our State more than any other source. In 
truth, nature has been most prodigal in her supply of the raw ma- 
terial. With energy, experience, capital and cheap transportation, 
we ourselves must do the rest. 

In addition to this, the geological reports show the presence 



36 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

of Earth Paints in large quantities. Slight traces of Grold and 
Copper are found in the niodiliod drift, and clay of the glacial age' 
Lead ore of a very superior quality has been found, also small 
crystals of Sulphuretof Zinc have been sometimes seen in the iron 
stone nodules and septaria. Then come discoveries of Lignite 
and Petroleum, and their allied substances ; Salt, Nitre, Alum, 
Bpsomite, G-ypsum, Barite, Copperas, Calcanthite, Pyrite and Block 
Manganese; several distinct varieties of Marble, Roofing-slate, 
Mill-stone, Flag-stone, Building-stone, Hydraulic Limestone, Clay 
and G-reen Marl. In addition, there are several kinds of Mineral 
Waters, of superior and acknowledged excellence, while the ad- 
jacent country abounds in beautiful and limped streams, cascades 
and water-falls, yielding water-power sufficient to drive immense 
quantities of machinery. 

In this connection, we may speak flatteringly of the vast sup- 
plies of Cotton, Wool and Flax, attainable at Evansville, As regards 
the first, we might say the supply is or could be made almost in- 
calculable, and, that while the supply is so great and so near at 
hand, the demands for manufactured cotton fabrics — in this tem- 
perate zone — is in the same ratio, and the raw material being 
grown in close proximity to the factory walls, would cost the 
manufacturer here by far less than it does his Eastern rival, even 
at its minimum value, at the mills of the latter. Evansville, then, 
presents a first-class, and in every way, suitable location for Cot- 
ton Manufacturing on a most extensive scale. 

The Wool of Indiana has already passed into a proverb tor 
excellence of fibre, and all the peculiar characteristics requisite 
for manfacturing purposes. 

Flax and Hemp yield abundantly, and in time will occupy 
important positions in the products of this vicinage. 

We are in the very heart of the greatest grain and meat-grow- 
ing district of the globe. Nearly all of the cereals of the United 
States grow in abundance, and fine hogs and cattle are seemingly 
" indigenous to the soil." Unlike most regions of the world, 
located in the sandstone and coal formations, we have valuable 
farm lands. Our soil is not wholly of the disintegration of the 
local rocks and clay, but mixed with the " bowlder drift." Hence 
the strange anomaly of the fine timber of the forests, the fine corn, 
wheat, rye and grass farms, on a surface ten to fifty feet above the 
coal, the iron, or a quarry of sandstone. With such a diversity of 



EVANSVILLE'S ADVANTAGES FOR MANUFACTURES. 37 

soil and climute that guarantees success to skill and industry, who 
can foreshadow the possibilities of this locality ? When by liberal 
advertising these things shall be known beyond our borders, when 
all these combined shall have enlisted the diligence, the labor, the 
talent and capital of the State, then will be unfolded an amount of 
comfort and wealth rarely known in an agricultural community 
anywhere. 

But by no means is our natural wealth confined exclu- 
sively to the rich alluvial valleys and "river bottoms," nor to 
the sunny slopes of more mountainous interior counties ; nor yet 
to the fertile plains and broad plateaus of more level sections ; our 
almost unequaled forests have their millions in value awaiting 
but the capital and labor to work them. We are the center of a 
timbered region which is unsurpassed in the world for quality, 
variety and quantity of woods. Almost all the valuable varieties 
of forest trees abound in close proximity, and are of easy access, 
either by river or rail. The Poplar, Pine, Oak, Black and White 
Walnut, Hickory, Ash, Elm, Maple, Cedar, Gum, Cottonwood, 
Chestnut, Beech, Cherry, Sycamore, Hackberry, Sassafras, Per- 
simmon, Buckeye, and many varieties equally as useful in their 
applications and suitabilities to various kinds of Manufactures, are 
found in different portions of this and adjoining States convenient 
to Evansville. Take from the central regions of our State and 
come south to the Ohio River, and thence sweep west to the Mis- 
sissippi River ; or from the Green River line in Kentucky south- 
west to the Tennessee River, a countiy tributary to Evansville by 
reason, by mutual interest, and by the glorious necessity of physi- 
cal geography, and we have a land filled with Fuel and Timber 
amply sufficient to meet the wants of a population of 10,000,000. 
We are aware that the magnitude of such statements excites dis- 
trust, bii,t mortal man could not verify them by actual calculation. 
Energy, however, might easily coin this timber into unbounded 
fortune. Evansville invites manufacturers to her vicinage, with 
the offer of rare facilities. If natural adaf)tation is any index of 
destiny, then this ciby will ultimately become the workshop of the 
great Ohio Valley. 

The vicinity of Evansville is also admirably adapted to the 
culture of Fruit. Apples, Pears, Peaches, Grapes, Plums, Cherries, 
Currants, Strawberries, Raspberries, Blackberries, Quinces, Apri- 
cots and Nectarines reach a rare size and delicacy of flavor. Trees 



38 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

and vines grow rapidly and bear largely. Nature has in many 
localities molded the surface into terraces, as if on purpose to 
facilitate the labors of the vine-dresser. The composition of the 
soil is remarkably like that of the celebrated vinelands of Ger- 
many and France. Chemical analysis shows that the soil abounds 
in Lime, Soda, Potash, Magnesia, and Phosphoric Acid, and these 
are the principal elements which enter into the structure of the 
vine. The soil being dry and light, the air equable and compar- 
tively vaporless, the water abundant and purt;, these are the 
identical conditions under which the luscious vintages of the Old 
World have attained their perfection. 

In truth, the view is propitious from every stand point. The 
city is in a condition of sanity and health, and has commenced — 
na}'', is far upon the road in a brilliant career of improvement. 
The motives of freedom, fertility of soil, salubrity of climate, 
wealth of minerals, facilities for commerce and manufactures, and 
ease of railroad and river transportation, are the material advan- 
tages which invite the capitalist, the tradesman and the manufac- 
turers of every clime and nationality, to a home in our midst ; to 
a co-operation in the development of its measureless resources, 
and to an enriching participation in its prosperity. 

We desire to record it, too, that much of the prosperous con- 
dition of our city is undoubtedly due to the foreign element in 
our midst. To the German citizens, the Irish, Scotch, English, 
and French, JCvansville stands greatly indebted, especially to those 
industrious and intelligent representatives of "Faderland." These 
immigants have brought with them much that is valuable, besides 
their own hardy sinews. They have brought habits of industry, 
economy and thrift. They are generally the best and most en- 
terprising farmers, mechanics and laborers. It is true, the great 
majority are not rich when they arrive, nor do they belong to 
the professional classes, but they generally possess some means, 
estimated at an average of $120 per head, an abundance of house- 
hold goods, are in the prime of life, rugged, honest, peaceful, in- 
dustrious, frugal and thoroughly trained in their callings. As- 
similating themselves in time to our habits and institutions, we 
have became a homogeneous people, possessing the qualities and 
temperaments of the civilized nations of the East combined, and 
feeling our own importance, and knowing our own energies, shrink 
from no undertaking — possible for man to accomplish. 



BUSINESS STATUS OF EVANSVILLE. 39 

To all such, and to immigrants from other States in our Con- 
federacy, we extend a cordial welcome to our Central Western 
home. We say, therefore, to all Manufacturers, whose profits 
are now eaten up by burdensome home taxes, or whose lack 
of railroad and river facilities is crippling their trade and 
business, to come to this city, where all such trades thrive. 
We have six heavy Manufacturers, who began business-life in 
this city twenty years ago — poor men. To-day they are num- 
bered among our wealthiest citizens, and each one has shops cov- 
ering an entire square. This is the best proof after all, that 
Evansville possesses unsurpassed advantages for manufacturing 
purposes. We offer to all rare inducements of resources and po- 
sition, and these combined, cannot fail to arrest the attention of 
all whom business or a desire for pleasure attracts to our midst. 
"Whosoever will, let him come." 

This much we have been induced to say, relative to our ad- 
vantages as a Commercial and Manufacturing center. We might 
advance many other points in support thereof. We might, how- 
ever, pass them by for they may all be included in one point, the 
spirit of our text, viz.: Evansville is already a great Manufacturing 
city, and we hold it eminently safe to infer that a locality in which 
Manufacturing industry has already taken a deep, permanent 
growth, possesses a soil adapted therefor, whether by analysis we 
can perceive the ingredients or not. 

Business Status of Evansville. 

Having, then, secured our subject and thus boldly thrown 
down the gauntlet, let us now pass to and examine the claims and 
adaptabilities of this city of Evansville, to the position we have 
confidently and unhesitatingly ascribed her. We believe our true 
function to lie in that direction, and we trust a proper performance 
of duty and self-elected task will be the crowning result. As a 
city advances in wealth and numbers, and as its commercial affairs 
multiply, and the arms of its trade are stretching, reaching in 
every direction, it becomes an anxious and an interested public to 
know the importance of its demands, as well as the causes that 
have given it such prominent claims upon their patronage and at- 
tention. Trade watches with lynx-eyed vigilance, and with the 
keenest and closest scrutiny the manipulations of those who seek 



40 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

to secure its benefit, none the less than it does the points best filled 
by natural means and artificial efforts, as the proper fountain-head 
of supplies, or the channel through which its commodities must 
flow, in the clearest, purest, least obstructed and least contaminated 
way. 

Actuated, then, by a desire to present to the world this statis- 
tical and descriptive work, systematically arranged and correctly 
reported, demonsti-ating the city of Eva'nsville in all its varied 
phases, its trade and commerce, its importance, advantages, and 
resources, we have undertaken the labor. No such work has ever 
before appeared ; and modesty will not prevent us repeating that 
without a guide star in our sea of explorations, we have encoun- 
tered many difiiculties. Strange that a city of such propitious 
circumstances, pre-eminent in geographical and latitudinal loca- 
tion, should have consented, so long, to have had, as it were, its 
light so effectually hid under a bushel. And yet such is the case. 
Yery true, from time to time, various publications dignified as 
"books" have appeared, some have been plethoric with scientific 
terms and technicalities, while others were only abundant in "glit- 
tering generalities," with a dabble here and there — if such an ugly 
phrase is permissible, regarding our highly favored locality and 
its resources, yet none of the writers have shown what is actually 
in existence, and that is the field now left for our operations. 
Therefore, we present, in the pages which follow, what we hon- 
estly believe to be a reliable and unbiased report of the city of Evans- 
ville as it really is. 

Our purpose has not been solely to advertise the parties whose 
names appear individually; but to advertise the city itself: the 
benefit, if any to result, to be general. With respect to the want 
of enterprise — a standing accusation, which our fellow-citizens are 
accustomed to make against each other in tempestuous weather, 
and only in tempestuous weather — we acknowledge the charge is 
seemingly reasonable and well-founded, especially if it mean a 
total inability to comprehend the morality, or realize the pecuni- 
ary value of clap-trappery, slap-dashery, or eclat^ such as charac- 
terize Chicago, Indianapolis and other cities at our pen's point. 
Adverse to " puffing," or gaseous blowing, as the habit has grown 
with those cities, our people have often refrained from scattering 
broad-cast, as they ought to have done, information relative to the 
mercantile and manufacturing advantages of their Q\iy ; practical 



BUSINESS STATUS OF EVANSVILLE. 41 

in their views, they have seemingly sometimes forgotten that man 
does not live by bread alone ; and straightforward in their own 
general dealings, and governed exclusive!}' in their transactions 
by economical or commercial reasons, thej' do not siippoMe it p<;s- 
sible that such trifles as '' ancient and fish-like smells " in market- 
houses can keep one customer away from where he ought to go; 
or that such vanities as pageantry, puffery and matters of that ilk, 
can attract one tradesman where it is not his decided intent to 
buy. And j^et, despite numerous prostrations of trnde and com- 
merce, of financial shocks and failures all round, they present, to- 
day, a sounder and more solvent record than any competitive 
market, have preserved their commercial honor and mercantile re- 
spect intact, brought their city to a dignified prominence in the 
world of trade, and thereby commanded the respect, the attention 
and the admiration that such conditions have legitimately entitled 
her to. 

The varied features of our city's wealth and ])rosperity we 
propose describing, embracing almost innumerable branches of 
commerce, of mechanical arts and sciences, manipulated and car- 
ried on by a live, progressive and go-ahead-ative class of merchants 
and manufacturers who are aided in their transactions and labors 
by countless auxiliaries ^ch as ready capital, cheap transporta- 
tion, steam, concentrated labor and the inexhaustible natural re- 
sources that a benificent Heaven has placed in almost prodigal lib- 
erality, at their disposal. These, guided by experience and a 
thorough knowledge of the people, and with indomitable foreign 
and domestic labor, energy, industry and skill are fast transform- 
ing our young and thrifty city into a most formidable rival of 
Northern and Eastern cities, and soon, we predict, will render her 
the peer of any in the broad stretch of the Western country. 

We do not propose, nor would we feel competent in the un- 
dertaking, to acquaint our readers with a minutely detailed ac- 
count of all the commodities dealt in, their qualities and delects, 
the countries whence derived and the many items regarding them, 
that doubtless would prove interesting to the generality of per- 
sons. The excellence of a Business Publication written on busi- 
ness subjects and "meaning business," oftentimes depends as much 
upon what it does not as upon what it does contain ; and so many 
details, although in themselves useful, unnecessarily encumber a 
work designed to unfold the information we contemplate disclos- 

6 



42 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

ins^ in this. A seriatim report of all the multiforious branches 
follow, supported by such indisputable facts and figures, that gain- 
saying the truth will be folly, and which may convince the skep- 
tical, if any such there be, as to the importance of the city of Evans- 
ville. Therefore, choosing rather to let the eloquenceof arithmeti- 
cal calculation speak for us what grandiloquent phraseology and 
fancifully wrought speculations might fail to accomplish, we are 
not fearful as to the result. Months have been spent in this inves- 
tigation, and the reports are submitted as illustrative of the pres- 
ent status of Commercial and Manufacturing industry in Evans- 
ville. They are not exclusively of our own observation and knowl- 
edge, but that of others, and may be considered the opinions of 
two or more of the leading men in each branch of industry ; for 
large indebtedness is due to this source, both for original sugges- 
tions and confirmation of points otherwise doubtful. We do not 
claim for them exactness to the cent ; to ascertain that would re- 
quire the purse of Fortunatus, and inquisatorial powers far greater 
than any possessed by the Pope of Eome, the King of Naples, or 
the Emperor of all the Kussias, or all of them combined, but simply 
to state facts that have come within our range ; facts which might 
be noticed by almost any person of ordinary intelligence, meeting 
with them as they do, on every thoroughfare of the metropolis with 
convincing proof that Evnasville is already a. great Commercial and 
Manufacturing city, most probably the greatest in the Central West. 

If the result of our labors, then, demonstrates to the merchants 
and business men trading with Evansville, or trading elsewhere, 
that under a system of liberality and progression our people have 
stimulated industry, by rewarding ingenuity and by using most 
efficaciously the powers bestowed by nature upon them ; that they 
have distributed their labor and capital most judiciously, diffusing 
general benefit to the country having intercourse with them, and 
built up for themselves a trade that is increasing and expanding, 
and is bound to result in a brilliant Mercantile future for them, 
then, indeed, are we satisfied with the work, and ''love's labor" 
has been rewarded. 



EMBRYONIC EVANSVILLE. 



Embryonic Evansville. 

But before passing to the present condition of our city's trade, we 
deem it appropriate to give some brief account of its past condition, 
the better to show her importance and the claims she has upon the 
country. All civilization grows up from, and out of, small centers and 
humble resources. , A man, a house, a village and a machine, are the 
starting points of new and grand developments of Commercial success, 
social life and National history. The world is full of such records, that 
find illustration and culmination in the fame and wealth and power that 
give success and triumph to personal enterprise and stability and grand- 
eur to a city's history. Evansville is rich in annals, rich in associations 
that make her plains historic, her hills remarkable, and her name be- 
loved and honored in many a clime. "These, then, are the treasured 
memorials of her people." These, whether they come down from the 
dim and shadowy past, or have their birth and fruition in the near and 
still remembered are the only antiquities of the place and of her citi- 
zens. In the usual acceptation of the term, our country has no an- 
tiquities. Art, science, literature, music, poetry, war have left no 
records — given us no monuments. But its ])hysical condition — glori- 
ous comprehensive phrase ! taking in as it were, in one grand respira- 
tion, its unapproachable climate, its arable fields, its clear, swift, roll- 
ing rivers, its unhidden and exhaustless mineral wealth, its uncut forests 
— these are the monuments; and monumental, too, of the "Eternal 
Power and Godhead." Aside from these, and with these, Avhat do we 
lack, for aught that wisdom can employ or skillful labor produce, our 
only real antiquities are reminiscences of Indian life and warfare, and 
a recital of the hardships, endurance and fortitude of pioneer struggles. 
The former, as to its origin and incidents, is involved in mystery and 
mixed with fable. But it is replete with interest to the curious, and 
gorgeous with thrilling tales of field and flood to the workers of fiction. 
The latter blushes yet in virgin loveliness and beauty, and yet lifts its 
maiden hands, imploring Old Mortality to decipher its inscriptions, to 
freshen its facts, to revivify its memorials and hand down to the gen- 
erations coming and to come; "the short and simple annals" of a peo- 
ple, who, believing with the poet, that ' ' Westward the star of empire " 
would take its way, coming from their home beyond the mountains and 
on the Eastern shore, settled on the banks of the beautiful Ohio, whose 
fertile valleys their children have enriched as a garden and made to 
bloom and blossom as the rose. 



44 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Since that time the years have rolled around ; years of history, 
civil and social, personal and domestic, unfold their pages of trial and 
triumph, progress and pause, toil and suffering, virtue and vice, life 
and death. War, fire, famine and pestilence have held high carnival 
in her center ; and the march of youthful art, science, trade, commerce 
and literature, approach, anxious to be chronicled; while festivals and 
fasts, religion and licentiousness each "come trooping up like bannered 
armies" with their contributions of glory or of shame to fill the meas- 
ure of the city's history. The leaves are brimming full ; the acts and 
incidents are innumerable. Would that we could open the long-closed 
volume and bring things long hidden out into the sunlight, make scenes 
long lying in obscurity, names long lost in the whirlpool of life, voices 
long silent, address us from the graves of the past ; but such is not our 
task. Therefore we shall only garland a few of the reminiscences, skip 
lightly over the remainder, and speak with words of soberness of the 
great and living present. 

EvANSViLLE, a name which only a very few years ago indicated a 
place of habitation of such insignificant proportions as to scarcely escape 
classification Avith villages, now stands for the city which leads, in com- 
mercial and manufacturing importance, all others in the United States 
of its rank in population. 

In 1812, Col. Hugh McGary, of Kentucky, immigrated to the Ter- 
ritory of Indiana, and built a log-house, the first white man's habita- 
tion on the present site of the original plat of Evansville. It was quite 
primitive and rudely constructed, but the seed seems to have fallen in 
good ground and has brought forth many thousand fold. Previous to 
this settlement, and for some years afterward, an Indian village of the 
Shawnee tribe, occasionally occupied the vicinity of Pigeon Creek, in 
dangerous proximity to Col. McGary's clearing, but, on the whole, the 
neighboring red-men were not troublesome. 

In 1813, Warrick County was formed out of that portion of Knox 
County lying south of "Rector's Base Line" and extending from the 
boundary of Harrison County to the Wabash River, and Col. McGary 
who owned the lower part of the present site of Evansville, laid out a 
number of lots, and donated some land to Warrick County, provided 
they would fix on this place as the permanent seat of justice. 

In 1814, the Territorial Legislature of Indiana divided Warrick 
County, creating Posey County on the west and Perry County on the 
east, which left the site of Evansville near the southwest corner of the 
then existing County of Warrick; for which reason the Legislature 



EMBKYONIC EVANSVILLE. 46 

ordered "that the seat of justice be removed from Evausville to a cer- 
tain tract of land owned by Nathaniel Ewing," which was afterwards 
named "Darlington." This removal came near nipping the existence 
of the embryo city in the bud, and from this period until 1817, Evaus- 
ville made very little progress, hardly having an existence as a village. 
However, destiny cannot be set aside, nor could the struggling 
town in its endeavors to become a place of note, for life and vigor were 
soon imparted by its indomitable founders, and the place took new 
tenure on prosperity and progress and moved forward in its march. 
Thus, whatsoever in a man's mind blossoms and expands to his own 
consciousness in mature life, must have pre-existed in germ during his 
infancy; so, too, with the history of a city whose pioneers were actuated 
by feelings of enterprise and firm resolve to accomplish that which 
seemed at first sight almost impossible, but which possessed at least some 
favorable elements of success at its very origin. 

During the years 1816 and 1817, General Robert M. Evans and 
James W. Jones united with Col. McGary and remodeled the town on 
an enlarged scale, having purchased that portion of the land situated 
north of what is now known as Main street. McGary entered the land 
soon after his arrival, and had attempted to make a survey — in fact, 
had sold some portion of the tract to various parties. Gen. Evans, 
however, made another survey and had the premises platted, in order 
that there might be no trouble in the future. 

The town in its unfledged and undeveloped state was called Evans- 
ville, in honor of Gen. Evans, and at the earnest solicitation of his 
friends, the name was retained. Gen. Evans was a Virginian, having 
been born in Frederick County, of that State, in 1783. In 1803 he 
was married to Miss Jane Trimble, of Paris, Bourbon County, Ken- 
tucky, she being sister to Judge Robert Ti'imble, of the Supreme Court 
of the United States. In 1805 he removed with his family to the In- 
^ diana Territory and settled near where the town of Princeton now 
stands. His residence at Evausville, his namesake, did not occur until 
1824, but while living in Gibson County he was instrumental in form- 
mg Vanderburgh County, and exerted much influence in favor of the 
little county seat. In the war of 1812, the surrender of Hull left the^ 
northwestern frontier exposed to the incursions of the British and In- 
dians, and occasioned very considerable alarm in this and adjoining 
States. Nearly ten thousand volunteers immediately offered their ser- 
vices to the Government, and being placed under the command of Gen. 
William Henry Harrison, were marched toward the Territory of Michi- 



46 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 

gan. Evans had joined Gen. Harrison immediately on his taking com- 
mand of the army and was appointed by the General as one of his aids. 
He proved such an efficient officer that he was promoted by Gen. Har- 
rison to a Brigadier Generalship, and placed in command of a large 
body of militia, both from Indiana and other territories. Gen. Evans 
participated in the battles of the Thames, Tippecanoe, and other less 
important engagements, and had the reputation of being one of the 
best officers in the army— not only on account of his bravery, but also 
for his sagacity and ability as a leader. From the Fall of 1828 until 
his death, which occurred in 1844, Gen. Evans maintained his residence 
here, but the distinguished and honored pioneer was not permitted the 
proud privilege of witnessing the present growth, beauty, wealth and 
dignity of the city that he, w^ith wondrous sagacity, planted so many 
years ago. 

So soon as the town had been remodeled on its enlarged scale, a 
number of lots were sold and attention was attracted to the place as a 
convenient landing point for Vincennes (the Old French Fort) and 
other interior towns in the Wabash Valley, which then gave promise 
of far outstripping Evansville. 

In 1818, Vanderburgh County was formed from the western por- 
tion of Warrick, and named in honor of Judge Henry Vanderburgh, 
one of the Territorial Judges and early settlers of Indiana. In the 
same year commissioners were aj^pointed to fix the seat of justice of the 
new county, who reported to the County Commissioners "that in con- 
sideration of the local advantages of Evansville, and of a liberal dona- 
tion by the proprietors, of one hundred lots and five hundred dollars 
in cash, or such materials as will suit in the erection of the public build- 
ings, they have established and fixed the permanent seat of justice of 
Vanderburgh County at Evansville." 

The towai for a while made considerable progress. The first elec- 
tion was held in August, 1818, when twenty-five votes were polled. In 
one year from its establishment as a county seat, it became an incorpo- 
rated town, by the election of Hugh McGary, Isaac Fairchild, Everton 
Kinnerly, Alfred O. Warner, and Francis J. Bentley, Trustees. Hugh 
McGary was chosen President, Elisha Harrison, Secretary, and Lister of 
taxable property, John Conner, Treasurer, and Alpheus Fairchild, 
Collector and Marshal. The fii"st tax levy was twenty cents on the one 
hundred dollars of real property, and a specific tax on several kinds of 
personal property. The value of taxable property is not given in the 
records, but the total of tax duplicate for that year amounted to $191 28f . 



EMBKYONIC EVANSVILLE. 47 

On the 20th of March, 1819, the first meeting of the Board of Town 
Trustees was held. 

In 1819, there were one hundred inhabitants ; and the village 
boasted of a tavern, kept by Ansel Wood, Esq. This was situated on 
Main street (then called the State Road), in the rear of the present site 
of Armstrong's furniture warerooms. It was in 1819 that a French- 
man opened a country store near the river bank. He was soon suc- 
ceeded by a Mr. Armstrong and the Lewis Brothers. Their stocks 
were scant, but amply sufficient for the pioneers, with Avhom hard cash 
was a great rarity, indeed. Coon-skins and barter of that character 
formed the medium of exchange — not only with themselves, but also 
with the outside world. In this same year Amos Clark took up his 
abode at the county seat, as a lawyer, and was soon appointed prose- 
cuting attorney — for the criminal portion of the community (and it 
was very large) entertained peculiar views wdth regard to horses, cat- 
tle and hogs, and neither respected the Tenth, nor the Eighth Command- 
ment of the time-honored Mosaic law. 

President Monroe, in 1819, appointed Daniel Warner as postmas- 
ter, and the village for the first time gained national recogi\ition and 
had regular postal facilities, even though the mails arrived only 
once a week. 

In 1820, John M. Dunham, Daniel F. Goldsmith, Prestly 
Pritchett, William Mills, Jr., and John A. Chandler were elected 
Trustees, and James A. Boiss was appointed Secretary, and Alan- 
son Warner, Treasurer. These early officers of the corporation 
are given in this sketch, as many of them were for years promi- 
nent citizens of Evansville, and though they have all passed away 
and been long since numbered with the dead, memories of their 
services still linger in the recollection of many of our people, and 
it is nothing more than justice, it would be less than proper, should 
the names of the founders of our growing city fail to accompany 
the record of its present enlarged business and population. 

During 1821, Rev. D. C. Banks, of Ohio, came to Evansville 
and endeavored to establish a Presbyterian organizatior, ; after 
some delay, a society was formed and an effort made to erect a 
suitable church building. The lot at the junction of Main and 
Second streets, (where the Courier office now stands), was pur- 
chased for one hundred dollars, and a small frame house of worship 
erected upon it. Luke Wood and William Olmstead were among 
the most prominent in securing the necessary aid, and this was 



48 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

mainly conditional that the church should be occupied in common 
by other religious denominations. In 1824, Mr. Banks was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. John Phillips, of Vermont. After his arrival, the 
building was put in better condition ; benches were placed along 
the sides, and the farther end of the room was adorned with a 
pulpit that is said to have resembled a " frontier stockade." Mr. 
Phillips was diligent in doing good ; sjjent little oi' no time in dis- 
cussing dogmas, and was ever a watchful shepherd in his care over 
the morality of his flock, rather than their sectarian bias. 

The first Justice of the Peace was Prestly Pritchett, who was 
elected in 1822. He was a successful magistrate and looked care- 
fully after the "civil " and criminal complications and difficulties 
of those earlier times. 

The first school house was erected in 1824. It was a small 
brick building, and stood at the corner of Third and Main streets. 
Mr. Chute, an elderly gentleman, was appointed and empowered 
to "teach the young idea how to shoot." As early as 1818, he had 
occasionally received pupils at his cabin; but now for the first time 
a school was instituted to which all could send children hitherto 
unprovided and unafl'orded regular educational privileges. The 
school house. was also regularly used forreligipus purposes. Eev. 
Mr. Wood, a Presbyterian minister, often preached there, as well 
as clergymen of other denoninations. 

For several years various buildings had been used as a jail by 
Alanson Warner, the first Sherifi", who also acted as jailor. Finally, 
after some considerable difficulty, a jail was erected on the south- 
east corner of Third and Main streets, and for many years the 
building was used for that purpose. The first public hanging took 
place in 1821. A man by the name of Harvey was executed for 
killing Robinson. The criminal was buried in the rear of the 
northwest corner of Third and Main streets. 

The Spring of 1825 marks the arrival of Dr. Wm. Trafton, 
who soon entered the lists and engaged manfully in fighting the 
" fever and ague," ever prevalent to an alarming decree in the 
village and along the marshy lands that margined the Ohio River. 
Dr. Lane visited the village in the Fall, and formed a co-partner- 
ship with Dr. Trafton, which firm the primitive inhabitants desig- 
nated by soubriquet the " Ager Board." 

For the year just previous, the following persons appear as 
Town Trustees : Amos Clark, President; Charles I. Battel!, Har- 



EMBKYONIC EVANSVILLB. 49 

ley B. Chandler, Nathan Rowley and Joshua V. Robinson. The 
first valuation of real estate apjjears ujion the records of this year 
as follows : 

Original Plan $21,681 00 

Donation Enlargement 2,115 06 

Upper " 2,690 00 

Lower " 848 00 

Total $27,334 06 

Examination of the "corporate records" at or alfout this period, 
evidences that Evansville seems to have struggled with perilous 
travail for a mere existence. It has been said that " corporations 
have no souls to be damned, nor bodies to be kicked," which, ap- 
plied to our embryonic "corporation," meets confirmation in the 
almost utter absence of soul, body and life. All accounts go to 
inform us that her progress was rather of the paradoxical retro- 
grade and backward nature. The tax duplicate increased but 
precious little in toto, and the delinquent list was distressingly 
large in proportion to the amount " on the slate." The principal 
items of outlay were for protecting the river bank from the ob- 
strepcrousness of the unruly Ohio, and for the drainage of low 
and unhealthy grounds that surrounded the village in all direc- 
tions. From March 14, 1825, to January 28, 1828, there appears 
to have been no meeting of the Town Trustees, and the place, to 
all accounts, had almost ceased to maintain its duration as a body 
corporate. On the 28th of March, 1828, the following citizens 
were made Trustees : John Shanklin, President; John Conner, 
Alanson Warner, Jay Morehouse and William Lewis. The amount 
of taxes assessed for that year was $107 28^, which was consider- 
ably less that the first town levy, nine years before, when it was 
more populous and flourishing. 

From 1828 onward, new hope and new spirit seem to have 
taken up their abode here, and improvement and development are 
moi\; evident. The interior counties of the State, in the mean- 
while, had become more populously settled, agriculture began to 
assume formidable proportions and produce found its way to the 
Southern market in flatboats, from the Wabash and White Rivers 
and their tributaries. The convenient proximity of Evansville to 
these interior water courses made it a favorite landing and place 
of stoppage for the returning boatmen. During the Spring and 
early Summer months trade was always brisk; thousands of boat- 
men, on their return trips to the Lower Mississippi, made Evans- 
7 



50 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

ville their point of debarkation, and it thus became known and 
appreciated as the "Landing for the Wabash." Some lively 
" scenes " and gay fandangos characterized those times, but it grew 
to be a point of supply for much of the interior region of country 
watered by the Wabash and White Eivers, and in this way laid 
the foundation for its present mercantile prosperit}- and import- 
ance. 

The first newspaper published in Bvansvilie was a weekly 
sheet, known as the " Evansville Gazette.'" in 1821, the editors and 
publishers being General Elisha Harrison and William Monroe. 
Its career, however, was brief, lasting only till about the year 1823, 
when it was suspended — one of the results of the torpor and list- 
lessness that rested like a funeral pall about the town for several 
succeeding years. But in 1831, when new signs of awakening and 
renewed evidences of life and fortune were infused into the place, 
the Evansville Joxirnal and Vanderburgh Weekly Advertiser was 
established by William Town. In 1839, William H. and John Jay 
Chandler purchased the paper and, loj)ping off a portion of its 
title, the re-christened Evansville Journal has been continuously 
published since. The progress to wealth and significance of the 
city is amply demonstrated and substantially attested in the opu- 
lent and metropolitan conditions of the Journal of ih.Q present day. 

In 1834, on the establishment of the first State Bank, Evans- 
ville was designated as one of the points for the organization of its 
Branches. This greatlj^ enlarged its financial facilities, and gave 
additional and timely impetus to all departments of business. 

In 1835-6, the State Legislature having passed the Internal 
Improvement Bill, Evansville was made the Southern terminus of 
the Central and Wabash and Erie Canals. The Wabash and Erie 
Canal, commencing at Toledo, Ohio, was to strike the head-waters 
of the Wabash River, and follow the rich and prolific vni!..ys of 
that and Wiiite River, terminating on the Ohio at Evansville. 
The Central Canal was intended to pass from Muncietown, through 
Indianapolis, to Point Commerce, on White River, where it would 
be united with the Wabash and Erie Canal. Thus Evansville, by 
a grand scheme of hydrographical inosculation, was to be placed 
in control of these stupendous works, commanding the outlet of 
two of the richest and most productive vallej^s on the globe. No 
wonder there was liberal impartment of new energy, new vigor 
and high hopes of the future. In June, 1836, the awarding of the 



EMBKYONIC EVANSVILLE. 51 

contracts for the construction of the canal commenced, and a large 
immigration at once began to pour in ; real estate advanced to 
high and fancy speculative rates, and the town appeared to have 
again taken a hold on prosperity and determined to prove Phoenix- 
like. Bat here, anotlier drawback occurred and energy was ham- 
pered and enterj)rise fettered. A great financial revulsion occurred 
in 1837-8, which caused a suspension of specie payment by our 
banks, and a very considerable dej)reciation in the value of real 
estate. The crisis was general and was severely felt all over the 
country in its sweeping damage, thus, for a time, blighting the fair 
prospects of Bvansville. The work of Internal Improvement was 
abandoned, general stagnation in trade was j)revalent, and the 
town not only ceased to prosper, but actually decreased in popula- 
tion. Much of the property of Bvansville passed into the hands 
of Eastern creditors, in payment of the indebtedness of merchants 
and speculators, and for several years possessed very little market 
value. A number of citizens left the city and State,' a few for the 
Northwest and quite a number for Texas, which was then the great 
attraction and "Land of Promise" for people of " broken-down 
fortunes," and for a countless horde of spirits dissatisfied with their 
homes in the States. A majority of those who removed, however, 
were in debt, while a few simply desired to better their condition 
and "go West." 

In 1837, we find the second record of the valuation of real and 
personal property, which amounted to $863,675, and the taxes 
assessed, $3,266 06|. The Board of Trustees and town officers was 
as follows : Robert M. Bvaiis, President ; James Lockhart, William 
Walker, Edward Hopkins, Abraham B. Coleman, John Douglass, 
Thomas E. Stockwell and Francis Amory ; with Joseph Bowles, 
clerk ; James Cawson, Treasurer ; John S. Hopkins, Collector, and 
Amos Clark, Attorney. In 1838, the census taken was as follows : 

Whites, males, 567; females, 621 1,188 

Blacks, males, 24; females, 16 40 

Total population 1,228 

In 1840, the number of inhabitants had increased to 2,121, 
which shows quite a substantial gain for the time. 

On the 1st of November, 1842, Bvansville witnessed the largest 
fire that ever occurred in her limits. It originated between the 
houses of John Menzel and Harrison Walker, which are now oc- 
cupied, the one by S. Roser, as a clothing store, and the other by 



52 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AISID MANUFACTLf RES. 

Louis Kollenberg, as a fancy store and confectionery, both of them, 
being located on Main street, between First and Second. All the 
houses which front on the east side of Main street, in this block, 
were destroyed, which at that time was about one-fourth of the 
town. Evansville had no fire engines in those days, and the citi- 
zens were compelled to bring water in buckets from a cistern 
located in the yard of the old State Bank. The fire totally de- 
stroyed the entire block. 

Some time about the year 1845-6, Evansville began to recover 
from the prostration occasioned by the failure of the Internal Im- 
provement system and the commercial crisis of the country, and 
business generally began to revive. The natural advantages of 
location which it possessed, attracted to it the trade of the sur- 
rounding country, audits mercantile interests re-began to advance 
and thrive. From that period the growth of Evansville has been 
steady and substantial ; for many years, it is true, laggard and 
hardly perceptible, but never stationary or receding. Her coui'se 
and career has been nothing less than a succession of progress and 
pause, but the latter seemed to have given strength rather than 
detriment, and if the ability of our people to recover after such 
damaging and discouraging impediments were repeatedly thrown 
in their way be any criteria, certainly such trials are brightly 
prognostic of an attainable jjower and excellence commensurate 
with what wo to-day proudly claim for her. During the Legis- 
lative session of 1856-7, a grant of land was obtained to extend 
the Wabash and Erie Canal to Terre Haute, and subsequently an- 
other grant was obtained to aid in the construction of this work 
to the Ohio Biver at Evansville. This concession was made 
the basis of an arrangement by the State with her bondholders 
for the sale of the Wabash and Erie Canal, and a resumption of 
payment of State interest. The completion of the Canal became 
a fixed fact, and the anticipation of the benefits to be derived from 
its successful workings did much to strengthen confidence in our 
future. 

On the 27th day of January, 1847, a special charter was ob- 
tained from the State Legislature for the incorporation of Evans- 
ville as a city. The first meeting of the City Council under this 
charter was held April 12, 1847, with the following officers and 
members: James G. Jones, Mayor; Councilmen — L. L. Lay- 
cock, First Ward; Silas Stephens, Second Ward; Willard Car- 



EMBKYONIC EVANSVILLE. 53 

penter, Third Ward ; C. M. Griffith, Fourth Ward ; L. Howes, 
Fiftb Ward ; John Hewson-, Sixth Ward ; John J. Chandler, 
Clerk ; William Bell, Assessor, Collector and Marshal ; Samuel 
Orr, Treasurer ; James K. Blythe, Attorney; William M. Walker, 
Surveyor. The population was about 4,000. The valuation of 
real estate and personal property was 1901,324, and the taxes as- 
sessed $3,319 47. 

Up to this period, notwithstanding Bvansville had become 
the most important shipping point between Louisville and the 
mouth of the Ohio, a distance of four hundred miles, very little 
wharf improvements had been made other than the cutting of roads 
through the high and almost perpendicular banks to the landing 
places. But growing commerce and increased shipping interests 
made it necessary to construct a wharf commensurate with the 
extensive business which was being established; and in March, 
1848, the city entered into a contract with John Mitchell, Marcus 
Sherwood and Moses Ross to grade the river bank and complete a 
wharf having frontage on five squares, a length of nearly two thou- 
sand feet. This at the time was considered a great work, and was 
an important step forward in the commercial history of a place 
now dignified with municipal proportions and recognized by the 
important appellation of a City. 

During 1850 the Bvansville and Crawfordsville Railroad was 
commenced. The Canal, reaching from Evansville to Toledo, 
Ohio, a distance of four hundred and sixty-two miles, and con- 
necting the waters of Lake Erie with the Ohio River, wjls afford- 
ing cheap transportation for freight from the East and West, and 
a valuable channel for bringing the immense amount of products 
of the fertile region traversed by it to market. But in order to 
keep pace with the age of rapid locomotion, and to meet the in- 
creased demands of a multiplied traffic, it was evident to saga- 
cious minds that Evansville could not depend alone upon the 
Canal and the Ohio River to attain the commanding commercial 
position to which it aspired. Her people therefore endorsed the 
railroad project and entered heartily into the enterprise. The 
City of Evansville and the County of Vanderburgh both lent sub- 
stantial aid by the issuance of a large amount of bonds, and the 
citizens furnished such individual assistance as they were able, and 
the Road was gradually pushed forward to its present connection 
with the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad at Vincenncs, to the 



64 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

eastern and western connections at Terre Haute, and extended be- 
yond toward its northern connections. 

In 1853, Hon. James G. Jones, who had held the office of 
Mayor from the incorporation of the city, a period of six years, 
was succeeded by Hon. John S. Hopkins. The valuation of real 
and personal property had increased to $2,537,965, and the 
amount of taxes collected was $29,799 GO. 

The year 1853, also, witnessed the establishment of our present 
admirable system of City Public Schools under the superintend- 
ence of H. Q. Wheeler, Esq., which have since continued without 
interruption or suspension and growing- in usefulness and effi- 
ciency. 

John Hewson, Esq., was elected Mayor in 1856, upon the ex- 
piration of the term of Mr. Hopkins. 

In 1857, the adjoining corporations of Evansville and Lamasco, 
which had existed up to this time as separate municipalities, were 
consolidated, by the annexation of Lamasco to Evansville. In 
location, business and social interests they had been one and the 
same, and their union under one city government was a consun- 
mation which added materially to tlieir prosperity. The city of 
Lamasco included that portion of the present city lying between 
Division street and Pigeon Creek. It was laid out by four gen- 
tlemen, Messrs. John and William Law and Macall and Scott, who 
gave the place a novel and conglomerate title, taking the first two 
letters of Law and Macall and the first three of Scott, thus suc- 
ceeded in patching up a distinctive and unheard-of name. Re- 
cently a spasmodic and unsuccessful attempt was made to change 
the name of the city of Evansville to Lamasco, the friends of the 
movement setting forth the immense advantage to result from 
general advertisement over the country. The proposition, how- 
ever, assumed no formidable shape. The "Lamasco" of the present 
day, although under the same regime, actually appears a separate 
municipality. The city having been laid out regardless of the 
position of Evansville, the streets are very irregular and cut-up, 
being decidedly Bostonian in their intricacies, and resembling the 
Grecian Eiver, Meander, in their crookedness. 

But the consolidated arrangement proved of much value to 
Evansville, and from that time up to 1860, the city maintained a 
steady and healthy progress, gradually increasing its population 
and wealth, constantly extending its trade, multiplying its manu- 



EMBEYONIC EVANSVILLE. 55 

facturing establishments, and extending its different packet lines 
and steamboat interests. At the close of that decade it had reached 
such a position as to assure its citizens that it could, by their en- 
terprise and .public spirit, attain prominent recognition among 
the leading cities of the country. 

In 1857, under the superintendence of Judge M. W. Foster, 
President of the Board of Ti-ade, a report was published showing 
the amount of business done in that year. From the table of 
" Merchandise Sales," we extract the following : 

Groceries $2,034,629 Dry Goods |845,271 

Iron and Hardware 275,000 Boots and Shoes 123,000 

Drugs and Medicines H9,095 Queensware 61,000 

From the table of " Manufactured Articles," we take the fol- 
lowing items : 

Flour and ShipstufF. $477,000 Stoves and Castings $120,000 

Steam Engines 165,000 Steam Boilers 33,000 

Saw Mills 62,000 Planing Mills 35,000 

Furniture 96,000 Wagons and Blacksmiths 65,500 

Breweries , 58,000 Tanneries 50,835 

We give the following items from the table of " Exports ;" 

Corn, sacks 101,683 Oats, sacks 19,770 

Wheat, bushels 62,699 Flour, barrels 62,228 

Pork, barrels 49,628 Bacon, hogsheads 10,480 

Lard, kegs 58,885 Tobacco, hogsheads 9,781 

The Banking Capital in 1857, as represented by the public 
banks, was S325,000. The population of the city was set down at 
12,250, and it was estimated that, during that year, one hundred 
houses had been erected, valued atone-quarter of a million dollars- 

During the years 1867 and 1868, Hon. John W. Foster, now 
United States Minister to Mexico, but at that time editor of the Ev- 
ansville Journal^ acting under authority of the Board of Trade, made 
a compilation of the commerce, trade and manufactures of the 
city, giving also an historical sketch of its advanceme)it. In the 
progress of our labors we have frequently taken advantage of 
whatever could be of interest at the present in his sketch, and 
hereby make acknowledgment of the same. Col. Foster in con- 
cluding one of his reports says : 

"In 1861, at the commencement of our late civil war, Evansville was one 
of the most important ports of Southern shipments on the Western waters. In 
the leading articles of produce and provisions, it compared favorably with St. 
Leuis and Louisville, (exceeding in many articles the latter city), as its ship- 
ments had largely increased since 1857, when the above statistics were com- 
piled. There, was established a regular tri-weekly line of packets to Cairo, 



56 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

mainly owned and controlled here. Regular packets were maintained between 
Evansville and Bowling Green, Kentucky, on Green River. The Wabash 
packets made this their home port. Its steamboat interests were very consider- 
able and rapidly increasing. The whole trade of the city came from the bor- 
der counties of Kentucky on the lower Ohio and Illinois, the Green River val- 
ley, in Kentucky^ the Lower Wabash Valley, and the regions of country 
traversed by the Evansville and Crawfordsville Railroad and the Wabash and 
Erie Canal, for a distance of seventy-live miles. The war caused material 
changes in those interests and the circle of trade. Eor a time the steamboat in- 
terest was apparently destroyed. Communication with the Lower Mississippi 
was entirely cut off, and nearly so with Green River. The Cairo packet line 
was greatly hampered and harrassed by military restrictions. The immense 
produce and provision carrying trade from the Wabash ceased with the closing 
of business relations with the South. The freight business of the Evansville 
and Crawfordsville Railroad was, for a like reason, materially lessened. About 
this time the navigation of the Wabash and Erie Canal became uncertain and 
finally closed. A valuable part of the trade, on this account and the cutting off 
of our New Orleans communication, was lost to this city. L^rider these circum- 
stances the future of Evansville at that time looked gloomy in the extreme. 
But steamboat owners, merchants and manufacturers, in a little while began to 
experience a more hopeful state of affairs. The wants of the Government gave 
employment at remunerative rates to such of the steamboats as were not profit- 
ably engaged in the carrying business of the city. The grocerj"^ merchants, 
whose supply market at New Orleans had been cut off, found a more enlarged 
depot of supplies at New York, to which place the operations of the war turned 
all wholesale merchandise dealers. As the field of occupancy of the Federal 
army was enlarged, the enterprise of our merchants and manufacturers extended. 
The old packet lines were re-established, and new lines opened up the Tennes- 
see and Cumberland Rivers, and down the Mississippi to Memphis. Evansville 
became the most convenient point of supply for Western Kentucky and for the 
rich valleys of the Cumberland and Tennessee, and received a very consider- 
able trade from Memphis and the country bordering the Mississippi, between 
that city and Cairo. From 1862 forward, the business of this city began to 
revive, and in a little while it exceeded that done before the war. The restora- 
tion of peace found it greatly increased in population and wealth, its area of 
trade enlarged three fold, its steamboat interests more than doubled, its manu- 
factories much more numerous and their product largely multiplied, and the 
various departments of industry quickened into new life and activity. Since 
the close of the war, with all the channels of trade and commerce open and un- 
restricted, and with all the embarrassments of finances and the fluctuation of 
values, Evansville has been enabled not only to retain the business which was 
attracted to it by the changed condition of affairs, but has reached out into new 
fields of enterprise." 

Thus the war after all, proved a perfect God-send for Evans- 
ville's commercial interests. Standing asshe didupon thevergeand 
dividing line of the consumptive region and productive section, 



EMBKYONIC EVANSVILLE. 5T 

her position was favorable in the extreme. The South which in 
1860, represented nearly one-third of the entire population, and, 
omitting the value of slaves, nearly two-sevenths of the aggre- 
gate wealth of the Nation, found itself, as the result of four years of 
civil war entirely prostrate ; without industry, without tools, 
without money, credit or crops ; deprived of local self-government, 
and to a great extent of political privileges ; the flower of its youth 
in hospitals or dead upon the bloody storm-rent battle-fields, with 
society disorganized and starvation imminent or actually present. 
Furthermore, the first efi'orts of the people to improve their con- 
dition were also, in the highest degree, discouraging, as, during 
the years 1866 and 1867, the crops, both cotton and grain, were to 
a great extent failures; the freedmen not disposed to work for hire, 
demanding excessive wages, and, after accepting, too often render- 
ing poor service. This state of affairs was indeed gloomy, and 
depressing. Bereft of everything — of food and raiment, of me- 
chanical tools and implements of tillage, replenishment from some 
other quarter became absolutely necesssary. The South had never 
been supplied with manufacturing establishments, nor industrial 
concerns, and was, therefore, compelled to seek her supplies in the 
most advantageous, market. Evansville offered unrivaled and 
satisfactory inducements. Her marts were teeming, her manufac- 
tories in full blast, her business men liberal, conscientious and ac- 
commodating. Trade began to flow in this direction, the advance- 
ment was mutual, and the benefit reciprocal. The large section of 
country tributary to Evansville, made this the base of supply, 
and maintainance, and ample concessions having been extended, 
a situation of commerce was arrived at, which conserved all in- 
terests and enhanced the public good, both as regarded the dealer 
and the consumer. 

And what is more, — Evansville received valuable additions to 
her wealth, population and intelligence by the unobstructed in- 
flux of citizens from oth erStates. Kentucky, Tennessee and 
other adjacent Southern States, furnished handsome quotas. 
Merchants and professional men from those sections, viewing the 
advantages offered, and the bright expectations entertained by all 
for its future, removed to this point with their families; thereby 
not only increasing our mercantile strength, by auxiliary capital, 
enterprise and fair dealing, but giving much tone and elegance to 
social circles, raising the city higher in the scale of excellence, 

8 



58 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

hospitality and refinement. Thus, Evansville passed throv;gh the 
ordeal of war, but came forth like iron from the furnace, sti'ength- 
ened and purified. A live, intelligent and enterprising people, 
fully aroused to all the requirements of the age, have possession of 
her multifarious labors, and the day is now at hand when many a 
stately edifice is musical with clanging machinery and those 
sounds of diversified industry that quicken the pulse of a nation 
and prolong the life of a Eepublic ; while her possibilities, thus 
foreshadowed, dazzle the mind by their variety and magnitude, 
leaving the calmest and most iinimpassioned observer quite bewil- 
dered in the prospect for this Metropolis of the West. 

There are a few, it is true, even of our best informed citizens 
who are skeptical as to the continuance of this magical prosperity 
and look for a sudden and fatal check of the city's trade and en- 
largement ; but we believe they fail to notice fully, either what 
has already been accomplished, or the unlimited resources about 
us yet undeveloped, but certainly to be drawn upon, in the grander 
conquests of the not distant fature. But the very best assurance 
of the continued healthful progress of Evansville is found in what 
she is to-day, a centre of trade, in spite of some of the most unfa- 
vorable surroundings and drawbacks that ever beset a city, yet 
more perhaps the creature of the necessities of the position than 
that of any Western city that has ever struggled for eminence; 
and yet the forces that have thus successfully built uj) the city are 
far from being exhausted, or even fully comprehended. Since its 
birth — great commonwealths, more than the equal in extent of 
territory of the original confederacy, with their population, have 
grown up and in a manner are ministering to its traffic and wealth, 
while others thicklier populated and blessed with plenty are tribu- 
tar}' at our doors and find Evansville the grand gateway — the un- 
rivaled outlet, the natural inlet of trade and travel in the great 
Ohio valley. 

At this juncture in our labors we may with propriety change the 
current of our remarks. We have brought the records of our city 
down to a period within the remembrance of almost even our younger 
citizens. However, we by no means claim to be the historian of the 
place, and trenching in no part upon ground that properly belongs to 
the domain of biography, or personal laudation, or flattering testimo- 
nials as to "men of mark," we have sought only to balance all drafts 



GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGEAPHICAL SITUATION. 59 

upon the Past by the marvelously increased value of the Present, 
demonstrating the philosophy of political economy in presentation ot 
cause by the grander illustration of effect. Therefore, we may say, the 
past has been well cared for, and as a neophyte in Archseology, we may 
well despair of success, and devote our attention to the actual and The 
Present of our city, which, sustained by energy and stimulated by 
fortitude, presents with its material progress, its advances in commerce 
and manufactures, its railroads, steamboats, telegraphy and industrial 
features, themes sufficiently comprehensive in themselves, and volumin- 
ous enough to satisfy the cacoethes scribendi of almost any writer. To 
these we invite the closest attention, and in which we promise a faith- 
ful account of its magnitude and development. 

Geological and Geographical Situation. 

The city of Evansville, the county seat of Vanderburgh County, 
and the Commercial Capital of Indiana, is situated on the Ohio Kiver, 
in lat. 38° 8' north, and 87° 29' west from Greenwich, or 10° 30' west 
from Washington. The altitude at Evansville of the Ohio River at 
low water mark is 320 feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico at 
the outlet of the Mississippi. The elevation of Water street above the 
Ohio at low water is 50 feet, thus making the base of the site of Evans- 
ville 370 feet above the sea. Located on an elevated plain, the second 
bottom of the Ohio River, it is entirely above the highest floods, in ad- 
dition, affording one of the finest and most convenient wharves to be 
found on any of the Western rivers. This plain is not entirely level, 
but is interspersed with small hills, one of the most prominent of which. 
Oak Hill, two miles from the city, forms the site of Oak Hill Ceme- 
tery, a burial place whose natural and artitistic beauties reflect great 
credit upon the taste of the city. A conterminous range of limestone 
hills, receding back from the river, in the lower part of the city, and 
following the course of Pigeon Creek, affords some very pleasant and 
romantic situations for residences, and are destined to become the re- 
fined and elegant suburbs of this busy commercial city. Pigeon Creek, 
emptying into the Ohio, just below the densely populated quarter of 
the west, makes a detour around the city to the north and east, and pre- 
sents many desirable locations for manufacturing establishments. Al- 
ready its banks are lined with saw-mills, iron manufactories of various 
kinds, tanneries, woolen-mills, slaughter houses and industries of varied 
character. 



m EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

But it is to its splendid location, with reference to the navigation 
of the Ohio and its tributaries, that Evansville may well lay claim. 
In addition to being at the head of low water navigation and below the 
chief obstructions that, like the Scylla and Charybdes to the ancient 
mariners, have proven so detrimental to the steamboat interests of 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and Louisville, the river from this point out to 
its confluence with the Mississippi is rarely closed by ice. It occupies 
a position which naturally should, and actually does, give it the control 
of the commerce of four of the largest tributaries of the Ohio. Green 
River, which drains one of the richest regions in Kentucky, and which, 
by slack-water improvement, is navigable the entire year as high up as 
Bowling Green — two hundred miles — empties into the Ohio nine miles 
above Evansville. The Wabash, navigable for more than four hvin- 
dred miles, has its mouth only sixty miles below the city, while the 
Cumberland and Tennessee, those large rivers which drain some of the 
richest and most productive sections of the South, flow into the Ohio 
140 and 150 miles below Evansville. With its frequent and regular 
packet lines, this city has already succeeded in controlling the greater 
part of the large and rapidly increasing trade of those rivers. With 
these four important tributaries so greatly ' ' under its thumb " and con- 
trol, situated also about equi-distant from the Falls of the Ohio and 
the mouth of the river, (about 200 miles each way), with no near rival 
to compete, no large city to overshadow its growth, Evansville may be 
pardoned for somewhat exulting over the commercial superiority of 
her position. Nay, what is more, she is the very center of the base of 
the parallelogram formed by Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis and Evans- 
ville — and taking Chicago as the objective point from the north, is 
almost directly opposite the apex, being on an air line to Nashville and 
Mobile, thus possessing distinctive advantages over all three of her 
powerful rivals in being many miles nearer the wealthiest and best 
conditioned consumptive region of the South — like "Venice, who sat 
enthroned upon her hundred isles," located on a figurative topographi- 
cal promontory jutting into the Central Southern States, we may liken 
her position to that of a pioneer, a vanguard, an avant courier, the very 
' ' off'-ox " in commercial advancement. 



EVANSVILLE AS IT IS IN 1874. 61 



Evansville as It Is in 1874. 

The entire length of the city as per Saunder's survey, shows 
a magnificent river front of more than two miles, and reaching 
from Bayles Street on the South, to Twelfth Avenue on the West, 
forming a beautiful and picturesque curvature, while the thickly 
settled suburbs beyond give it even greater frontage. The aver- 
age breadth of the city is two miles, and the greatest width two 
and two-thirds miles, stretching from Independence (near the 
Cotton Mill) through Franklin Street to Blankenburg. Its ap- 
proximate area within the corporate limits is 350-100 square 
miles, or 2,224 square acres, or 98,877,440 square feet. 

THE CRESCENT CITY PERSPECTIVE. 
From the more prominent points in the city, and particularly 
"Coal Mine Hill" in the Western suburbs, a fine view is obtained 
of the country around, which lying like a vast amphitheatre, the 
range of hills forming the segment of a circle and stretching far 
away to the North and East, about three miles equi-distant from 
its central point, make up a picture of hill and dale, ravine and 
river, city and country, exceedingly grand and lovely. The beau- 
tiful suburban towns, and the thickly populated agricultural dis- 
trict far beyond, made lovlier still by the soft gray veil of distance, — 
handsomely diversified with highly cultivated vegetable, floral and 
horticultural gardens, and extensive and valuable plantations, in- 
tersected by numerous railways and graveled roads presents a 
most enrapturing prospect. Turning towards the "busy haunts 
of man " what a panorama of mingled art and nature meets the 
eye : church-spires are marshaled in hosts and warehouses stud 
every quarter ; the mansions of the opulent, half hid by ancestral 
trees, and the cottages of the humbler citizen are seen m every 
direction ; the smoke-stacks of industry rising at countless points 
form a forest of progress, while clouds of smoke vomited from 
their untiring throats bathe the city in vapory folds, and seem 
climbing one on top the other to kiss the " God of Day." Lastly, 
the river winding like a silver snake — not by bald and sky-kissing 
peaks, but past the scenes of honest toil and thrift, lending the 
force of its waters to turn the ponderous wheels of its shipping, 
and to add to the comfort of the people who inhabit its banks. 
There are no red gashes in the fair bosom of mother earth, swords 



62 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

in this quarter of the " moral vineyard " have been turned into 

plow-shares, spears into pruning-hooks — it remains onlj^ for the 

iron-tougued eloquence of the pen, more powerful than the gleam 

of falchion or the sceptre of Kings — to proclaim its glittering 

excellencies and to assert its proud position. To witness these 

charms and to feel the sublimity of the cause, there seems within 

the heart such a flood of melody, seeking voice, that sometimes, 

for very ecstacy, one is half tempted to give language to all the 

pent-up joy that other men have frittered away, and that we have 

garnered up for a sight so rare and exquisite. The poet Cowper 

had in his " mind's eye " a scene of comporting grandeur. 

"'Tis pleasant through the loop-holes of Retreat, 
To peep at such a world ; 

To see the stir of the great Babel, and not feel the crowd; 
To hear the roar she sends through all her gates. 
At a safe distance, where the dying sound 
Falls a soft murmur on the uninjur'd ear." 

So, whether we take it in the garish light of day, or under moon- 
light or starlight vision, no city of the West presents a fairer view than 
Evansville, the Crescent City of the Ohio River. We well remember 
once, in a spirit of pardonable enthusiasm, to have attempted a de- 
scription of its charms at night and as seen from the deck of one of our 
noble steamers: "The mantle of night had settled on the scene, and 
the rising, thriving, young Crescent City, with her ' hundred gas-jets 
beaming,' seemed, as we increased the distance between us, a picture 
from fairy-land instead of a reality. Quite romantic and bewildering 
is the view at night, as we pass down the river, around the bend and 
onward, Southward. It did seem to us that the rolling flood of the 
majestic Ohio — la belle riviere — had merely made this graceful curve, 
as if it longed to look upon a spot of so much beauty ere it journeyed 
on in its unceasing travel to the remorseless sea. Bending like the 
curve of a Mussulman's scimeter, with a myriad of lights reflected 
from its bosom, the city was indeed Oriental and Crescent-like, and one 
might well add in imagination the crescent-standard battalions of the 
Grand Sultan, and picture the hosts of Islam passing in view, yet by 
its shape alone does our beloved city claim the symbolic name of the 
Mahommedan, and we owe no obeisance to Saracenic j^oetry for the 

suggestion." 

POPULATION. 

In days immediately prior to the war Evansville advanced 
with regularity, and, as it will be seen by our historical sketch, 
up to the commencement of hostdities, it was a place of corapara- 



EVANSVILLE AS IT IS IN 1874. 63 

tive importance. Its greatest growth and increase in population, 
however, has been during those years intervening the close of the 
late struggle and the present time, and it has moved forward with 
bold impetus, not only in wealth and commercial and manufactur- 
ing magnitude, but in substantial and perceptible aggregation of 
resident population. In 1850, Evansville contained a population 
of 3,235, and in 1860, 11,486, being an increase of about two hun- 
dred and fifty per cent, in ten years. Estimating the increase for 
the next decade at just one-half that ratio, our population in 1870 
should have been 28,715. Imagine, though, the disappointment 
and, we may say, chagrin, the boastful citizen experienced in 
having those very liberal calculations cut down by the United 
States census taken for 1870 to only 21,830. In this connection, 
we may aa,y, too, that the census-taker is yet to see the light of 
earth who could give general satisfaction, and from this reason all 
census reports have been set down as notoriously imperfect. We, 
however, propose to be just a little charitable with the authorized 
enumerator, but to take sides with the people in this wa}^: In the 
first place, the Census Bureau, as at present conducted, is nothing 
short of a Government sinecure glaringly faulty and speculative 
in the extreme. The enumeration is usually made during the 
Summer months, at which time a large proportion of the urban 
population are "out of town." Their loss is never placed on the 
credit side of a community's numbers, nor do we find included in 
the reports many persons living in tenement houses, in back alleys, 
desultory dwellings, in basements, or in attics. In view of these 
facts, we propose selecting three plans of calculation in determin- 
ing the present population in the city, and while we deprecate 
those comparisons which are proverbially "odious," we shall place 
sufficient confidence in the general correctness and utility of the 
figures to give them a place in this department of our report, ask- 
ing for them a careful consideration as to plausibility : 

First — According to the official vote cast in October, 1872, at 
the State election, in the eleven precincts of the city proper, there 
were 5,565 votes polled. Estimating six inhabitants to each vote 
(instead of seven, as is customary), we have a total population of 
33,390. 

Secondly — According to the official report of Mr. E. P. Hooker, 
County Superintendent of Public Instruction, made in May, 1874, 
the total number of white and colored children between six and 



64 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

twenty-one years of age, in the County of Vanderburgh, was 
16,489. Total number in the city proper, 12,326. Then, calcu- 
lating two and seven-eighths inhabitants to eachj scholar, we are 
enabled to show by this means a total population of 35,438. 

Thirdly — Estimating 17,792 lots within the city limits (or 
eight lots to the acre,) and two inhabitants to each lot (in Chicago 
and Philadelphia the rule which holds is six inhabitants to each 
lot and ten lots to the acre,) the city affords accommodation for 
35.584 people, provided the ground were occupied by residences 
only. With a reasonable allowance for stores, lumber yards, 
parks, large manufacturing establishments and railroad dej)ots, 
and for the river wharves and unoccupied territory along the 
banks of Pigeon creek, the available room for residences certain- 
ly accommodates 40,000 people. If the past be any criterion, by 
which we can judge of the future, the year of 1880 will find a 
space equal to all of that within the present city limits entirely 
occupied, and our population up to that mark. Some, indeed, 
look for a more speedy realization of this result. 

There are a variety of means of J accounting for this gratify- 
ing growth, and observant Evansvillians will reapily believe it. 
The most prominent reason established in the fact that our manu- 
facturing interests having made such perceptible and gigantic 
strides of late, it has brought to us a greater addition in numeri- 
cal strength than could have been the case had our trade been 
merely and only of a commercial nature. I^evertheless, we 
chose to accept even our own figures only with a grain of con- 
sevvative salt, and to predict that the year 1880 will witness a 
bona fide population in the city of Evansville of 50,000 souls. 
Now, observe that we do not resort to the trick of percentage — a 
very untrustworthy method — since it is a less feat for a small 
town to grow twenty-five, fifty, or one thousand per cent., than 
for a great city to do the same. But having by three different 
rules of calculation found an absolute addition to the city's popu- 
lation of 12,962 souls, which added to the Federal census, gives us 
an averaged population of 34,792, may we not fjiirly and not un- 
greedily figure the increase the next six years commensurate 
with that of the past four — Jcalculating for the contribution of 
the countrj^ to the city, added to the city's own recruiting power 
by births — and the locality is certainly favorable to fecundity — 
legitimately entitling us to prognosticate the better half of a 
hundred thousand at the close of the next decade? 



EVANSVILLE AS IT IS IN 1874. 65 

THE MATKIMONIAL OUTLOOK. 
Evansville, it would seem, is also a good place at which to "marry," 
provided, of course, the applicant is of suitable age, comes well- 
recommended, is good-looking, sensible, industrious and possesses a fair 
modicum of this world's goods and chattels — though these jireliminary 
qualifications are generally settled by the parties most interested, and we 
have nothing to do with the business only in a statistical form to pre- 
sent the city's advantages in this light. From September 1st, 1873 to 
September 1st, 1874, the total number of marriage licenses issued by 
the County Court Clerk was 455. The number of divorce suits dock- 
eted for the last term of the Court was less than thirty, which proves 
conclusively, notwithstanding Indiana has a slanderous reputation abroad 
for unhappy matrimonial alliances, a gratifying percentage of those 
who copartnership their joys and sorrows, travel the rugged paths of 
life in full accord and sympathy. 

CHARACTEKISTICS OF THE PEOPLE. 
The native of Evansville is not the lank, lean, sad, intense, 
subjective Yankee, nor the dilatory, fatty, undemonstrative dul- 
lard of Pennsylvania, nor yet the haughty, erect and quick-tem- 
pered gentleman from the Southern States, who preserves his 
otiu?n cum dignitate and sauvity so well until you intimate doubt 
of his veracity, when he is ready to meet you according to the 
"code" and ''settle matters" most decisively; but he is always 
florid, plethoric, laborious, well-fed, jolly and complacent. He 
works like a dray-horse in daylight, and is a profound sleeper at 
night ; open, loquacious, liberal he patronizes " church festivals" 
and while yet abeau congregates in scores at "club-dances." He is 
gallant to the ladies, attentive to strangers, and all in all, a "deuced 
clever fellow." He loves self-reliance as the Son of Erin loved 
solitude, id est, with his crony or his sweetheart. He is not a 
ge?mine Evansvillian unless he dines at noon, whether he is a la- 
borer or a banker, and he manages to get away with three square 
meals per diem. Just let the noon bells tap and the whistles 
shriek the hour of mid-day and you see him instanter making a 
bee line for refreshments for the inner man. He frequently 
wears a respectable moustache, generally shaves his chin, never 
wears gloves during business hours, always keeps the sidewalk, 
owns his turnout, which sometimes being a basket phseton he 
permits his matronly and excellent better half to drive down and 
escort him homeward ; is an irreclaimable literary client of the 
9 



66 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

" Courier " or "Journal," or "Herald," or if he be a German of 
the " Demokrat" or " Union ;" he takes great interest in poli- 
tics, but never allows public matters to interfere with business ; 
always goes to church on Sunday; and during the week patron- 
izes amusements of first-class and acknowledged merit; in short, 
he is ever on the alert and prone to do things that will promote 
the city's interest and glorify her commercial condition. Such a 
people are necessarily practical, since the executive faculty under 
such conditions is too importunate for work to allow attention to 
what is not visibly practical. It is attributable to such charac- 
teristics, perhaps, that our city has progressed and prospered as it 
has, for undoubtedly a fair degree of the very best enterprise of 
the country is seated at Evansville. 

STREET SYSTEM. 
According to the official report of a survey made by Jas. D. Saun- 
ders, City Engineer, March, 1874, the entire length of bowldered 
streets within the corporate limits of the city was 3.0232 miles; length 
of improved graveled streets, 4.932 ; length of paved alleys, 4.0261. The 
approximate cost of these thoroughfares has been more than one-half 
million of dollars. There are within the city bounds possibly seventy- 
five miles of streetage, but the above estimate is only made for those 
thoroughfares in the central and more densely populated quarters. 
The main business streets are bowldered, while those leading through 
residence sections have a body formed from common river gravel Avith 
a top coating of bank gravel, constituting a smooth, durable highway 
and of much less cost than the bowlder system. There are in the city 
about 130 streets. All of those in the original plan of the city of 
Evansville are 60| feet wide each. Main street is 76 feet 4 inches, 
and Fulton avenue 100 feet wide. Franklin street and Wabash ave- 
nue are each 120 feet wide. Fulton avenue and Franklin street are 
the leading thoroughfares to the superbly graveled County Eonrl < which 
extend out into the country for many miles, affording attractive boule- 
vards for the pleasure seeker. First street leads to the Henderson and 
Lower Mt. Vernon Roads; Franklin street, to the Upper Mt. Vernon, 
New Harmony and Cynthiana Roads ; Fulton avenue, to the Kratz- 
ville Road ; Main street, to the Stringtowu and McCutchanville Roads, 
and Eighth street, via Lincoln avenue, to the Newburg and Boonville 
Roads. 



EVANSVILLE AS IT IS IN 1874. 67 

THE DECIMAI* PLAN. 
In March, 1873, an excellent plan for the renumbering of all the 
houses in the city and for revising the names of certain streets — dupli- 
cates, triplets and those bearing the same name even oftener — was 
adopted by the City Council. It was decided that Division street 
(formerly the line between Evansville and Lamasco), be made the base 
line of the city, dividing North and South, and Fulton avenue the line 
dividing East and West, and all houses numbered on the "Decimal 
Plan," beginning at the river, and similar to the plan now in use in 
Philadelphia, St. Louis and other large cities. This decimal plan may 
be explained in this way : Beginning at Water street and ending at 
First — the next thoroughfare parallel — all of the houses are numbered 
within the first hundred, the even numbers on the left and odd num- 
bers on the right — the whole numbers designating down stairs, half 
numbers up stairs. It will, however, occur that there are not one hun- 
dred houses actually in the square, but to avoid confusion to strangers 
and others, and to preserve regularity and system, when First street is 
crossed the second hundred begins and runs up to Third street, and so 
on; so that if we wish to find a house located, for instance, at No. 666 
Main street, having first ascertained that Main street is a cross street, 
we know that the object of our search is on the left side of the street, 
somewhere between the sixth and seventh hundred, down stairs, conse- 
quently is located between Sixth and Seventh streets, and, therefore, find 
it without much trouble. In the Upper District the streets running- 
parallel with the river, and counted after Water street, are as follows : 
First, Second, Third, Fourth, &c., running out to the suburbs, as 
far as Ninteenth street. The cross streets in the Lower District, 
coming in regular order next to Division, are as follows : Elm, Ingle, 
Pine, Clark, Leet, Goodsell and Walker, stopping with Fulton avenue. 
The principal cross streets in the Upper District, coming in succession 
after Division, are as follows : Vine, Sycamore, Main, Locust, Wal- 
nut, Chestnut, Cherry, Oak, Canal, Mulberry, Gum, Linden, Chandler 
and Powell streets, and Washington, Adams, Jefferson and Madison 
avenues. In Lamasco or the Lower District proper, the streets take 
the names of the States. Beginning at the river they run as follows : 
Alabama, Delaware, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, then comes 
Franklin street, after which : Michigan, Virginia, Iowa, Vermont, Co- 
lumbia, Maryland, Oregon, Missouri, Louisiana, Nevada, Florida, 
Georgia and Tennessee. West side of Fulton avenue in regular order 
and running parallel therewith, are Fifth, Sixth and Seventh avenues, 



68 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

then comes Pigeon Creek, after which, Eighth, Ninth, Wabash, Tenth, 
Eleventh and Twelfth avenues. East side of Fulton avenue we have 
Fourth, Third, Second and First avenues, Oakley, Edgar, Mary and 
Harriet streets; Washington and Baker avenues; Main street, ELsas 
and Heidelbach avenues and Market, Center and Garvin streets. These 
are the principal streets in the city, 

SEWERAGE SYSTEM. 
The system of Sewerage in the city is very fine, and certainly 
enough money has been expended in this way to render Evans- 
ville a modern Eome in the celebrity of her aqueducts and capa- 
bilities for drainage. Indeed, it has been said, that our ambitious 
" City Fathers" have for years striven to see how effectually they 
could drain the city in this way, and large sums have been thrown 
out in our sewerage systenls which, when completed, will be in- 
ferior neither in extent or value to those of any Western city. It 
has been often remarked, notwithstanding the beautiful elevated 
site of the city, that there is scarcely a foot of ground in her limits 
of the proper grade, all property having either been cut down or 
filled up. On March Ist, 1874, the total length of Sewers in the 
city was 8.062-1 miles, and built at a cost of S280,240. Since that 
time they have been extended to a total length of more than nine 
miles, and have cost more than $300,000. The plan of construc- 
tion is what is commonly called in England the egg-shaped, and 
is built of hard-burnt paving brick laid in hydraulic cement. Thus 
affording substantial works free from leakage, and proving of in- 
estimable good in protecting the sanitary status of the inhabit- 
ants and removing all offensive garbage, refuse matter and breed- 
ers of malaria. 

THE PARKS OF EVANSVILLE. 

The Park system of Evansville has as yet less interest in an artistic 
or aesthetic point of view than in a business point of view. In this 
respect Parks differ diametrically from People ; that is the Park de- 
velops the poetical element only as it becomes old — like old wine in old 
bottles — while its youth is all hard, practical and speculative. This 
much we write, because, as yet, our Park system is shamefully and 
undeniably embryo tic ; nay, has hardly local significance or nomen- 
clature — and none of the public resorts, or places of public resort, have 
been finished or made in anywise artistically attractive; no, not even 
so much as by a decent driveway or promenade. Therefore, while on 
the subject, and penning what will become history, our province may 



EVANSVILLE AS IT IS IN 1874. 69 

include suggestions, and inasmuch as the body politic — the sweltering 
population, individually and collectively, take position with us, we lift 
up our voice for this as well as future generations, and plead with those 
in authority, by all the powers of creation and re-creation, to give us 
room for respiration — give us breathing places, or we will have no use 
for breath — in a breath let the historian coming after us record a hap- 
pier and bettered condition in the number and magnificence of our 
pleasure grounds in the city, which already boasts of much that is at- 
tractive and pleasing in divers and sundry other quarters. Four blocks 
have been reserved in different parts of the city, which, in time, will 
make popular resorts if they are properly arranged and beautified. 
They are located as follows : 

Western Park occupies a block 400x250 feet large, bounded by 
Wabash avenue, Franklin street, Illinois street and Tenth avenue. 

Lamasco Park is of the same size and is bounded by Fourth avenue, 
Franklin street, Fulton avenue and Michigan street. 

Central Park is a small tract of two acres in regular figure, bound- 
ed by First and Second avenues, Pennsylvania and Indiana streets. 

Sunset Park is a triangular piece of property located on a high 
bluff" in the upper portion of the city. Although small, it is suscept- 
ible of much ornamentation. It begins on Water street midway be- 
tween Oak and Cherry and terminates at the river below Chestnut 
street, in a very acute angle. 

In addition to the foregoing, there are quite a number of hand- 
some groves and woodlands in convenient proximity to the city, to 
which the people frequently resort for sylvan enjoyment and rural 
abandon. The more prominent of these are as follows : 

Parrett's Gri'ove and Blackford's Grove are both situated in the 
southeastern environs of the city. The latter is a lovely spot. 26f 
acres large, and without doubt should be secured by the city for 
park purposes. In the Blankenburg locality another splendid 
woodland could be made very desirable for the same use. Ee- 
cently movements have been on foot to convert the Old Mulberry 
Street Cemetery, now abandoned, into a public park, and similar 
steps were taken towards the establishment of a splendid boule- 
vard along Canal Street, the only obstacle appearing in the 
question of title, the property being claimed by landholders of 
adjacent premises. The plan proposed for the improvement of 
Canal Street, if successful, would result in a magnificent series of 
carriage-ways, promenades, etc., certainly very beautiful and in- 
viting. 



70 EVANS VILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

The private gardens of the city are quite numerous — the 
Crescent City Springs Park, in the western portion of the city be- 
ing first in point of excellence, and of which proper mention will 
be made elsewhere. 

THE ENVIRONS. 

We have before remarked the thickly populated condition of 
the suburbs, in each direction, each quarter possessing some ele- 
ments of beauty and attractiveness. Property, consequent upon 
the large influx of population that Bvansville has received in the 
past few years, has so increased in value, that space has become a 
costly luxury, only to be enjoyed by the more extravagant. In 
fact, many persons who constitute a moving power, and a large 
proportion of our commercial and manufacturing world, are com- 
pelled to seek houses in some one of the many suburban villages 
that cluster around the metropolis and are vitalized by its prox- 
imity. Therefore, the daily emigration and exodus is large. 
These villages are located as follows: 

Independence is that portion of the incorporated city, west 
of Pigeon Creek. 

Springdale lies north of the Crescent City Springs, and east 
of Pigeon Creek. 

Blankenburg is one-fourth mile north of Springdale. 

Walker's Addition is immediately east of Blankenburg. 

Next to the east are the Gferman Building Association, Hein- 
lein's Addition, Morgan's Addition, and Decker's Addition. 

Rockwell is situated north of Columbia Street and west of 
First Avenue. 

Jacobsville and Mill's Enlargement are north of Columbia 
street, and situated between First and Baker avenues. 

Shanklin's Enlargement, Garvin's Addition and Broewer's 
Addition skirt the eastern side of the city. 

Babytown is west of the city, two and a half miles from the 
corporation line. 

Stringtown or Mechanicsville is two and a quarter miles north 
of the corporation limits, and is accessible by the Main street ex- 
tension. 

McCutchanville is located in the " Blue Grass region," four 
miles from the city via Main street. 

Kratzville is four miles northwest from the city, and is reached 
via Fulton avenue. 



EVANSVILLE AS IT IS IN 1874. 71 

Goodsellville is the southeastern portion of the city adjoining 
Blackford and Parrett's Groves. 

Auburn is an enlargement recently laid out on Lincoln ave- 
nue, one-quarter mile from the city limits, southeasterly. 

KEALTY AND ITS VALUE. 

[t is now twenty-seven years since our city was organized, at 
which time its entire valuation in real and personal property was 
only $901,324, and the taxes assessed $3,319 97. The valuation of 
this year is $24,758,355 00, and the grand total of taxes $405,264 00, 
a growth in values bordering on the marvelous, the increase for 
the last two or three years being at or near the rate of two million 
dollars per annum. But a careful consideration of the nature and 
extent of the territory accessible to Evansville, naturally tribu- 
tary to it, and annually making it more and more the base of its 
supplies, will show this increase is an inevitable result, and con- 
vince those who are prone to prognosticate a check or decline in 
the city's growth, or any who may doubt its certain prosperity, 
they are arguing from false premises, and will not from the na- 
ture of things, see the fulfillment of their forebodings. The vast 
extent of territory lying west and south of this point already 
trading with Evansville is wealthy, productive and inviting. It 
is fast filling up with a nation of energetic men, producers of ag- 
ricultural wealth, but consumers alone, of many if not all the 
articles that go to make up the manufactured values of a city — 
and the gateway now opened, and the market now ready, from 
which, by converging lines of trade, these multitudes must be sup- 
plied is Evansville. It will thus be seen that the immense move- 
ment the past year in Real Estate operations has not its basis in 
mere speculative excitement. In 1862, there were 264 sales of 
Eeal Estate in the city, the total amount of which was $298,647. 
In 1872, just a decade, there were 653 sales, with a total value of 
$1,423,963. For the year ending September Ist, 1874, less than 
two years, the sales numbered 814, aggregating $2,307,562. Real 
Estate is unlike everything else. The merchant fails, his effects 
are sold out, and that closes the concern. The banker's bills are 
discredited, hig door is closed and his goods divided among creditors 
as fierce as famine and as hungry as the grave. And this is the 
end of him. But the immovable acre, which is worth a thousand 
dollars, may be sold over and over again, until it has counted its 
millions. Doubtless a portion of this amount has been duplicated. 



72 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

or it may have been invested where there will be no immediate 
returns, or perhaps a positive loss in the future. It is so in any 
business, conducted with the greatest care, and in the most healthy 
and legitimate manner, and cannot, therefore, be used as a con- 
clusive argument against the entire advance in value of this 
property. 

But some one will say that there is no trade in Evansville to 
justify a high degree of prosperity or to insure much more wealth 
for years to come. How fallacious and flimsy such illogical argu- 
ment. Why, if we merely take those sections of Indiana, Illinois, 
Kentucky and Tennessee, acknowledging the commercial suprem- 
acy of Evansville, and buying their merchandise in this market 
alone, we have a territory representing a larger and more fertile 
country than the combined States of New England, and would 
itself sustain a city five times the population of Evansville in its 
present position. Add to that the demands of our customers in 
Missouri. Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas, 
with immeasurable resources and wonderful capacities, and what 
shall be said of the future ? And so the actual experience of the 
past is the best criterion on which to predicate the possibilities of 
the future. 

Pertinent to the subject we reprint an extract from the Evans- 
ville Courier of May 2, 1874, which presents quite a contrast to the 
Aladdin-like richness and mushroom enhancement of Eeal Estate 
in Chicago, Indianapolis and other cities of that ilk. The Courier 
says: 

" Real Estate has no fanciful or feverish values here, raised by rings of 
speculators. Good lots can he had for from $5100 to $1,500, according to loca- 
tion and improvements. There has been a steady advancement in the value of 
property with each successive year. Some vast tracts in the suburbs of the city 
are held by foreign capitalists, and they have no doubt found it a profitable in- 
vestment. There has, hovi^ever, been but little speculation outside of purely 
legitimate channels. Property is regarded here by all as certain to pay hand- 
somely, and there are splendid opportunities for investments of all kinds." 

Therefore, we do not look for any permanoit decline in the 
value of city property ; rather for a large appreciation. Prices 
have advanced moderately and steadily of late, the principal ad- 
vance being in those portions of the city rendered accessible by 
the newly constructed horse railroads. The demand is made 
mostly for active use and occupation. The largest class of pur- 
chases was among our merchants and manufacturers, whose 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 73 



THOMAS. E. GARVIN, 

ATTORNEY AT LAW 

AND 

Real Estate Agent, 

MQ). 11)4 ipp©r Ttiird Street, 

EVANSVILLE, D7D. 



Attorney and Counselor at Law, and 



f 

OFFICE, No. 30e TUXItO ST., 

Between Main and Locust, 

BVANSVILLB, INI), 

J. P, ELLIOTT, 

Pioneer Real Estate Agent, 

AND GENERAL AUCTIONEER, 

Nos, 24: and 26 South Third St., 

Near Locust, 

Evansville, Ind, 

10 



74 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

profits in business was sufficiently large to enable them to make 
investments of their surplus capital in residence property suita- 
ble to their requirements and tastes, and many of our smaller 
dealers, also, mechanics and laborers, finding their conditions im- 
proved, have been able to purchase premises before occupied by 
them under rent, thus insuring us a steady resident population. 
In addition, there was a gratifying demand for sites suitable for 
business and manufacturing purposes, of a character which will 
largely contribute to the future progress of the city. But our 
territory is unlimited and there is plenty of building room left. 
For ourself, we have at least as much confidence in the future of 
Evansville as in that of any city of the West, excepting Cincin- 
cinnati, Chicago and St. Louis only. We believe these three cities 
are each to see rapid growth for the next decade over that even of 
the past. But is there not such a thing as an over-grown citj'', 
with cramped energies and restricted possibilities? This seems 
quite plausible, inasmuch as the country in the immediate locali- 
t}^ of those cities is very near, if not quite fully developed, and 
property has attained its maximum price, while Evansville on the 
other hand is trading with territory sparse!}^ settled and unim- 
proved, but quite ready to bud and blossom like the rose, when- 
ever thrifty and industrious people shall seize the golden chances 
of fortune, and unfold its hidden treasures. This rose-colored 
view is sufficiently proven in the steady enhanced value of pro- 
perty in our city for the past few years, contrasted with the fancy 
Real Estate delirium that has prevailed in other localities. It is 
the opinion too, of gentlemen, resident in Evansville for many 
years, that if we take any city lot at its regular price and erect 
buildings thereujion corresponding in value with the realty, in 
every instance the value has advanced to bank interest imme- 
diately — provided, of course, the lot and building are judioionsly 
planned and laid out. We do not honestly believe eiliu i of the 
other cities mentioned can boast the sanie condition. So with all 
their precedence of capital and population, the chances for profita- 
ble investments are very much in favor of our own city, and we 
would sooner take our risk with an equal amount at present valua- 
tion of a venture here, than in either of the other localities. We 
want moneyed men from all sections to consider the facts and 
claims we have set forth, having a view to the purchase of pro- 
perty or doing business in this city, and to others looking to this 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 75 



ALVAH JOHNSON, 

Real Estate and Collecting 

Houses, Lots and Farms Sold, BougJit and Ttented. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN to PROPERTY of NON-RESIDENTS 

0ffic9, 332 Upper Third Street, 

EVANSYILLB, IND. 

^Refers to any business Man in Evansville. 



J. G. & G. W, Shankli 



N 



General Real Estate Dealers, 



OFFICE, IN 



irth© (0®(iflff*a(iJ» (B(!fl3y35iiia 



Proprietors of Blankenburg, and Special I -w-v 11 t 1 • 

Agents for the Sale of Lots in ll VanSVlUe. llldiana 

Shanklin's Enlargement. | xj v cino v niv. , xinaiaild^ 



76 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

point as a market or a base of supply. We say, in all candor and 
fairness, we have made only such statements, as to its advantages, 
as we believe ar« fully warranted by the facts and facilities offer- 
ed them in Bvansville. 

Before leaving this interesting feature in our city's devel- 
opment, there remain additional facts that fit in here quite 
appropriately. It has been remarked by us prior to this 
department, that the city is situated on an elevated plain, but 
it is not generally known that that portion bordering on Water 
Street has been graded down some ten or fifteen feet, so that what 
was once the cellars to the buildings along that thoroughfare are 
now the first floors. In those quarters of the city most thickly 
settled the streets run northeast and southwest, and northwest 
and southeast, but the more recent Additions and Enlargements 
have been been more regularly laid out, and the streets run north 
and south, and east and west, cutting each other at right angles. 
These recent Additions are also decided improvements over those 
ot earlier days. The lots in size in each Enlargement correspond- 
ing with the nature of the grounds, and varying in width from 25 
to 75 feet front and extending back 100 to 150 feet. Each square 
has spacious alleys, neatly paved and guttered, affording great 
convenience and accessibility to stables and other out-buildings, 
and so far as this feature of stables, etc., is concerned, we doubt, if 
any city in the country can present neater specimens, nearly all 
of the mbeing constructed of brick, and in style, assimilating in 
neatness to the residences to which they belong. 

It is difiicult to form an opinion of the value of realty in Ev- 
ansville, by a comparison with other cities, the circumstances sur- 
rounding and the influences governing our condition and that of 
others being so vastly different. We would not, in all candor, 
think of comparing the value of our property here with that of 
any Western city, except Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis, and 
yet to rate Evansville in the same category with those great cen- 
tres of wealth and trade, might evoke a smile from our "big sis- 
ters " and gain for us hints at possession of an undue amount of pre- 
sumption, to say nothing of a fling at egoism and vaulting ambition 
m a fledgling from envious rivals and sore-head " towns " who 
have frequently of late attempted to overshadow our growth by 
disparaging criticisms and publications. The value of lots in the 
best business portions of the city vary fromj$300 to $600 per foot 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 



77 



H. E. Read & Co. 



'^Im in 










AM 



No. 221 Locust Street, 



EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 



Buy and Sell Real Estate; 

Rent Houses; 
Pay Taxes for Non-Residents, &e. 



78 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

front ; other business property from $100 to $300 per foot front. 
The best residence lots sell at from $60 to $150 per foot front, and 
thence down from $60 to $8 per foot front, according to its close 
proximity to, or remoteness from the business centres. Evansville 
has between sixty and seventy Additions and Enlargements, and 
to go into detail concerning them would be too tedious and fail to 
reward the peruser. The principal streets in the city, as we have 
shown, are bowldered, and have stone or brick guttering on the 
sides, and brick pavements. In the suburbs graveled streets and 
plank sidewalks are the order, but these are being improved upon 
as rapidly as possible — many localities which only a few years 
since lay in " commons," or open fields, having come into market. 
Gradual changes are also being made in the denser portions 
of the city, as the aggressive war of commerce is rapidly encroach- 
ing on the precincts of fashion ; and localities that but a few years 
ago were only inhabited by families of the wealthier classes, have 
gradually descended from that aristocratic status. At first, they 
become changed into middle-class dwellings, then into fashionable 
boarding-houses or restaurants, and at length metamorphosed into 
retail tailoring or millinery establishments. Within the past few 
years, large retail dry goods and grocery houses have sprung up, 
where previously many of our oldest and wealthiest families re- 
sided. This is princijjally the case with First, Second and Locust 
streets ; and those thoroughfares already show signs of succumbing 
to ambitious owners of retail establishments, and tradesmen who 
seem determined to push their business places to the very verge of 
the most aristocratic quarters. Fashion, like a spoiled child, mak- 
ing houses of sand pn the sea-shore, sees, with petulance, the rising 
tide of commerce washing away its cherished playthings, and 
compelling it to remove further away. First street, between Syca- 
more and Division, within the past two years has been completely 
engulfed, and now bristles in grand array with its metropolitan 
brick, stone and iron warehouses, colossal, massive and elegant. 
Third street, which formerly was the "ilircadian Shades " for legal 
lights, has been invaded by retail dealers and fruiterers, while the 
cheerful songs and clink of glasses in a dozen Bier Hallen drown 
forensic eloquence and establish the supremacy of King Gambrinus 
in that quarter. Property in the vicinity of the various railroad 
depots, is undergoing a rapid conversion ; and the number of 
mean-looking houses are becoming "beautifully less and smaller 



EVANSVILLE AS IT IS IN 1874. 79 

by degrees," as the premises are required for thrifty dealers, 
freight offices, etc. Indeed, everything is on the upward march, 
and "business centers" are neither few nor far between. 

Additional points of interest concerning this .subject might 
be introduced, but we have already consumed the space allotted, 
and therefore would conclude by referring all inquirers, whether 
in the city or abroad, to the following gentlemen engaged in the 
purchase or sale of realty, for any informatien that we may have 
failed to touch upon: Victor Bisch, No. 221 Upper Third street; 
VVillard Carpenter, No. 4 Carpenter street, corner of Third ; J. P. 
Elliott, 824 Upper Third street ; Thos. E. Garvin, 314 Upper Third 
street; Alvah Johnson, 332 Upper Third street; Fred. Lunkenhei- 
mer, 211^ Upper Third street; John J. Marlett, Jr., Washington 
Block, corner Main and Third streets ; Hiram E. Kead & Co., No. 
221 Locuststreet; Jas. B. Eticker, 306 Upper Third street; J. G. & 
G. W. Shanklin, Courier Building, 308 ajid 310 Second street, and 
Jesse W. Walker, 211| Upper Third street. 

THE ONWARD MARCH OF ARCHITECTURE. 
A thousand indications are that Evansville has long since 
emerged from its village life, and stepped boldly into the serious 
purposes and responsibilities of a great city. But there is, per- 
haps, no one particular in which the unmistakable evidences of 
advance and improvement, during the past few years, and for the 
past twelve months for that matter, are more plainly discernible 
than in the style of architecture adopted in our buildings. And, 
perhaps, there is no other feature that denotes more truthfully, a 
city's gain in wealth and civilization, than the ornate and improv- 
ed condition of her structures. For this reason then, we hold 
that the solid and substantial character which this city is now as- 
suming in its architectural beauties is but the heritage and legiti- 
mate product of its prosperity and ripening power. The building 
operations during the past two years have been nothing short of 
the marvelous and exceed those of any ten years previous to 1872. 
In this time First Street, our great avenue of commerce, has even 
improved so that it now rivals any business street in any city of 
the West, indeed, it is lined with stores so elegant, massive and 
imposing that they would not look out of place in the grandest 
thoroughfares of New York, whose stores are palaces. 

This future of our progress is spoken of in the Evansville 
Courier, May 2, 1874, in the following language, which we intro- 
duce to give additional proof of our own observations : 



80 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

"The present building season is only about one-third over, and yet our con- 
tractors and architects have been engaged for work till the end of the season, 
while building material can scarcely be manufactured to meet the steady de- 
mand. At the opening of the present season, it was predicted that the iinancial 
stringency would affect our building operations disastrously, butj such has not 
been the case. On the other hand it will even show much larger results. In 
addition to the large business blocks being erected, the number of private resi- 
dences going up was never in numbers so great as in the present season. This 
is attested by all persons who are associated with this department of business. 
At least two millions and a half dollars will be expended in buildings alone this 
season. A list of these blocks and houses, which we have secured, would cover 
four columns of this copy of the Courier. We have passed that period of de- 
velopment when all buildings are constructed for use without regard to the 
beauties of architecture or the satisfaction of taste, and the city rejoices in scores 
of private residences which are perfect models of beauty and taste. In the rapid 
manner in which the city grew, no attention was paid to these essential elements 
in making a city attractive and beatiful, but that era has been passed, and in 
the next three years even greater progress will be made." 

Since the Courier's account was published, the spii'it of construc- 
tion has ke]Dt up with unflagged ardor and moved forward like a tri- 
umphant army panoplied with success and seemingly determined to rest 
not until " cloud cap't towers and gorgeous palaces" should crown every 
quarter. Turn this Avay, or that, in the central part of the city, or 
among its more scattering and long-drawn-out suburbs, new buildings 
are everywhere climbing skyward — new from "turret to foundation 
stone" — from "cornice to cavazione," or the old ones remodeled and 
resurrected in such a manner the most familiar habitue would not re- 
cognize them, if returning to the city after a few months' absence. Im- 
provement, in its strictest sense, is now the order of the day, and a most 
animated rivalry appears to have sprung up among property-holders. 
So that throughout the long and sultry Summer days, so dull and list- 
less in other places, one might have said the ring of the troAvel and the 
music of the hammer with us is " the voice of the turtle ivhich is heard 
in our land." It is then peculiarly gratifying to note that the fine 
structures now rising in our city are not confined to the "exclusive" 
portions within its boundary, but, on the contrary, are spreading in all 
directions; and like signs of progress may be seen at the north, south, 
east and west sides, as well as in the more retired and fashionable dis- 
tricts. Comfort, convenience and beauty in residences are the main 
points sought after ; and appropriateness, adaptation, elegance and 
"show" in business houses. Massive, colpssal residences, fronted with 
cut-stone and surmounted by the Mansard roof, and built with all re- 
gard to modern architectural advantages, with lovely exteriors and 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 81 



J. K. FRICK & CO., 



ArchitectsSi Superintendents 



No. 7i Upper First Street, 



EVAJSrSVILLB, OD. 



Plans for Churches. School Houses, Store and Court Houses, Jails, Dwell- 
ings, Suburban and Country Cottages, &c., carefull}' prepared at short notice. 



Being practical Architects of twenty-live years in business, parties caia 
rely on getting work well executed. 



10 



82 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

palatial interiors, frescoed and gilded, and constructed with every pre- 
caution against fire are to be met with everywhere; and these take the 
place of the less pretentious houses, displaying an almost utter negation 
of ornament, in which the early Evansvillians were wont "to live, and 
move, and have their being." And a most noticeable revolution, too, 
is going on among our business houses, the squatty one and two story 
bricks, and the rattle-trap frame "shebangs" — pardon the ugly j^hrase 
— in which our merchants long years ago grew sleek and fat and rich 
and careless, are making room for more modern and superb structures, 
three, four and five stories high, elaborately ornamented and beautified, 
and rich and costly in their designs. Wood fronts, too, are giving place 
to splendid press brick, chiseled stone or solid iron, and the severest 
simplicity — nay, ugliness, speaking of parsimony — has been superseded 
by elegance, lightness and beauty. More attention, as we have inti- 
mated, is being paid, too, to the purposes for which the building is be- 
ing erected — the construction and style being made to conform, so far 
as may be, to the peculiar branches of business for which it is intended. 
This revolution is mainly due to the presence in our midst of scientific 
and skillful architects and builders, who never fail to make a present- 
able job whenever room or any advantage in location is given them. 

Prom our own personal observations, and from conversations 
with architeets and builders on the subject, we feel entirely safe 
in estimating the number of houses erected or finished in the city 
and suburbs during the season of 1874, at fully five hundred. Of 
these the brick buildings will number one-half, including resi- 
dences, business houses, churches, factories and public buildings. 
These reckoned at ten thousand dollars each, (a very low esti- 
mate,) foots up the handsome sum of two and a half millions of dol- 
lars. The frames will average two thousand dollars each, which 
adds another half million, giving us a grand total oi three millions 
of dollars as the amount expended for the season's businr-s. And 
if we may be allowed to mention the St. George Hotel, which was 
finished the present year at a cost $200,000 ; the Grace Presbyte- 
rian Church, at a total cost of $64,000 ; Ragon Brothers Block, at 
$25,000 ; the Cotton Factory, at $40,000 ; two Public School Build- 
ings at $100,000, and two at $10,000 each, and numerous other 
buildings more than covering our average, we think the facts sus- 
tain us in our rose-hued remarks. 

Prognostications as to what will be accomplished in the com- 
ing year, may not be inapposite, especially so since predictions are 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 83 



J. A. VRYDAGH. L. S. CLARKE. 

VRYDAGH & CLARKE, 

A.H\CHITECTS AND SuPERJNTENDENTS 

Kvansville, Ind. 
Office, No. 301 i Main Street. 



ROBERT BOYD, 

Architect and Superintendent 

OfFice, Room 5 Marble Hall Building, 

No. 19 Main St., Evansville, Ind. 



84 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

already assuming the importance of established facts, and our 
builders are counting on the season of 1875 as the briskest epoch 
in building within the annals of the Crescent City. Already, be- 
fore the Fall has fairly set in, do we hear of several score of 
dwellings en prospectu, while the proposed erection of a magnifi- 
cent Custom House and Postoffice — the need of which is so sorely 
felt — the erection of a splendid new edifice in lieu of the present 
St, Paul's Episcopal Church, besides numerous manufactories, 
business houses, and residences undeniably betokens for Evans- 
ville grand steps in the advancing columns of architectural im- 
provement. This peep into the matter of building, brings to us 
recollection of the fact that a large majority of our residents oc- 
cupy their own dwelling places, and tenants are comparatively few. 
Bach man " sits under his own vine and fig tree," and the shriv- 
eled form of the greedy landlord never steps athwart his thres- 
hold to gather in his monthly stipend and snatch the crumbs of 
sustenance from the mouths of his little ones. But recently we 
have had large additions to our population, and many of them 
being unable to build immediately, a fine demand is made 
for good tenement dwellings neatly built, convenient in locality 
and moderate in rental. The suggestion for investments of this 
sort is therefore worth the consideration of capitalists, either at home 
or foreign. All such we take pleasure in referring to the following 
Architects of established reputation: Robt. Boyd, No. 19 Main street; 
Jos. K. Frick, & Co. , No. 7^ Upper First street ; Henry Mursinna, room 
3 Chandler's Block, Upper First street ; Vrydagh & Clarke, No. 301^ 
Main street. 

Mr. Robt. Boyd is the oldest established architect in the city, and 
the many admirable designs for public and private buildings made by 
him in this, and other cities near by, fully attests his skill in the pro- 
fession. 

To Messrs. Jos. K, Frick & Co. is due very much of the credit for 
inaugurating new styles of elegance and metropolitan features notice- 
able in many of the most elegant and costly structures in this section. 
They are modern, enterprising architects and fully up to the fastidious 
requirements of the age. 

Messrs. Yrydagh & Clarke, it will be remembered, were one 
of the successful competitors in designs for the great Centennial 
Building at Philadelphia. They have also formed plans for the 
State Capital at Indianapolis, which, if adopted, will add another 



ADVANTAGES FOR WHOLESALE TEADE. 85 

feather to their cap. Among the superb buildings designed by 
them in this section are the following: Indiana State Normal 
School, Terre Haute, Ind.; Asbury University, Grreencastle, Ind.; 
High School, Bvansville, Ind.; Odd Fellows Hall, Evansville, Ind.; 
Opera House, Terre Haute, Ind.; Lewis Block, Evansville, Ind.; 
Chas. Viele's Store Building, Evansville, Ind.; Mackey & Nesbit's 
Stores, Evansville, Ind.; Court House, (Lawrence County,) Bed- 
ford, Ind.; Court House, (Sullivan County,) Sullivan, Ind.; Court 
House, (Posey County,) Mt. Yernon, Ind.; St. George Hotel, Ev- 
ansville, Ind.; Eesidence Hon. Judge Asa Igleheart, Evansville; 
Eesidence G-eo. L. Dixoa, Esq., Evansville. 

Advantages for Wholesale Trade. 

In taking up this department of our labors, we propose demon- 
strating, so far as in our powers lie, the vantage-ground Evansville oc- 
cupies and the facilities she possesses for the conduct of a successful 
Commerce, not only respecting those articles of manufactured goods 
turned out from her industrial establishments, but to include all goods 
imported from other markets, whether of Domestic or Foreign produc- 
tion. We may possibly, in the course of our investigations, have to 
travel to some extent over the same ground mentioned more than once. 
If we do, and such assertions become "damnable iteration," so let it 
be, for it is only human nature, and of a commendable species of vanity 
to feel proud and even boastful over the possession of superior and 
crowning qualities. 

It is well known that prior to the war Evansville was pre-eminently 
the mart for supplies for the merchants of Southern and Central Indi- 
ana, and for some portions of Illinois and Kentucky. Since that time 
her territory ^has been extended and now embraces in addition the en- 
tire Southwestern portion of Kentucky, West Tennessee, North Mis- 
sissippi, North Alabama, Southeast Missouri, Arkansas, and sections of 
country along the Mississipj)i River, including Louisiana, and many de- 
partments extending even into the far off State of Texas. Our mam- 
moth establishments for the sale of dry goods, groceries, hardware, 
queensware, drugs and all the articles that go to make up a general 
merchandise trade, contain immense stocks of every description and 
are conducted by merchants of acknowledged probity, energy, intelli- 
gence and wealth — many of whom were engaged in business here pre- 
vious to the war, while a host of new houses have sprung up, increas- 



86 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTIJKES. 

ing competition and imparting renewed vigor to the sinews of trade, 
which were impaired by the terrible convulsions of civic strife. They 
have thus confidently entered the lists of commercial rivalry with the 
merchants of cities East or West, having themselves perfected arrange- 
ments with the manufactories of the United States, England, France 
and Germany, gaining facilities thereby of utmost importance. 

The very tact then, that they are able to compete with older 
markets — cities of greater wealth and population, as well as es- 
tablished reputation, certainly demonstrates possession of some 
wonderful influence or secret, explainable only, in our opinion, as 
commercial advantages. Our commercial agents in passing 
through the adjoining States, come face to face with di-ummers from 
Cincinnati, Louisville, Chicago and St. Louis. It has been said, 
that when " Greek meets Greek, then comes the tug of war," but 
we here proudly proclaim that our Greek has proven himself a 
veteran, and inscribed more victories on his commercial banner, 
by far, than defeats. He has been enabled not only to advance 
his linos into the disputed sections, but has established a cordon 
of friends, who from mutual interest, have fortified the posts and 
kept up uninterrupted communication with this, the great base of 
supplies. Therefore we propose indicating these commercial ad- 
vantages by advancing what we consider to be six cogent reasons 
why Evansville is the most desirable wholesale commercial mar- 
ket for the country merchant of this and adjoining States tribu- 
tary ; such reasons being indisputably argumentative of Evans- 
ville's XDotent advantage and prominent claims : 

Isc. Evansville is a Port of Entry. 

2nd. Our dealers buy directly from first hands ; and buying 
in as large quantities as almost any Eastern or Western jobbers, 
enables them to buy at as low rates. 

3rd. Evansville dealers select no goods that are not suited 
to the Southern and Western trade. 

4th. Evansville is two hundred miles nearer the consumptive 
section than any competing Western market, and one thousand 
miles nearer than the Eastern markets, . 

5th. The difference in rent; the difference in clerk hire and 
other mercantile expenses, as well as the advantage of more eco- 
nomical living, are decidedly in favor of Evansville. 

6th. Evansville sells as cheap as any Jobbing Market in 
America — transportation charges only added. 



ADVANTAGES FOE WHOLESALE TEADE. 87 

With respect to the first reason we shall explain some facts 
which are not generally understood. In ordering goods from a 
foreign country, a Port of Entry can receive or discharge under 
a direct importation, the custom charges being collected by the 
Surveyor of Customs for that Port. At Ports of Delivery the 
custom duties have to be paid immediately on ai'rival of goods, 
there being no bonded warehouse in which to store. A Port of 
Entry, therefoi'e, being always supplied with a fire-proof bonded 
warehouse, (the one in this city being acknowledged the best in 
the West of its size,) goods can be stored for one year and 6ustom 
duties paid only as the goods are taken out or required. On the 
olher hand, goods designed for a Port of Delivery are appraised 
at the seaboard, and the Importer is required to give bonds for 
double the amount of duties, all expenses attached, such as stor- 
age, cartage and commission being added to the invoice and pay- 
ment required on delivery. Say for instance, then, the Import- 
ing Merchant has no correspondent or banker at the seaboard, 
he is thei-efore necessarily annoyed, and possibly by the time the 
goods reaches his door, the demand which induced him to order 
has ceased, and he is thus left with an unsalable stock on hand. 
Frequently it occurs also, that the seaboard market, through jeal- 
ousy, throws obstacles in the way of a Port of Delivery by de- 
taining the importation unnecessarily long in the collection of 
commissions, so that the Western retail merchant, dealing with 
an Eastern Importer, has had his goods on the shelf or sold be- 
fore Western importations have been sent to their destination. 
This trouble, however, is evaded by a Port of Entry, and we are 
thus placed on the most favorable footing with the largest im- 
porting markets in America. And, again, if the Bvansville mer- 
chant's importations are heavy, he can, by paying necessary 
storage charges, allow his goods to remain in bond until required 
for his trade, thereby having had use of the money for twelve 
months, which is no small item when added to his prices. In this 
connection we may say that Indianapolis, being a Port of Delive- 
ry, receives a great proportion of her foreign goods through the 
Evansville Custom House. Goods for that city have been im- 
ported from Liverpool direct to Bvansville and placed in our Cus- 
tom House within thirty days, all freights to points of delivery 
not exceeding 5 per cent. 

The second reason we advance needs no fiirther argument. We 
assert it, and do not fear successful refutation ; but regarding the third 



88 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEKOE AND MANUFAOTUKES. 

we would remark that a majority ot the wholesale merchants of Evaiis- 
ville having spent the better portion of their lives in this section, and 
being entirely familiar with the peculiar tastes of the Southern and 
Western people, buy nothing that is not applicable to their wants ; 
whereas, on the other hand, the stock of the jobber in New York and 
other Eastern cities, is made up for the consumption of many different 
sections of country, varying in their tastes, habits and modes of life, 
and the retailer incurs all the labor of making his selections from this 
heterogeneous conglomeration. Formerly it was the custom of buying 
stocks only twice a year (Spring and Summer, and Fall and Winter), 
but this plan has been completely changed, and assortments are now 
kejit up by making purchases oftener, say every month or two, and the 
conclusion is that "old goods" are rarely, if ever, on hand, the articles 
are not handled in the store six months, are kept cleaner and brighter 
and more attractive. If, then, the retailer who visits New York and 
the East cannot afford to go oftener than twice a year, he suffers loss 
by being ''behind the fashion" if he does not go, and loses time and 
traveling expenses if he does go. If he is an experienced merchant, 
he may joerform the labor of selection without any serious detriment ; 
but even then it is labor, and consumes all the difference in profit he 
would gain by purchasing in a nearer market. If he is inexperienced, 
he is likely to be led into the purchase of goods which will prove en- 
tirely unsalable, and the loss thereto incident may prove a serious 
drawback upon the success of a whole season's business. Hence it is 
obvious that a purchaser of a miscellaneous stock, including everything 
adapted to the Avants of a rural town or city population in the Central 
South and Southwest, must be, when in Evansville, as near the most 
desirable market as it is possible for him to get. 

Proposing, as we do, to make a minute and detailed examination 
of the business facilities of Evansville — including Rail and River Trans- 
portation, Fast Freight Lines, etc., it would not be proper here to an- 
ticipate such ; but for the benefit of anxious mercantile inquirers, and 
to state what is not generally remembered we claim that we have the 
advantage in transportation, effected by the cutting of rates between 
these energetic rivals of great routes of traffic. The only practical 
question for a retailer to consider, then, is, whether it is probable he 
can make his purchases in the Evansville market as cheaply as in any 
other. This we assert he can do, and we leave it to the consideration 
of those who study and appreciate commercial economy. To our own 
personal knowledge it has already been forcibly and eloquently demon- 



ADVANTAGES FOK WHOLESALE TRADE. 89 

strated ; for several instances we could name, where, during the last 
seasons, country merchants from various Southern and Western States 
visited the East with the intention of laying in their supplies, returned 
toEvansvilleand "madeno bones of telling it," that Eva7isville offered 
more and better advantages than any of her competitors. 

It maybe again, as it has been, repeatedly, asserted by persons who 
are more apt to find fault with things they know nothing of, than to 
advance clear and decisive argument fortifying such assertions, that the 
inland situation of a city is an effectual barrier to commercial suprem- 
acy. Such talk is mere twaddle. The position of the chief commercial 
cities of the world — London on the Thames, Liverpool on the Mersey, 
and Paris on the Seine — proves conclusively that immediate proximity 
to the ocean is not essential to constitute a great commercial point — 
and although Evansville, contrasted with those places, occupies but an 
insignificant station, yet, if such arguments are advanced, it is quite 
within the rules to refute them as we have done. 

Is it not probable then, that the merchants of Evansville, in 
view of their advantages, consignments from abroad seeking 
their shelves, with abundance of capital and good credit, can buy 
and sell on terms as favorable as any of their competitors ? We 
have no doubt of this ; but we go further, and insist that those 
now doing business in Evansville have mistaken their vocation, 
unless, to responsible buyers, they actually do undersell all others. 
One reason we have for entertaining this opinion is. as we have 
before stated, that expenses for conducting business are less, here, 
than in almost any city of the United States, certainly less than 
in any city fighting for our trade. In the city of New York, the 
leading dry goods jobbing house pays, or recently did pay, as 
we are informed, an annual rent of $50,000 for their store ; and a 
prominent clothing firm pays, or did pay $40,000. The same rule 
will hold good to a great extent, in Philadelphia, Boston and 
other cities I^orth and East ; and although not near so great in 
Cincinnati, Louisville and other places nearer to us, yet undoubt- 
edly house-rent is a big item with them, while in Evansville, after 
diligent inquiry, we have not heard of a single house renting for 
more than $2,200; and from these and other circumstances, it 
would seem evident, without occular demonstration, that a mer- 
chant in Evansville can afford to sell at a per centage of profit, 
which, on the same amount of business, would not pay the ex- 
penses of his less favorably situated competitor. 

12 



90 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEECE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

These are the deductions of reason and common sense. Their im- 
portance, at least entitles them to consideration, reflection, and experi- 
ment; hence, we beg those who are engaged in buying and selling, in- 
asmuch as their mercantile success, and the prosperity of the mercan- 
tile class throughout the Central United States, depends upon the wis- 
dom of their action, to test the respective markets, fairly disregarding 
"baits" which are quite too common in all, and extending their view 
beyond exceptional circumstances ; and if there be an atom of truth in 
that principal of political economy, which demonstrates that the nearer 
the place of purchase, the cheaper the price, they will discover, as hun- 
dreds of thriving merchants have already done, that Evansville is 
THE Cheapest Seller and Natural Distributor of Merchandise 
adapted to the wants of her tributary sections in the entire 
Western country. 

There are a great many other local advantages that might be placed 
to the credit side of our account, but such as we have omitted here will 
be spoken of in detail in the following pages. A word, however, en 
passant. Probably the most perplexing dilemma throughout the whole 
course of our researches has been to properly define, or rather separate 
commercial branches properly from manufactures, inasmuch as very 
many houses engaged in the one branch are also conductors of the 
other. Those houses, however, strictly and solely devoted to manufac- 
turing will be found classified and described elsewhere, while those in- 
cluding both production and wholesale distribution immediately follow 
this introductory. Assuming that an alphabetical arrangement of the 
subjects would be more convenient for reference ; but, deeming it ad- 
visable to group together those which have practically some points of 
affinity, whether through identity of raw material or similarity in uses 
we come first to the Dry Goods Trade. 

Dry Goods— Wholesale. 

The trade in Dry G-oods must be nearly coeval with the hu- 
man race, Jfor clothing was'one of the earliest necessities of our first 
parents, and it could not have been long before they exchanged 
the skins of beasts for some more delicate covering. Anterior to 
the date of the first chapter of profane history, woolen and linen 
fabrics, curiously wrought and brilliantly dyed, were among the 
accumulated treasures of the wealthy, and formed part of the traffic 



DRY GOODS— WHOLESALE. 91 

of the mei-chant. The tribes of Israel took the art of making 
" fine-twined linen," as well as woolen garments, which had a 
"warp and woof," and straight "selvedge," with them out of 
Egypt ; and afterwards, in Solomon's time, yarn was largely im- 
ported into Judea from the land of the Philistines, where the 
flax-plant is idigenous. At what time the Dry Goods trade be- 
came fixed as a distinct branch of merchandise, it is difficult to 
determine. The Romans had seperate mechanical and mercantile 
fraternities, (collegia et corpora opijicuni) from which the moaern 
guilds, first traceable in the Tenth Century have descended. But the 
Dry Groods trade, as at present organized, is of quite recent date, 
neither the importer, commission merchant, jobber or retailer, 
having confined himself to the sale of Dry Goods alone, until 
within a few years. Considered as a branch of commerce now, 
this trade is the most important of any existing in this country. 
It controls an immense amount of capital, employs almost an 
army of persons, and distributes, perhaps, a greater value of com- 
modities than any other branch of mercantile pursuit. We might 
go further, and say that the Dry Goods Trade is the grand center, 
the rallying point of almost all other departments, for in every 
village or hamlet, wherever commerce has a footing, the trades- 
man who adorns his shelf with a few bolts of calicoes, or (lomestics, 
or jeans and linseys, is dignified into the importance of a Dry 
Goods Merchant, 

Notwithstanding the seemingly exhaustless variety of articles 
embraced in an assortment of Dry Goods, the whole stock may be 
classed under five heads, viz : Woolens, Cottons, iSilks, Linens and 
Miscellaneous, the last, however, frequently forming a branch of 
itself. If we were permitted, much interesting and valuable his- 
torical information might be related relative to the progress of this 
business, and particularly to that class of goods which are im- 
ported. 

Woolens. — The manufacture of Woolens in England does not 
date farther back than the middle of the Fourteenth Century, dur- 
ing the reign of the politic Edward I El., who invited a number of 
Flemish weavers, dyers and fullers to take up their abode in his 
kingdom at the time of the religious persecution and general dis- 
content in Flanders. The mass of the English people, however 
regarded the new comers with ill-founded jealousy, and but little 
encouragement was given them. The use of machinery was dis- 



92 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

couraged by statute in the reign ot Edward VI., and this statute 
was not repealed until 1807, Since then most of the machines now 
used for carding, spinning and weaving wool, have been introduced 
into that country, and great impulse been given to prosperity in 
that kingdom. France, Germany and Belgium are each large 
fabricants of Woolens and the most poj)ular broadcloths now im- 
ported into this country are from that portion of the continent. 
Still the products of American looms now embrace almost every 
variety of woolens consumed in this country. In the finer broad- 
cloths much remains to be learned, but in fancy cassimeres, our 
manufacturers have nearly driven out the products of the old 
world. Satinets are strictly an American production. Flannels 
are now made of every variety, and some of them even rival the 
finest French goods. Blankets of the most sumptuous descriptions, 
Mousseline de Laines (usually classed with woolens). Woolen 
Shawls, Felted Cloths and cotton-warp Broadcloths are all manu- 
factured with great perfection in this country. 

Cottons. — For the extent of her general manufactures of cotton 
goods, it is f)robable that England deserves the first place, but in 
printed cotton fabrics the French excel all the rest of the world. 
Switzerland has been quite celebrated for spinning and weaving fine 
cottons, and Austria, Belgium, Prussia, Saxony, Eussia, Turkey,and, 
in short, nearly every European State, as well as most of the coun- 
tries in Asia, furnish more or less goods of this character. The 
United States were for a long period more celebrated for the pro- 
duction than the manufacture of cotton, but even the production 
of the raw material was a matter of but little importance until the 
invention of the cotton gin in 1793 by Eli Wliitney, a native of 
Massachusetts, who had taken up his residence in Georgia. This 
was but the beginning, for now the heavier products of American 
cotton looms defy the competition of the world, and are sold by 
the side of British products in all neutral ports. American Prints, 
Sheetings, Shirtings, Cotton Duck, Cotton Flannels, Denims, Cot- 
tonades. Stripes and Ticks, and various other cotton fabrics have 
entirely driven out all foreign competitors and hold undisiDuted 
possession of the field. 

Silks. — Of all the multifarious textile apj)liancesof luxury in 
dress, it is probable. Silks are the costliest. Silk goods were first made 
in China, and the source of the production was for a longtime a pro- 
found secret with the almond-eyed " Celestials of the Flowery King- 



DEY GOODS— WHOLESALE. 93 

dom." It is said that two JNestorian Monks, while making an ovei'- 
land journey to China, discovered that the shining floss was spun 
by a worm, and brought some of the eggs of this insect to Constan- 
tinople in the year 552. The raising of the worms was successful, 
and the production gradually spread over Europe. France and 
the south part of Europe are the most celebrated for their produc- 
tion of silk fabrics, although large importations are still made from 
China. In the United States the manufactures of Silks are not ex- 
tensive, the limited home production of raw silk and the heavy 
tax on the raw material imported having discouraged the manu- 
facturers, many of whom have scarcely got beyond the production 
of Sewing Silks. However, this is only a question of time, for the 
dawn of a brighter era in Silk Manufactures is already upon us. 
About four years ago the Messrs. Cheney Bros., of Hartford, Con- 
necticut, began the production of this class of goods. A. T. Stewart 
& Co., of New York, give their goods the preference, and Ameri- 
can Silks have recently become an important adjunct to the busi- 
ness. They are very durable and cheap, compared to foreign 
goods, and the success thus achieved is likely to be both perma- 
nent and profitable. 

Linens. — In speaking of Linens, the next department of Dry 
Goods, a more flattering thing may be said in favor of our country; for 
the manufacture of Flax Goods has been long an important interest. 
In earlier times it was the pride of a good housewife to have 
stores of household linens, not only for her own use, but as an 
outfit for her marriageable daughters; and this custom was retain- 
ed for many years. The introduction and multiplication of cot- 
ton fabrics made by machinery, gradually limited the production 
of home-made linen, until the distaff was at last laid aside, and 
the loom cast out as useless lumber. This country now consumes 
largely of Linen Goods in various forms, obtained from all parts of 
Europe, but chiefly from Russia, Holland, Flanders and Switzer- 
land, while the excellent goods, known as Irish Linens, are ap- 
preciated and valued wherever the Dry Goods trade extends. 
The very best kinds of Crash, Diaper, Huckaback, Sheetings, 
Pillow-Case Linen, Blay Linen, Napkins, Table Linen and a fine 
quality for Coating and Pantaloonery, are also made in the United 
States. 

Miscellaneous. — The classification of Miscellaneous Dry Goods 
we have seen proper to speakof under the separate heading, "White 



94 EVANSVILLE: HBE COMMERCE AND MANlJfACTURES. 

Goods and Notions." In our foregoing remarks iti8tobehoj)ed that 
weraaynotbecharged with the introduction of matter too far-fetched 
for the proper consideration of the local trade. We have mere- 
ly desired to elucidate the subject by stating interesting facts con- 
nected with its conduct. There are other points that might be 
given showing the wonderful variety of Dry Goods and the con- 
sequent varied information that a well posted Dry Goods dealer 
is supposed to possess, but our purpose now leads us to other cir- 
cumstances, which are intimately associated with the business. 

The wholesale Dry Goods trade of Evansville has its custom- 
ers spread over a wide extent of territory. These customers are 
also, for the most part, merchants of moderate capital and depend- 
ent for their means of payment upon the population among which 
they are located. Any disturbance of the general j^rosj^erity — 
for instance, a failure of crops, limits the demand for distribution, 
or interferes with facilities for collection ; and there is no class so 
helpless under such circumstances as the country merchant. Con- 
sequently he frequently fails in meeting his note given to the job- 
ber, and the latter with so many little streams dried up at once, 
is still obliged punctually to meet his payments, or he is utterly 
ruined. A country merchant pays his debts as soon as he can raise 
the money, or if he be less prompt, as soon as he can spare the 
money ; while his creditor must pay on the day his note matures, 
or be posted as a bankrupt. It is this one-sided arrangement of 
his business which leaves the jobber more exposed to embarrass- 
ment in his financial arrangements, and gives him less recupera- 
tive power, when he finds himself, from some error of judgment, 
"in a tight place." The jobber, therefore, must have capital, but 
his business depends less upon the amount of this, perhaps, than 
upon his personal qualifications. He must be agood judgeof goods, 
for a stock well-boughtis half sold. There ismauy a stock of goods 
made up of items purchased attheir fair market value, but together 
comprising an assortment totally unsalable. It is far better, then, 
to have a dear stock judiciously selected and well-assorted, than 
to have the cheapest stock of undesirable goods. Whatever max- 
ims may be found in "Poor Kichard," which will not bear the test 
of a sound philosophy — this one is at least of the genuine stamp 
— " nothingischeapthatisnot wanted," In knowledge of the trade, 
in^abundance of capital, and in point of judicious purchases for this 
section, we claim, then, for the houses doing business in Evans- 



DEY GOODS— WHOLESALE. 95 

ville a standard unsurpassed, if equaled, by any city of the West. 
Many of our jobbers are also direct importers and the same quali- 
fications — capital, taste, and experience under judicious training 
are also required to be successful. 

Of late years the habit of " drumming" has become almost 
universal ; not only with Dry Goods, but all branches of trade. 
Drummers are sent out into the country with their packages of 
well assorted samples, and drummers are kept stationed in the 
city, like sentinels, to herald theadventof a visiting customer. The 
country merchant is booked on his arrival, is captured by courte- 
sy and attracted by generous and disinterested appeals to his sev- 
eral tastes and habits. He finds the " drummer " a jolly, good 
soul, and soon he is " hale fellow well met." Sometimes, howev- 
er, our "country cousin " is annoyed no little, for once gaining the 
reputation of being a new customer, he is soon set upon by num- 
erous rivals, as assiduous in their attentions, as a life-insurance 
agent, in talking up this, that, or thejother system of " policy." It 
may be assumed, in the meanwhile, that it is to the advantage of 
the country merchant to visit the cit}^ more frequently, for here 
he has large stocks to select from, and is generally better satis- 
fied than with purchases from mere samples. The amount of stock 
to be kept on hand, however, is generally determined by each, ac- 
cording to his location and the nature of his business, but the 
smaller the better, where the wholesale market is so near at hand, 
and the assortment can be readily renewed. 

Retrospectively, we may say that ten years ago, the Whole- 
sale Dry Goods trade of the city of Evansville, was very small 
and quite insignificant as compared with the trade of to-day. Its 
customers were then confined to a narrow scope of country, and 
the sales were limited. After a decade has passed, we again visit 
its marts. Colossal brick and granite warehouses, rising in their 
grandeur, story above story, meet the eye. These too are filled 
and teeming with all classes of goods applicable to this trade. A 
cursory glance through the various departments is hardly suffi- 
cient to give a correct idea of the vast stocks and seemingly ex- 
haustless varieties there displayed. Here we meet with innum- 
erable samples, variformed and variegated. Here are the goods 
from the four quarters of the globe. Here are the goods from 
almost every nation and clime beneath the skies : Silks, Cloths, 
Cassimeres, Satinets, Kerseys, Jeans, Tweeds, Linseys, Flannels, 



96 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Tickings, Checks, Plaids, Alpacas, Dress Goods, Ginghams, 
Prints, Muslins and Drills; together witti immense cargoes of 
Ladies' Dress and Bonnet Trimmings. Carriage Laces, Curtain 
Trimmings, Cords, Tassels, Braids, Fringes, Eibbons, Military 
Goods and numerous manufactures assimilating in character. In 
short, what one may see in a visit to our Dry Goods Houses 
would fill an interesting volume, for, of themselves alone, they 
present to the eye a busy map of life, to be met with nowhere 
else in this entire section of country. 

And so this trade has increased so much that we now have 
nine mammoth houses, engaged exclusively in the wholesale of 
Dry Goods and Notions, all doing a healthy, remunerative busi- 
ness, and each one flourishing on their^own industry and energj' ; 
for having commenced with small means, they have gradually ad- 
vanced and increased, until they now possess ample capital to 
compete with any market in the West. With the advantages of 
our railroads and enterprising steamboats, all, or nearly all owned 
and controlled in this city, like bold pioneers they have penetrated 
far into sections of country formerly the customers of other cities. 
And that they have been vastly successful in directing trade this 
way, their largely augmented sales sufiiciently prove. As farther 
evidence of this statement, let us call attention to the aggregate 
sales for 1874, which despite the damaging influence of the panic, 
shortness of crops, and other detriments amounts in round num- 
bers: Wholesale, $4,000,000; Eetail, $1,100,000, :giving us a grand 
total of not less than five million one hundred thousand dollars 
for the year. 

The houses engaged in the wholesale Dr}^ Goods trade are : 
Messrs. Jaqiiess, Hudspeth & Co., No. 110 Upper First street; 
Mackey, Nisbet & Co., No. 104 Upper First street ; G. Maghee & 
Co., No. 209 Upper First street ; Miller, Gardner & Co., No. 114 
Upper First street. The houses engaged exclusively in wholesale 
White Goods and Notions are: Messrs B. Baum & Co., No. 205 
Upper First street; Wm. Hughes, No. 202 Upper First street; Miller 
& Lyon, No. 207 Upper First street, and Henry M. Sweetser, No. 
124 Upper First street. The house of H. Bromelhaus & Co., No. 
105 Upper First street, are the only exclusive Importers and Jobbers 
of Foreign and Domestic Woolens, Cloths and Tailors' Trimmings, in 
the city. 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 



97 



MACKEY, NISBET & CO., 

Nos. 104 and 106 Upper lirst St., 



:VANSVII_1_E. INDIANA. 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 



DRY GOODS and NOTIONS, 



BUY AND SELL 










AND- 



Yellow Pine Lumber 



Cash Advances Made on Consignments to Ourselves or 
Our Correspondents. 
13 



98 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

MACKEY, NISBET & CO., WHOLESALE DRY GOODS DEALERS. 
In attempting to illustrate the Wholesale Dry Goods Trade, as 
at present conducted, by sketches of representative houses, in 
conformity with our j^lan, difficulties originating in various 
causes, and which we have not found in other pursuits, have be- 
set the undertaking. It is useless to enumerate them ; but they 
exist to such an extent as to render essentially imperfect, in the 
present edition at least, that in which we most desired perfection. 
Our articles would, however, be too incomplete, did we omit to 
notice one firm whose early efforts and untiring exertions have 
largely contributed to bring the Dry Goods Trade of the city to 
its present excellence and success. We refer to the firm of 
Mackey, Nisbet & Co. This firm of gentlemen has been identi- 
fied with the business, from its first regular organization as a 
wholesale branch, and its humble commencement contrasts so re- 
markably with its present immense extent and importance, that 
their progress is worthy of a recital. 

On the 1st of January, 1857, Mr. David J. Mackey, of this 
firm, organized the business in company with Mr. Samuel M. Ar- 
chci', the Main Street Banker, under the firm name of Archer & 
Mackey. Their business was very successful, increasing yearly 
until March 1, 1861, when Matt. Henning, Esq., was admitted as '^ 
a partner, he having for two years previously been a leading 
salesman in the house. The firm name was then changed to 
Mackey, Henning & Co., and their trade reached out into a half 
dozen States; pushing their business with great energy, until their 
ledger coUimns footed up into the millions. January 1st, 1864, Mr. 
Archer disposed of his interest to the other partners, who con- 
ducted the affairs of the house with additional success, greatly 
augmenting the volume of sales until January 1st, 1866, at which 
time, on account of failing health, Mr. Henning sold his intcM'est 
to Mr. D. J. Mackey, who continued the business over the firm 
name of Mackey & Co., until June, 1866. About this time the 
Dry Goods firm of Nisbet & Wiggins was dissolved, and its busi- 
ness succeeded to by Mr. W. F. Nisbet, whereupon Messrs. D. J. 
Mackey and W. F. Nisbet consolidated their stocks and organized, 
June 1st, 1866, the present firm of Mackey, Nisbet & Co. Since 
that they have conducted an enormous business throughout Indi- 
ana, Kentucky, Illinois, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkan- 
sas and Missouri — dealing in Dry Goods and Notions, and in Cot- 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 99 



Gillison Maghee.* N M. Goodlett. 



G. MAGHEE & CO. 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN STAPLE AND FANCY 



IDI^"^ O-OOIDS, 



WHITE eOODS, HOSIERY, GLOYEg AND NOTIONS, 



:B^«r^iargiirx£.i.^. xitoiJkit^. 



100 EVAKSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANtJFACTUKES. 

ton, Wool, Tobacco and Lumber, until to-day, their aggregate 
business outranks that of any commercial house in the State of 
Indiana. They are deserving, likewise, classification as the 
" Merchant Princes " of the city. Their firm name is equivalent 
to any amount of " gilt-edged " paper, and from their high-toned 
principles, their liberality and their comprehensive mercantile 
spirit, which has rendered them distinguished, the}' occuiDy a po- 
sition first and foremost — sans peur et sans reproche — among the 
boldest and most extensive Dry Goods dealers in the West. They 
occupy one of the most elegant and commodious iron-fronted 
buildings in the city — Nos. 104 and 106 Upper First Street, and 
cany a stock alike noticeable for immensity and wondrous variety. 

G. MAGHEE & CO., WHOLESALE DRY GOODS. 
The Jobbers of Dry Goods, we presume, would ask no other or 
better representative to be placed at their head than this house. It is 
one of the oldest houses in the trade, and dates its organization as far 
back as 1835, in those flush times of the Republic, and at the beginning 
of a generation whose representatives now are silver-haired and vener- 
able and fast rounding their lives towards the inevitable grave that over- 
takes us all. Its foundation was laid in those days by Messrs. John 
H. Maghee and Gillison Maghee, long prior to the incorporation of the 
city of Evansville, and, indeed, before the place had ambition beyond 
the simplest pretentions to classification as a river landing or village. 
Thus j)atriarchal and respected, it has continued its career to the pres- 
ent, and, with each succeeding year, its reputation for integrity, capac- 
ity and liberality in dealing, has become more firmly established, and 
the simple announcement of their name will call up pleasant and flat- 
tering recollections in the breasts of thousands of traders throughout 
the South and Southwest. In July, 1863, Mr. John H. Maghee, the 
senior of the concern, departed this life, greatly regretted by his com- 
mercial cotemporaries and the community at large. Immediately there- 
after Mr. Nicholas M. Goodlett became a partner, and the firm name 
was changed to G. Maghee & Co. , its present style. Mr. Goodlett was 
brought up in the Dry Goods business at Louisville, Kentucky, and 
his ripe experience and popular manners added great strength to this 
house. Mr. Goodlett has sole control of the business in this city, while 
Mr. Maghee is the resident New York buyer and financial partner, 
having his residence out at Orange, New Jersey, and his ofllice at No. 
72 Murray street. New York. The business of the firm comprises the 
Importing and Jobbing of Staple and Fancy Dry Goods, and in capi- 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 101 



jA]yyff^. PA^Pmi^ H ^9 



■v^h:oiLjEis^i_.e 



DRY GOODS! 



isroTioi^s! 



No. 114 UPPER FIRST STREET, 



EVAJ<!SVILLE, IJ^OIAJ^A. 



102 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AKD MANUFACTURE^.^ 

tal, and extent of influence derived from a long-established character 
for honorable transactions, the house ranks deservedly among the first 
in the Southwest. 

MILLER, GARDNER & CO. 

In endeavoring to preservesome record of our commercial firms by 
historical notes, our object in introducing this department of our work 
is attributable more to a desire to gather together remembrances of such 
interesting nature, rather, than to seeek opportunity for personal com- 
pliment. But it is quite admissible for us to say, that Messrs. Miller, 
Gardner & Co., Importers and Jobbers of Dry Goods and Notions, 
No. 114 Upper First street, belong to that class of staunch, sagacious 
merchants who have been prominently identified with the commercial 
interests of the city for several years past, and to whose enterprise and 
perseverance as well as sterling conduct and uprightness, those interests 
are indebted for much of their present vigor and development. Messrs. 
Miller, Gardner & Co. commenced their mercantile career in this city 
in the Fall of 1864. Both gentlemen came to Evansville from the 
prosperous little city of Cadiz, Kentucky, Mr. J. Q. Miller, of the 
firm, is a native of Kentucky, and for many years was a merchant in 
Cadiz, conducting his business alone. Mr. Josiah S. Gardner is a Vir- 
ginian by birth, but for twelve years was a partner in business at Cadiz 
with Mr. F. H. Ragon, now of Evansville. Mr. Miller first embarked 
in the trade in this city in company with T. W. Witt, Esq., of Hen- 
derson, but this firm only continued about twelve months, at the end 
of which time Mr. Gardner and J. M. Buckner, Esq., now of Paducah, 
becfime associated, and the firm name was changed to Miller, Gardner 
& Co. Mr. Buckner was a member of the firm until the close of 1867, 
since which time the old name has been retained, but no other partner 
admitted. They have carried on a successful trade in the intervening 
years, and justly earned a dignified prominence in the ranks of the 
Wholesale Dry Goods fraternity, now numbering their regular custom- 
ers in every locality trading with Evansville. 

Leading Retail Dry Goods Houses. 

We have, lastly, among the dealers in Dry Goods, the Retail- 
ei's. The signification of the terms employed in designating the 
other classes, is obvious, but the derivation of this name is less 
generally understood. It is from the French retalller, and signi- 
fies to cui again, to divide; a retailer of Dry Goods is, therefore, one 



LEADING KETAIL DEY GOODS HOUSES. 103 

who sells in small quantities as needed for consumption. In coun- 
try towns there are few retailers who confine themselves exclu- 
sively to the traffic in Dry Goods; but in the city this trade is not 
only separated from others, but there is frequently a further division, 
one merchant retailing Silks, another Woolens, another Laces or 
Trimmings, &c., and the competition is quite as spirited as among 
the Jobbers and [mporters. There is no situation where popular 
talents contribute more largely to success than in a retail Dry 
Goods store, whose patronage depends solely on the public favor. 
A merchant gifted with good temper, exemj^lary patience, ready 
address and a thorough knowledge of human nature, will grow 
rich next door to the starving cynic. Occasionally a man of sour 
temper, but possessed of sound judgment, and a thorough knowl- 
edge of his business, will, by keeping a more perfect assortment 
than his amiable neighbor, succeed in attracting a larger custom ; 
but this patronage is in spiteof his ii*ritability, and will be heartily 
transferred the moment the same convenient assortment is found 
accompanied with greater affability. The best foundation for this 
business is downright, thorough-going honesty. We would not 
advocate honesty, simply because it is the best policy, as this is too 
groveling a motive for the first principle of morality ; nor is it 
worth while for a dealer with saiictimonious face and " white up- 
turned eyes to wondering mortals" to pretend to be honest, if he 
have not the principle, solely for the sake of securing custom. 
Even simple country people detect the ring of the false metal, and 
therefore it is essential to eminent success in the distribution of 
goods, where there is so much of detail, that the merchant shoiild 
stand high for probity ; for trickery of any sort, although it may 
put a few dollars in the pocket at first, will soon wear a reputa- 
tion threadbare, and dry up the source of lawful gains. With 
these facts cited, we take especial pride in testifying that for honesty 
of purpose, and that due consideration of the comfort or welfare 
of others, which is the foundation of all true politeness, the Eetail 
Dry Goods Merchants of Evansville have become popular wher- 
ever known. Being shrewd business men, they have gone even 
farther, and studied the interests as well as the feelings of their 
customers, and this has enabled them to secure a wide-spread pat- 
ronage, stationaiy and regular. They never j)ursuade a reluctant 
customer to purchase an article that is not likely in the end to suit 
his taste or convenience, having too much regard for the futurity 



104 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

of the business and too little respect for that kind of quackeiy 
which shows itself in wetting sound goods, that they may be sold 
as damage«l in order to attract custom : or in "selling off at cost," 
to get an extra profit from simple-minded customers — which may 
have a brief success like other quackeries, but will be sooner or 
later exposed. 

The Retail Di-y Goods Dealers of the city, with scarcely an 
exception, are gentlemen "'born and bred " in the business. They 
have not chosen the occupation because they consider it less la- 
borious, and not so degrading, as pursuits involving manual la- 
bor, for, indeed, that would have been a sti*ange hallucination, 
judged simply, but frequently, by the care-worn faces, brought on 
by following a trade that requires constant personal attention from 
an early morning hour, until late at night. Fond parents, who 
fancy that white hands and a well-tied cravat, are the signs of 
gentility, and who manage 'to get their sons into a dry goods 
store, imagining that they are on the royal road to fortune and 
otium cum dignitate, find themselves soon undeceived, for there is 
an amount of drudgery and up-hill toil, incident to the projDer 
conduct of the business, that justly entitles those fitted, both by 
nature and apj^lication, to conquer its difficulties, to obtain its just 
rewards in their broadest sense. 

Among other requirements, it is absolutely necessary that a 
proper idea of system, or order, in the arrangement of a stock 
should be maintained. For, not onlj^ is a great deal of time 
wasted in looking for articles which have no defined location, but 
the goods become tumbled, and present anything but an attractive 
appearance. The arrangement of their stocks for effect, there- 
fore, is not beneath the attention of our merchants, who have 
made their stores models of method, and been materially assisted 
in their disposal thereby. And with all these points considered, 
we feel fully justified in ranking the Eetail Dry Goods Houses of 
Evansville, not only equal, but superior, to most any city in the 
Western country. In the varied lines of Staple Dry Goods, they 
are certainly unsurjjassed, in quality, quantity, diversity of goods, 
or cheapness of price. While in Dress Goods, of every descrip- 
tion, no competitive houses present more favorable bargains. In 
the finer goods, the display is but little short of wonderful. There 
are the beautiful Silken Fabrics of Lyons ; the shimmering White 
Satin, besprinkled with bouquets, that rival the very charms of 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 105 



WHOLESALE AUD RETAIL DRY GOODS- 

HUDSPETH, MILLER & CO., 

Nos. 125 and 127 Main Street, 

THE LEADING DRY GOODS HOUSE 

OF EVAIVSVILLE, 

Always Keep the Largest and Finest Stock of 

IDI^ESS C3-OOIDS 



TRIMMINGS, SHEETINGS, FLANNELS, LINSEYS, JEANS; 

CASSIMERES, HOSIERY, SHAWLS, TABLE LINENS, 

TOWELS, NAPKINS AND HOUSE 

FURNISHING GOODS, 

THE PALACE FOR FINE DRESS GOODS. 



FINE SILKS A SPECIA.LXY. 

14 



106 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

nature ; there are heavy shining Velvets, heightened by embroi- 
dery of gold and silver; Laces, genuine from Alencon and Valen- 
ciennes, whose web is as delicate as though elfin fingers had spun 
the threads; Muslins, from India, so fine that they could only 
be woven in water; Crapes, from China, with the softness 
of Satin, and the sheen of Velvet ; and graceful Ostrich Plumes, 
from Africa, and Flowers from Paris, so wonderful in their beau- 
ty, that nothing is wanting to their perfection save perfume. In 
all sincerity, then, it would be an arduous task to jjroperly detail, 
in a circumscribed sketch, the many interesting facts to be gath- 
ered here. The trade is certainly one of our most jirominent pur- 
suits and metropolitan features. It not only takes in the entire 
custom of the city, but there is scarcely a day that one does not 
see whole troupes of ladies, who come here from adjacent places, 
to do their '' shojjping," For a radius of one hundred miles, and 
including some of the wealthiest and most fashionable cities, 
towns and villages in Indiana, Kentucky and Illinois, diurnal 
quotas arrive, and the vicinity of the Retail Dry Goods Empori- 
ums, is one of bustle, and trade, and commotion. 
HUDSPETH, MILLER & CO. 
No firm in Evansville, in this line, can justly boast of a more 
astonishing success than Messrs. Hudspeth, Miller & Co. In 1866 
Mr. John B. Hudspeth became a member of the houseof Hudspeth, 
Adams & Co., but in 1870 they retired from business. In October, 
1872, the present fii-m was organized, composed of John B. Huds- 
peth, H. F. Miller and R. S. Eock, a trio of thorough-going, ener- 
getic and popular gentlemen. They first occupied the store-room 
No. 69 Main street, an attractive building, three stories high and 
18x130 feet large. Opening out with an entirely uew and choice 
stock of seasonable goods, they very soon established their popu- 
larity and drew a large and constantly increasing trade toilieir 
counters. The first j^ear their total sales amounted to $125,000, 
while the second year will foot up $200,000, their business, in de- 
fiance of "hard times," having kept up to a most encouraging 
standard. On the Istof August, 1874, finding their previousloca- 
tion too narrow and cramped, a lease was effected on the large 
double salesroom, Nos. 125 and 127 Main street,the handsomest and 
most capacious in the city, situated in the Schapker Block, under 
the Chamber of Commerce Building. This room is 150 feet deep, 
40 feet wide and has a ceiling 15 feet hiffh. It has been attrac- 



WHITE GOODS, NOTIONS AND MILLINERY. 107 

tively and elegantly arranged, and requires the undivided atten- 
tion of some eighteen or twentj salesmen. Triple rows of coun- 
ters are needed, those in the center being constructed as show- 
cases for fine goods, with tops of French Plate Grlass. In the cen- 
tral department is the Cashier's Stand, while farther to the rear 
may be found the Book-keeper's office — both fitted up in tasteful 
designs of oil walnut. JSear by also, is a Shawl Departm'ent, 
nicely carpeted and furnished with fine upholstered divans, etc., 
this room to be used only for the display of Cashmere Shawls and 
the better class of goods of that character. Four large mirrors 
reaching from the floor to the top shelving, are placed at conven- 
ient distances, where lovely woman may catch full-length portraits 
of her figure while trying the various styles, shades and colors. 

We believe that this house has the reputation of keeping the 
best quality of goods in the city, and certainly they sell as cheap 
as any in the business. Their stock is always ample, and they 
are enabled to fill the shelves in orderly display without scatter- 
ing things pell-mell, helter-skelter in garish ostentation. In La- 
dies' Dress Goods, Silks and Finer Fabrics, they have made a 
specialty; and in Eeal and Imitation Laces — Valenciennes, Point 
d' Applique and Point d'Alencon — their stock in trade is unsur- 
passed. These, together with a general assortment of Trim- 
mings, Woolens, Domestics and coarser goods ; Ladies' Under- 
wear, Hosiery, Gloves, Fans, &c., make up a collection both vast 
and alluring. 

White Goods, Notions and Millinery. 

In the preceding portion of this chapter we referred to a de- 
partment of Dry Goods, which, collectively, we designated as 
Miscellaneous, but which, more properly defined, demands the 
separate heading in our classification of White Goods and No- 
tions; because there is a large amount of " Goods, Wares, and Mer- 
chandise," acknowledged as coming legitimately into the Dry 
Goods trade, which could not have been classified under either of 
the preceding heads. Webster defines " dry goods " to be "Cloths 
Stuffs, Silks, Laces, &c., in distinction from Groceries.'' This defi- 
nition, then is wide enough to include Pins, Needles, Hooks-and- 
Eyes, Fans, Beads, Buttons, and the thousand little articles that 
go to make up the assortment of Notions, once so indispensable to 



1U8 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

the dry goods jobber, and even now sold by a large proportion of 
those engaged in the trade. Within a few years the " Trimming- 
Stores " have started up, borrowing Fine Cutlery, &c., from the 
hardware dealers ; Looking-Grlasses, Fancy Boxes, Pocket-Books, 
&c., from other departments; but making up their assortment 
chiefly from the articles usually sold by the regular Dry Goods 
dealers. This division has brought some relief to the jobber, but 
at the expense of his profits, the Fancy Articles generally paying 
much the largest per centage of gains. 

It is simply a matter of impossibility for us to even enumer- 
ate the multifariousness, multiformity or multiplicity of articles 
included in this trade, for if we were given an unabridged dic- 
tionaiy and a month's time in which to complete our labors, ne- 
cessity would compel us to conclude with the oft-quoted, but never 
mare applicable, expression: "too numerous to mention." We 
consider the individual who adopted the classification a happy 
hand at comprehensiveness when he struck upon the fortunate 
word "Notions," and the thanks of the mercantile fraternity are, 
in consequence, undoubtedly due his ingenuity. In White Groods 
are included many different articles; then follow Hosiery and 
Fancy Knit Work, Gloves, Gents' Furnishing Goods, Embroider- 
ies and the thousand and one things included in the term Narrow 
Textile Fabrics, which the English call Small Wares, and on the 
continent of Europe the manufacturers of which are designated 
Passamenteurs. This latter department may also be said to include 
Dress Trimmings, Crystal, Amber and Jet Bead Trimmings, Eib- 
bon and Tubular Ties, Scarfs, Silk Beltings, Fringes, Gimps, 
Chenilles, Cords, Tassels, Muff Girdles; also Hair Coils, Plaits, 
Nets, Sewing Silk, Tailors' Twist, Machine Silk, Saddlers' and 
Spun Silk — in fact, a little of everything needed for ornament or 
utility, no matter what substance, shape, color, size or jDrice is re- 
quired. 

The houses engaged in this business in Evansville are cer- 
tianly model show-rooms, and our dealers have well studied the 
art of arrangement and order. The firms are composed of gen- 
tlemen thoroughly posted in the interesting business, and con- 
trolliug ample financial power, invite competition without even 
doubting their ability to sell as cheaply as any jobbing market in 
the West. The following firms are in the trade: Messrs. B. Baum 
& Co., 205 Upper First street; Wm. Hughes, No. 202 Upper Firet 



ADVEKTlSEMENTS. 



109 



WILLIAM HUGHES, 



JOBBER, OF- 



11 AMlP **^ 



^rsP» ^^ 



80(i)->^ «CS)«Cili iCiTiaCBi SOtfMCa xj^« 



NOTIONS AND MILLINERY, 



202 NORTH FIRST STREET, 



,\;®(1SVII(II@ 



no EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AKD MANUFACTURES. 

street; Miller & Lyon, 207 Upper First street, and Henry M. 
Sweetser, 124 Upper First street, besides the leading houses en- 
gaged in jobbing Di-y Groods. 

WM. HUGHE8. 

Just tliirty-tbur years ago, or more tlian the average dura- 
tion of an earthly existence, Mr. William Hughes came to the 
city of Evansville, to cast his fortunes with this people. Born in 
Ireland, married at Madison, Indiana, he removed to this city in 
1840, and for thirty years engaged in the Ketail Dry Groods busi- 
ness. In the Winter of 1870 he entered the jobbing trade, and 
has met with merited success in the towns and villages of Indiana, 
Illinois, Kentucky, and the South generally. His stock is kept 
up large, fashionable, and well assorted, and includes general 
Fancy Dry Groods, Notions, and Miliinei-y. His name has been 
known and respected by several generations of merchants, and 
we doubt, whether any businesshouse in the city, has stood higher 
during that period. A plain-spoken, straightforward, clever gen- 
tleman, adverse to unnecessary flourish, we take privilege, with- 
out his knowledge, to smuggle in our kind opinion for one so em- 
inently deserving. 

H. M. SWEETSER, WHOLESALE WHITE GOODS AND NOTIONS. 

In thus giving descriptive accounts of the leading and repre- 
sentative mercantile houses of the city of Evansville, evidencing 
the many divisions and sub-divisions of the trade of the ever-busy 
and go-ahead-ative to-day, we certainly know of none occupying a 
more prominent position than that recognized as Wholesale White 
Groods and Notions; nor can we give descriptive account of any 
house in this trade more entitled to the first place and mention, 
than the establishment of Mr. Henr}^ M. Sweetser. Occupying 
the superb corner store in the Lewis Block, at the junction of First 
and Sycamore streets — it haedticided advantages in being centrally 
located, as well as ranking among the most extensive and splen- 
didly arranged and conducted establishments in the Western 
country. The house is of j^ressed brick and built in modern Italian 
style, four stories and a basement high, and 150 feet long by 25 
feet wide, thus affording more floor room, probably, than any job- 
bing house in the city of Evansville Externally imposing and 
attractive its interior is in full accord and keeping. The hand- 
some French plate doors and windows as clear as polished mirrors, 
gracing the first floor entrance, and the oval windows over the 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Ill 



"PIONEER NOTION HOUSE." 




HENRY M. SWEETSER, 



WHOLESALE DEALER IN 



t Jw^-'J 



^m 



w ss 



CORNER UPPER FIRST 3c SYCAMORE STS. 

EVANSVIl_L_E. IND. 



112 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

shelving giving a strong flood of light to the salesroom, cause the 
neat and cleanly painted countei'S and shelving to wear an appear- 
ance of cheerfulness and hospitable invitation either to the cus- 
tomer or the visitor. The accountant's office, well arranged with 
oil-walnut furniture and its walls decorated with paintings and 
illustrations of many of the leading manufactories of the country, 
is a model place for business transaction and quite equal to the re- 
mainder of the concern. The house is also supplied with patent 
elevators and all modern appurtenances for the conduct of an ex- 
tensive business. 

Having thus briefly disposed of the architectural features of 
the house, we deem it appropriate to say a word descriptive of 
the immense "stock on hand," in the establishment of Mr. Sweet- 
zer. The first article of merchandise, to which the attention of 
the visitor is called, is a handsome case containing specimens of 
the Celebrated Spool Cottons, from the manufactory of Geo. A. 
Clark & Brothers ; next, the noted 3-Cord, Green & Daniel's Spool 
Cottons ; a fine assortment of English, Milward, and Blood's Nee- 
dles. Passing on, we next come to a fine assortment of Hosiery, 
from the celebrated manufactories of Charles Spencer and Thos. 
Dolan, of Germantown, Pa.; next may be seen their stock of Cor- 
sets, " La Favorita," Hip-Gore, and " A A," with fifty whale- 
bones ; next, a full line of American, French and English Suspen- 
ders, and the well known custom-made "OK" White Shirts : 
also a full line of Tweed, Melton, Cassiraere and Diagonal Over- 
shirts; Euby and Cardigan Jackets; also a full line of Merino, 
all Wool Undershirts, of everj' shade and color, from $4 to $30 
per dozen ; also a full line of " Kedemption " arid " Priiim " Col- 
lars ; a full line of Ladies' Gauntlets; also a full line of Gents' 
Sheep, Dog-Skin, Calf and Buck Gauntlets, from the leading man- 
ufactories of Gloversville, New York. Also, extensive stocks of 
Soaps, Perfumeries, Tape, Spectacles. Pencils, Pen-Holders, Hair- 
Pins, Hooks and Eyes, Pins; and Coat, Pant and Yest Buttons, 
and all kinds of Stationery, including Note, Legal Cap, Foolscap, 
and Bill Paper, Envelopes, Inks, Shoe Blacking ; also Pocket- 
Books, Pass-Books Combs, Sewing Silks, Violin Strings, and 
a thousand and one things precisely. 

Ascending to the second floor, the first thing to be seen is his 
large assortment of White Goods. Also a full line of Children's, 
Misses' and Ladies' Striped and Plaid Wool Shawls, from thecele- 



WHITE GOODS, NOTIONS AND MILLINERY. 113 

brated Peacedale Mills. Also a lino of Gents' Shawls ; also a fine 
line of Arabs or "Ortolons."' The celebrated Windsor, Golden 
Crest, Peerless, Crown Prince, Standard, "Article 47," and Fifth 
Avenue Felt Skirts, in full cases, are next to be met with. Next 
the Bangor, Diamond and Wabash Balmoral Skirts. Next an ele- 
gant line of Steamboat quilts, of Nail sizes. Then a large stock of 
Blankets — Gonic 10-quarter, Clinton Extra-super, Granite State 
ll and 12-quarter. He has also a department stocked with 
Pairisian Flowers for milliners' use, and a beautiful selection of 
Taffeta Eibbons, plain and in cord-edges; plaids, boiled and gros- 
grained, being the finest and most extensive stock ever displayed 
in the State of Indiana. Also, Silk and Cotton Beltings ; the cele- 
brated " V " brand of Silk Velvet Eibbons, and the " Iron Cross " 
brand in Velveteens and Cotton Eibbons. Next in order were a 
full line of Sweetser's own importation of Irish Linens, with a 
monogram trade mark of the house ; Crashes, both foreign and 
domestic; Ladies' Switches, Chignons, Braids; Silk Tissues and 
Veil Bareges; Linen and Cotton Shirt Fronts; Embroidered, Silk, 
Linen and Cotton Handkerchiefs ; Ladies' Lace Collars, Head-nets, 
Neck-bows, Neck-ties, all of the latest styles. In Dress Trimmings 
he has for sale all of the new fashions in embroidered trimmings ; 
Gimpure, and Silk Laces; Cotton and Thread Laces, Tape Trim- 
mings, Coat Bindings, Silk Braids, Ladies' "Suspenders" and 
Eubber-cord Elastic Webbing. Also, Marseilles, Silk and Agate 
Buttons; Thimbles, Watch-keys, Chains, Bead Necklaces, and full 
sets of nearly all kinds of Shell, Gilt and Gold Jewelry. Then 
follow extensive stocks of Nubias; Men's and Boys' Scarfs; Chil- 
dren's Hoods, Caps and Jackets ; Silk and Worsted Star and 
Crochet Braids; Silk, Cotton and Union Elastic Belting; Ladies' 
Undershirts, in Merino, Silk and Wool; Ladies' Bead Collars and 
Collarettes; Ladies' Bead, Leather and Silk Belts, and a large stock 
of Ladies' Black and Colored Kid Gloves, of Sweetser's own im- 
portation. In addition, also, he keeps a large stock of Steamboat. 
Mogul and White Eose Playing Cards. 

The third floor is devoted to the display of a large stock of 
Twines, Wrapping Paper, and Batting; Window^ Hollands and 
Paper Curtains; Shoe-Thread, Gun-Caps, Slate Pencils, Eazor- 
Straps, and Shaving, Tooth, Hair, Cloth and Shoe Brushes of every 
conceivable shape and character. Then follow Carpet Bags and 
Traveling Companions ; German and American Coverlpts, and a 



114 EVANSVILLE: HEE COi\IMER0E AND MANUFACTURES. 

full assortment of Hoop-Skirts and Bustles, wmding up the grand 
array with the largest stock of Baskets, of all manner of shapes 
and sizes in this section of country. 

The fourth-story is principally used for the storage of goods, 
in bulk, just as they are received from the manufactories, and es- 
pecially to a very heavy stock of Crescent City A Sheetings. In- 
asmuch, then, as we have spoken in part of Sweetser's business, it 
would not be inappropriate to devote some space to that gentle- 
man, personally. In 1856 he came to this city, from Hartford, 
Conn., and first engaged in the store of Willard Carpenter & Co., 
occupying the position of porter until after that firm was succeed- 
ed by Jewell & Benjamin. Next he was employed in the house 
of Archer & Mackey. About this time Evansville became more 
prominent as a jobbing point, and business began to open out 
into sub-divisions, and each department found its representative. 
Therefore, in 1862, in conjunction with W. H. McGary and S. C. 
Woodson, our subject founded the first wholesale INotion House 
in the city, occupying the second-story of No. 23 Main Street. In 
six months the business had so greatly increased, they were com- 
pelled to seek more spacious quarters, at No. 215 Upper First 
Street, In 1863, Mr. Sweetser retired from that firm, nnd formed 
a new co-partnership with A.H, Edwards, under the firm name of 
Sweetser & Edwards, and buying out the firm of Miller & Witt, 
who then occupied No. 28 Main Street. At the end of another 
year Mr. Sweetser purchased the interest of Captain Edwards, 
and since that time has played it alone — occupying that stand 
until February, 1872, when he removed to his present excellent 
location. 

Thus, from an humble and obscure beginning, Mr. Sweetser, by 
strict attention, energy and perseverance in business, has prospered far 
beyond the lot that falls to most men. To-day his credit in Eastern 
markets is of such undoubted standard that he is enabled to buy goods 
as cheap as any house in the country, and he has shown by the extent 
of his trade, that he can compete with Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis 
or Chicago, and is selling goods, in their doors and under the very com- 
mercial nasal organs of those cities. In this way he has helped to draw 
trade to this city, and has benefitted other lines as well as his own 
thereby. Besides devoting himself to his own business, he has been 
one of Evansville's most prominent citizens in the promotion of every 
enterpri.e brought forward for her advancement, contributing means 



CARPETS, WINDOW SHADES, ETC. 115 

and working energetically to help them along. He was one of the 
original movers in getting up the St. L. & S. E. R. R. , and one of the 
committee sent over the groundto estimate its importance and locate it. 
He has, also, long been a stockholder in the Nashville and 
Cairo Packet Company, is, and has been, for a number of 
years, its Secretary and Business Manager. He is, also, a Direc- 
tor in the German National Bank, and occuj^ies prominent posi- 
tions in other institutions of the city. It is chiefly due to the 
liberality and farsightedness of such merchants, the city of Ev- 
ansville is to-day, entitled for her proud position in the commerce 
of the country. The history of this city is mainly the result of the 
indomitable enterprise of her citizens, and this record thus be- 
comes a part of the record of the State and Nation. 



Carpets, Window Shades, Etc. 

The sale of Carpets, Oil Cloths, Mattings, Window Shades, Wall 
Papers, and General House Furnishing Goods, within the past few 
years has grown into such important ^proportions, that it deserves, at 
our hands, special and separate notice. It is also distinctive in its char- 
acteristics, both as respects the description of goods sold and the ad- 
vantages offered. In most cities the two departments of the business 
are separated and frequently carried^on by different firms. In Evans- 
ville, they are combined and conducted advantageously and profitably 
as one. Large stocks of varied goods are constantly to be met with 
here, and the business includes Carpetings of all kinds — Velvets, Brus- 
sels, Axminster, Three-plys, Ex-Superfines, Fines and Venetian Car- 
petings, besides the cheaper kinds ; Oil Cloths of every pattern ; Cocoa 
Mattings, etc. In Window Shades and Wall Paper, there is simply 
no end to design, quality and favorable price ; while in the Miscellane- 
ous branch of the trade : Camp-stools, Hassocks, Rugs, Carriage Robes 
and goods assimilating come in for a share of attention. Possibly 
no better argument could be adduced for this trade than that 
nearly, if not quite all, the leading Hotels, Steamboats and Family 
Mansions — Residences of palatial elegance, or Cottages for com- 
fort, rather than ostentation, have received their outfits complete 
from the extensive houses engaged in the business in Evansville. 
The annual business will reach $200,000, and is principally car- 
ried on by Messrs. Wm. E. French & Co., 205 Main Street ; F. 
Hopkins & Co., 214 Upper Second Street, and J. F. Lindley & 
Bro., 305 Main Street. 



116 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

WM. E. FRENCH & CO. 
In August, 1850, Mr. Wni. E. French, senior partner in ihe 
house of Wm. E. French & Co., first began his business lifein this 
city, having formed in connection with Mr. Fielding Johnson a 
partnership, in Wholesale and Eetail Dry Goods, under the firm 
style of Johnson & French. In 1856, Mr. Johnson retired from 
business on account of ill health, and Mr. French then formed a 
second co-partnersbip with Mr. S. I. Jerauld, of Patoka, and for 
three years the style of the firm was French & Jerauld. The bus- 
iness was then changed to Wholesale Clothing, and so continued 
up to 1861. After the passage of the now Internal Kevenue Bill, 
Mr. French was appointed Dejjuty Collector for this Division of 
the First District of Indiana, and served three years in that ca- 
pacity. In 1863 he re-entered the Wholesale Dry Goods trade, 
with Jonathan S. Jaquess, Esq., under the style of Jaquess, 
French & Co. They maintained a large and profitable business 
for five years, during which time the firm opened a branch for 
Carpets, in the second-story of their house. By mutual agree- 
ment, the business was then divided. The Dry Goods Depart- 
ment was taken charge of by Messrs. Jaquess, Hudspeth & Co., 
and Mr. French, in connection with Charles Klingelhcefer, enter- 
ed the General Car-pet and House Furnishing trade, exclusively, 
and from that time, has been transacting a large business in that 
line, having brought the business from less than $10,000 sales per 
annum^ to its present extensive proportions. The spacious and 
elegant store room of Messrs. French & Co., No. 205 Main Street, 
to-day, contains one of the largest and most beautifully selected 
stocks in the trade to be found in the West, and indeed, would 
attract attention in any city of the United States. Buying direct 
from the manufacturers, the firm is enabled to meet the views of 
the closest purchasers, and sell against all competitors. East or 
West. On this account, Evansville has become proverbial as the 
cheapest Carpet Market west of the Alleghany Mountains, and 
this house has, undoubtedly, proven headquarters for sujjpliesfor 
Dwellings, Steamboats, Churches and Hotels. They have numer- 
ous flattering testimonials as to their taste and skill in this de- 
partment and furnished complete, the splendid St. George Hotel, 
of this city, and Docker's Kiverside Hotel at Shawneetown, Illi- 
nois. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. llT 



WM. E. FRENCH & CO., 



■DEALERS IN 



C J^ I^ I^ E T S, 



OILCLOTHS, MATTINGS, 



WSsHiraissas I 



iliiii) Pall iiiii 



HOUSE mimm goods generally, 



J^o. 203 MAIM SrrREET, EVAJ^SVILLE, IJ^^D. 



118 EVANSVILLE: fiEE COMMERCE AND MANUEACTXJRES, 



Clothing and the Clothing Trade. 

If it lay within our province to give a detailed history of man's 
garments, by diligent labor and research, a very considerable volume 
could be made of the subject, but as we can only glance at some of the 
most important points connected therewith, we shall not trespass on 
ground beyond our boundaries and speak only of the more prominent 
features. Very few persons at the present day care to think of the 
time when men were clothed in the skins of wild animals, or take time 
to admire the ingenuity aud taste employed in the production of the 
articles of their dress. Because garments are common, we are apt to 
regard them as natural, as if they grew and were not made, arriving 
at their present perfection at one spring, instead ot being the slow 
growth of not only centuries, but thousands of years. We, however, 
deem the task of tracing the gradual rise and change in the form and 
fabric of man's clothing as one both of interest and instruction. 

It seems almost superfluous to state that the first mention on record 
of an article of dress worn by a human being, is found in Genesis C. iii. 
V. 7, where we are told, "The eyes of them both were opened, and 
they knew that they were naked ; and they seived fig leaves together, 
and made themselves aprons." Milton says: 

"Those leaves 

They gathered broad as Amazonian targe, 
And with what skill they had, together sewed 
To gird their waist." 

It will be observed that they "sewed fig leaves" to each other; hence 
we have not only the first known allusion to clothing, but the first in- 
timation of clothing manufacture. Our first parents did not take a 
simple leaf to hide their nakedness, as earless readers often assert, but 
they sewed several together, and thus performed the first human labor, 
that of manufacturing, and both seem to have worked at tailoring. 
This interesting genealogical, or rather ancestral, fact, no doubt, will 
be hailed with much joy by those "knights of the shears" who have 
delved in the musty annals of antiquity for the pedigree and origin of 
their calling; and probably will lead to the adoption of the "fig leaf" 
as their " coat of arms ." In the 21st verse of the same chapter of 
Genesis, we are informed that God made coats of skins and clothed 
Adam and his wife in them. From this it is natural to conclude that 
the apparel of the early tribes of men was composed of the skins of 
animals, nor do we read of any icoveti fabrics until the time of Noah, 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 



119 





OF INDIANA. 



FO(R AJ^ ELEGAJ^T SUIT, EITHE^R 



i$.E j^r) 'Z":m:^ide 



O R 



MADE TO MEASURE, 



LYON'S 



111 



\m mtmt. 



He Keeps also on hand a Full Assortment of 









^flfe. lar la 



feax'i) 



His Goods are Retailed at Wholesale Prices. 



120 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

when reference is made to garments in language which leaves the mind 
impressed with the idea that they were of a manufactured substance. 

Owing to the absence of pictorial art among the early Jews, 
we are witliout any reliable representation of the costumes of 
that people. But from the tenacity with which the modern re- 
presentatives of this people hold on to the profession, or calling, 
it might be inferred, that it is of ancient origin, and was consid- 
ered highly honorable, even in the days beyond the Deluge. 
However, what illustrations we have, are merely drawn from 
fanc}^, or, more properly, represent the Jewish costume at an early 
age of the world, when Egyjjt began to leave her impression upon 
the habits and customs of man. Therefore, at this period, profane 
history throws considerable light on man's progress in the arts of 
civilized life, and we are enabled to abandon the vague and unsat- 
isfactory reference to clothing made bj^ sacred writers, for the 
more explicit statements and circumstantial details of secular his- 
torians, whether recorded on papyrus, or impressed on the more 
endurable substance, stone. 

One of the peculiar characteristics in dress with all, or nearly 
all Eastern nations, is the habit of wearing flowing robes. The 
Turks, Arabs, Hindoos, Chinese and Japanese, have adhered, for 
centuries, to loose garments. Their stj^le of dress differ* in some 
respects, according to the nation, but the great fact, that the ap- 
parel of all these is loose and free, is too well established to be re- 
futed. Fashion has but few votaries in those lands, so far as dress 
is concerned. The same peculiarity also marks the costume of 
nearly all ancient nations, as the representations left us amply 
testify. The Romans and Gi-reeks did not wear pantaloons, and 
Demosthenes or Cicero would greatly degenerate were we to 
clothe them in " swallow-tailcoats and white kids," and send them 
forth to lecture in the forum like George Francis Train, or Henry 
Ward Beecher, for instance. Broadcloth takes the poetry out of 
all ancient costumes. It would be a difficult matter to imagine 
'" Ofchello," or either of the " Two Gentleman of Verona," or an}' 
of the heroes of medieval ages, decked out in modern coat, vest 
and pants; about as difficult as it would be to fancy the foremost 
man of all the world, the Great Julius, dying with any proper 
degree of dignity at the base of Pompej^'s statue, in a fashiona- 
ble suit made by a modern tailor. 

It might be well enough tor the curious student to take th^ 



CLOTHING AND THE CLOTHING TRADE 121 

history of dress in England, to illustrate the improvements in 
modern clothing, tor the simjDle reason that nearly all fashions 
have l)een in vogue among that people. The Ancient Britons, 
when Csesar visited the island, wore skins in Winter, and went 
nearly naked in more favorable weather. Caractacus, when car- 
ried before the Emperor Claudius Ctesar, was for the most part 
nude, having an iron chain around his neck, and a second around 
his middle, and as he was a monarch, we may reasonably suppose 
that the costumes of his subjects was exceedingly meagre. Boa- 
dicea, the war-like Queen of the Britons, and who is a conspicu- 
ous character in early history, is described by the Eomans as wear- 
ing a loose robe, of changeable colors, over a thick-plaited kirtle. 
The costume of the ancient Saxon women was composed of linen 
robes, interlaced, and trimmed with purple, without sleeves, their 
arms bare, and their bosoms uncovered. The Anglo-Saxons, it is 
said, were the first inhabitants of England to adopt close-fitting 
coats. In their time the dress of kings and nobles was often 
trimmed with gold ; ornamental elegance in dress, thus making 
its advent among them. 

The Normans and Flemings who accompanied William the Con- 
querer into England were remarkable for their ostentation and love of 
finery. Personal decoration was their chief study, and new fashions were 
continually introduced. Indeed, they seem to have been the fashion 
makers of their times, as the Parisian a7iisies are reputed to be of ours. 
The Monk of Malmesbury, in his Life of Edward the Second, com- 
plains that such was the pride of dress, that the Squire endeavored to 
outshine the Knight in the richness of his apparel ; the Knight the 
Baron, the Baron the Earl, and the Earl the King himself. It was not 
until after the Crusades that those articles of dress, indispensable to us 
nfoderns, such as the shirt and vest or waistcoat, came into use. About 
the time of Henry VIII. , something approaching present garments 
became general in use. In Cromwell's day this was further advanced, 
and partook strongly, of the sour character of the times. In the reign 
of Charles II. , a thorough revolution pervaded all customs, and the 
style of dress, particularly that of the females, was as graceful and as 
loose as their morals. The costumes of the gentle sex, as given in the 
pictures of that day, were truly natural and elegant, at once imparting 
beauty and attraction to the form. The stiflT stomacher, the horrible 
rufi", and the more savage farthingale were repudiated by nearly all. 
The ruflT, by the way, illustrates the trifling origin of many strange 

16 



122 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

things in dress. It was invented in the time of Edward VI., by a 
Spanish or Italian lady of quality, to hide a wen on her neck. The 
cravat has a similar history. It was first worn by some royal gentle- 
man to conceal the ulcerous effects of the scrofula in the throat. Fash- 
ion, it seems, has often proceeded from a desire to increase personal at- 
traction, but still more frequently from mere caprice or design on the 
part of professional modistes for gain or trade. That health, ease, grace 
and natural motion are often sacrificed to it, needs no elucidation, and 
it is a curious fact that men who revolt at dictation from all other 
sources, obey fashion, and submit to torture because their tailor cuts 
their coat in the mode 

The only country in the world, it is given out, which does not yield 
implicit obedience to this tyrant's sway is Spain. Paris does not j^rescribe 
the style of dress for Madrid, but in republican America, we loyally ac- 
knowledge her supremacy. In every age there has been one or more 
persons who may be styled the impersonation of fashion, and the mon- 
arch of dress. Among those of this class most celebrated,, we might 
refer to Beau Brummell, whose influence in controlling trade was so 
great that his patronage was a tailor's fortune, and his name has long 
since been adopted a synonym for " dressiness." He was the patron 
of Schweitzer & Davidson, of Cork street, Loudon, who not only sup- 
plied his clothing gratuitously, but are said to have furnished him with 
pocket money, when his fortunes were on the wane, by delicately in- 
serting in the vest pocket a £100 note on sending a suit home. Beau 
Nash, his illustrious prototype, was another arbiter of fashion; both 
were constantly in debt, and both died in extreme poverty, wanting 
the necessaries of life. These were samples of their class — the dandies 
— a class, however, which has never been held in high esteem by either 
men or women of sense. Among races, the one in which a love of gay 
dress and tawdry finery may be most extensively observed, is the negro. 
Savage or civilized, they always affect gay colors, and are the natural 
dandies of the human species. The fashions of this country are ad- 
mitted to be generally derived from France, although it is evident that 
many of them, and those of the best, are of our own invention. The 
plates published in New York and Philadelphia, are valuable to the 
fashion arbiters of Paris, who frequently use their hints without "ren- 
dering unto Caesar," etc. Change in dress is effected quickly with us, 
and striking alterations have taken place within the past few years. 
About forty or fifty years ago, it was customary to wear coat collars 
large enough for a horse, and not very unlike a horse collar — as por- 



CLOTHING AND THE CLOTHING TRADE. ^ 123 

traits of the dear, blessed old bald-headed gentlemen with their smoothly 
shaven and kindly faces we see hanging up in parlors here and there, 
will show. About 1830, a reformation occurred, and now the most 
elegant of such garments the world produces, as regards shape, fit or 
collar, are those of American manufacture. 

The revolution thus effected by the popularity of Eeady- 
Made Clothing, has not been confined to the large cities. It has 
extended to all sections of the country, limiting the country mer- 
chant's sale of Piece-Goods for Mens' and Boys' Wear, and com- 
pelling Tailors, in some instances, to abandon their trade, and 
embark in the business themselves, or seek other employment. 
Wherever it has been introduced, it has met with singular success 
and popularity. Country merchants, who have been careful in 
the selection of sizes and styles, have found that the sale of 
Clothing can be effected with less trouble than Piece Goods, and 
without the serious drawback of remnants^ — that there is less com- 
petition — that their daily receipts of cash are thereby increased — 
and we commend the matter to their attention as a profitable and 
desirable addition to their stock in trade. This important and 
very complete change in the Wholesale Clothing business of Ev- 
ansville, is, therefore, worthy of notice. In former days, the only 
Eeady-Made Clothing, kept for sale, was purchased in the North. 
But the inconvenience attending delays and mis-fits, on the part 
tailors ; the advantages of procuring a wardrobe at a moment's 
notice ; the ability of merchants to manufactui-e and sujjply 
Clothing equally good, and much cheaper at Wholesale, than to or- 
der, has led to the establishment of large manufactories for the 
business in our midst. The introduction of sewing machines, to 
this class of work, has greatly facilitated rapid and durable man- 
ufacture ; but the one great and commendable benefit resulting 
from the success of this branch of industry, is the immense fields 
of employment it opens for the poor, especially for females, for 
by this means they are afforded a permanent source of occupa- 
tion, while the prices paid insure the engagement of workmen of 
experience and undoubted ability. In this connection, a wide- 
spread opinion, prejudicial to the respectable clothier, we have 
taken pains to investigate. It is said to be customary in the trade 
to pay the work-people, especially the females, such prices for 
their work, as will barely suffice to prevent starvation. Hood's 
" Song of a Shirt," and other fearful pictures of over-worked, un- 



124 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERO-E AND MANUFACTURES. 

der-paid, and suffering needle-women, are familiar to all, and have 
excited ovir sympathies for those who are compelled to " stitch, 
stitch, stitch " for a miserable subsistence. That some of the lower 
class of manufacturers do oppress the poor, do afford the lowest 
possible remuneration for work that will support life, we are com- 
pelled to believe. But upon making minute and particular inqui- 
ries as to the remuneration giver, for female labor by respectable 
Wholesale and Retail Clothiers in Evansville, we are convinced 
that, notwithstanding the competition in the trade, and the temp- 
tation to lower prices by underpaying labor, the females so em- 
ployed are comparatively well paid and evidently satisfied. 

As Clothing must be made in large quantities in advance of 
the season for its sale, and as the hands receive their pay in cash 
on delivery, while the manufactured article is usually sold on long 
credit, it is obvious that a large capital is necessary to carry on an 
extensive business. Without practical knowledge and taste, a 
large quantity of unsalable goods of less value than the uncut 
cloth, may be fabricated, and which must be sold at a positive loss. 
It is a singular fact that practical tailors, however skilled in their 
trade, and though possessed of the requisite capital and taste, 
rarely succeed as wholesale manufacturers of Clothing. Their 
previous pursuits and habits have not fitted them, in fact seem to 
have unfitted them for a business which requires the wholesale 
manager to take in at a glance the various tastes of consumers in 
the South and West, the teamster among the plantations of Ken- 
tucky, the boatman of the Ohio Kiver, or to speak further, the 
dressy gallant in the towns and villages of various adjoining States. 

Another interestins: feature of this trade occurs to us at this 
point — the manufacture of Boys' and Youths' Clothing, which de- 
mands even more than a passing notice. It is well known to most 
persons that "Young America" long since declared his independ- 
ence, which was acknowledged by the contending powers — pater- 
nal and maternal — and it would seem that one of his grievances as 
set forth was, that bis clothing wa« made by parents or seam- 
stresses, not always in the most tasteful manner and more frequent 
than seldom, out of the dilapidated garments of " big brothers " or 
some elder member of the family — of which barbaric practice even 
ourself could recite some moving tales. So, to pacify Master Pre- 
cocity, the leading Clothjng houses established departments for 
Boys' and Youths' Clothing as a branch of their general trade, and 



ADVEETISEMENTS. 



125 



CLOTHING PALACE. 





11 



Manufaeturepg and Dealers in 



^^'- 




m 



jJiir 



-A N D- 



GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS, 



No 203 Main Street, Evansville, Ind. 



126 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

which has proven lucrative and satisfactory. As additional illus- 
tration of the tendency of the age to increased manufactured 
articles, and as one of the results of the successful introduction of 
Ready-made Clothing, we may refer to Shirt making and to those 
branches which include G-entlemen's Underwear which forms an 
important adjunct to the business. Connected with this depart- 
ment Gents' Furnishing Goods come in fora share of attention, and 
which embrace Cravats, Handkerchiefs, Gloves, Hosiery, etc., etc. 
The leading Clothiers of the city of Evansville are: Messrs. 
H. Joseph & Co., No. Ill Upper First street; L. Loewenthal & 
Co., No. 112 Upper First street, who sell by wholesale exclusively ; 
Carius & EUes, No. 107 Main street; M. Lyon, No. 110 and 112 
Main street; J. H. Schrichte, No. 124 Main street, and Strouse & 
Brothers, No. 203 Main street. The combined annual business of 
these houses m about one and a quarter millions of dollars, and ex- 
tends over the various States trading with Evansville. As a class 
our dealers seem to have as rare talent for introducing styles as the 
French modistes, and they have maintained their popularity by 
manifesting a disposition to give entire satisfaction to their patrons 
in quality, style, workmanship and "fit" — so that persons order- 
ing can have the further assurance, that if the articles do not an- 
swer as " billed" they can be returned and others will be sent. 
Therefore the success that has attended their enterprise is due, not 
only to their reputation for fair dealing, but also to their untiring 
application of care and watchfulness to insure uniform excellence 
in material, workmanship and reasonable i^rice. 

M. LYON, CLOTHIER. 
In the moving panorama which a city's commercial life un- 
folds, there are enchanting pictures of plenty and prosperity, 
which gather about them the air of romance and the glamour of 
a fairy tale. There are great houses employing scores and hun- 
dreds whose earnings gladden the hearthstone. There are smaller 
ones that wrap up the thought and life of a few individuals, and 
side by side with the man, is placed the material work of his hand 
and the product over which his brain has toiled. Could the pic- 
ture of our city life be painted with its mja-iad interests, th«ir re- 
lation, interdependence and all the accessories brought out, 
what a work it would be for contemplation and admiration. 

One of the men who would figure in such a group, would beM. 
Lyon, Esq. His mammoth establishment on Main Street, plays 



CLOTHING AND THE CLOTHING TRADE. 127 

an important part in our city life. It represents, in itself, a great 
interest. The Eetail Clothing trade of Evansville has been, in a 
manner, made by him, and much of the reputation the city enjoys 
in this direction, is mainly due to his efforts. Eighteen years 
ago, the time when he began his successful career here, the crty 
had no interests of this kind worthy of the name. He began at 
once to foster the trade, always relying upon himself — " going it 
alone, without a partner." His shrewd mercantile qualities as a 
buyer, and courteous, upright business life, soon began to have its 
effect. But it has reqiiired his undivided time and attention, and 
how completely and thoroughly he has succeeded, let his mam- 
moth trade to-day bear the full measure of evidence. 

One of the levers of his prosperity, however, bringing his 
name and his goods constantly before the people, has been adver- 
tising. He has tested the matter as no other merchant in Evans- 
ville has ever done, and we, therefore, look upon him, and point 
to his business, as triumphant proot of the incalculable value of 
printer's ink. 

He has recently made another grand stride in his business and 
moved into a mammoth new establishment, JNos. 110 and 112 Main 
street, opposite his former house, No. 109. The building has been 
erected with an eye single to Lyon's business. It is three stories 
high, 40 feet wide and 130 feet deep, with a massive and elegant 
iron front in the modern Italian and French mixed schools of 
architecture, and undoubtedly one of the most imposing Clothing 
palaces in the West. The French plate dows and windows of the 
front, are very beautiful and attractive, while the grand arcade 
formed by a colonnade of cast iron columns supporting the build- 
ing from the center, give the establishment all of the excellencies 
of show and afford admirable space for the arrangement of his ex- 
tensive display. We cannot undertake in this sketch to minutely 
detail the orderly disposal of the goods, and shall only mention 
the more salient features. To the left of the salesroom, as we 
enter, is the department for Youths' and Boys' Clothing, evidenc- 
ing the largest stock and the best selections of the kind in 
the State. To the right will be found the department for 
Men's Clothing and Gents' Furnishing Goods. The center of the 
room, beneath the rotunda, is the Custom Department, thus giving 
ample room for the immense lines he carries, and affording suflS- 
cient space to give the necessary display of goods. He has twenty- 



128 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

eight hands constantly employed, and his pay-roll ranks with large 
manufactories. All his Eeady-raade Clothing is made from his ex- 
press order in New York, or is custom-made, and hence is superior 
to the ordinary clothing which is sold under the name of Eeady- 
made Clothing. In addition, he receives orders for suits, and over 
this department excellent cutters preside. He always purchases 
directly from importers and extensive manufacturers, and being a 
sagacious dealer, never fails to save nn average of 15 per cent., 
which the "middle man" would get if he were compelled to pur- 
chase of an intermediate seller. No dealer is able to do this un- 
less his business is so large that he can buy in vast quantities. 

We must also make note of a department which seems the 
exclusive province of this house so far. This season he has laid 
in a heavy and elegant stock of Fine Satin-lined Garments — much 
finer than ever before brought to this market — and including ele- 
gant Bobes de Chambre, Smoking Jackets, Smoking Caps, etc. 
His stock of Fine Embroidered Shirts, Shirt Jewelry, Neck Wear, 
and all those little details of elegance and dress en regie, are cer- 
tainly wonderful in variet}^ in style, and in delicate make and 
texture. Of the extent of Mr. Lyon's business, we do not hesi- 
tate to speak, and the citizens of Evansville and adjacent cities 
will admit its vastness. Henderson, Madisonville, Hopkinsville, 
Eockport, Owensboro, Mt. Vernon, Carmi, Grrayville, Princeton — 
indeed, there is not a fashionable town within a radius of one 
hundred miles from Evansville, that is not represented in cash 
transactions on his salesbook, and even St. Louis, Nashville, and 
Memphis, have each a place None but a firm hand, with a broad 
business intelligence could have brought to the city the great 
credit of being the first in the State, in this, Mr. Lyon's, depart- 
ment, of our commercial interests. The people of this city can 
justly accord to him this credit and this honor, because he has 
earned it. 

8TR0USE & BROTHERS' "CLOTHING PALACE." 

Some sniveling, cynical, thread-bare philosopher, poet, nondescript, 
or what not, once upon a time, gave existence to the maxim, aphorism, 
proverb or axiom " Clothes do not make the man." Fardon us, gen- 
tle reader, if we disagree with such foolish notion. John Euskin, one 
of the most pleasing writers in the world of modern English literature, 
made use of the expression, "Show me a man's books and I will read 
you his character," and the same is true, when applied to the outer 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



129 



J. H. SCHRICHTE, 



Sftiiaal ¥Ml#f 




AND MANUFACTURER OF 







No. 124 Main Street, 



aE3"mAjgBL.i'mji^«~m7'3B:3C-<ac-.:^53, :m:TmtJ :mcm:m: j^k^Tms j^^. 



17 



130 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

garments of our fellow-man. Clothes certainly do not make the man, 
but clothes are indicative of the man, and we rate our opinion of 
strangers, just as we see them habited. The subject is one that has 
been discussed and meditated over ever since the days when Adam was 
content to pick posies in company with Eve, and she to while away the 
hours even in Paradise, made those "garments of fig leaves." This 
commendable taste or habit, has been thus handed down to us by our 
first parents, and year by year some new design springs up, some hand- 
some fashion, that despite the fallen condition of humanity causes us 
to revere the memory of our common primogenitor, and to accept our 
discomfiture cum grano salts. Each new season brings to us new 
adaptations made to beautify and adorn the figure, as well as for utility's 
sake. 

This trade, then, having ramified and expanded to such an extent, 
there needs must be capacious houses engaged in its conduct. One of 
the most prominent firms employed in the business is the reliable, well- 
known and justly popular firm of Strouse & Brothers. This firm 
numbers six brothers, born, raised and educated in the business, in the 
city of Baltimore, Maryland. They have an extensive wholesale manu- 
factory at No. 13 South Sharp street, in that city, where they employ 
fourteen cutters and over three hundred men and women to make up 
their goods. They manufacture and sell over a half million dollars' 
worth of goods per annum. In addition to their manufactory, they 
have retail establishments located in the following cities: No. 40 West 
Baltimore street, Baltimore; No. 428 Main street, Kansas City, Mo.; 
and No. 203 Main street, Evansville. In this article we desire to 
speak only of their Evansville house. About five years ago they 
located here, and first occupied a store on Main street, adjoining the 
establishment of I. Rittenberg. 

By strictly fair and square dealing, they have been enabled 
to build up their present trade, and at the present time, display 
their stock in one of the most orderly Clothing Houses of the 
Western country. A stroll through the establishment would not 
fail to please. All manner of Overcoats, Coats and Vests, and of 
all colors and qualities, plain or trimmed with elegant binding, 
and with and without Velvet Collars are to be seen. Diagonals, 
Dahlia, Black and Brown, made up into charming Coats and 
Sacks, are also here in abundance. Their stock of Broad Cloths, 
including regular Dress Coats and Sacks, double and single 
breasted, proving, undoubtedly, that if a party desires to be mar- 



CLOTHING AND THE CLOTHING TKADE. 131 

ried at the earliest opportunity, he needs only to procure the 
license and move forward without any delay for " stitching." 
Their stock of Pantaloons is also extensive, embracing Doeskins 
Lavender, Lilac, Gray and Mixed Cassimeres, both English and 
American. In the way of Vests, they have sundry shaped and 
figured Silks, Velvets, Marseilles, and various other kinds, so that 
whether the customer desires a wedding outfit, a promenade dress 
or an ordinary business suit, the house of Strouse & Brothers is 
the place to visit, since their stock embraces everything, from the 
finest to the cheapest, both in Light and Dark Goods. They keep, 
also, a large stock of Youths' Boys' and Children's Clothing. In 
the way of Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods, they are well prepared 
to meet all orders. They have peculiar advantages in that class of 
Goods, too, since they buy in the case, and divide up airwng their 
several houses. They sell at least ten different kinds of White 
Shirts, but the special pattern they deal in is, the celebrated " Dia- 
mond D," which they guarantee, both in durability and true fit. 
Their stock of underwear — Gauze, Cambric, Lisle Thread, Wool 
and Merino Shirts; Linen and Jeans Drawers — all custom-made — 
Suspenders, Hosiery, Handkerchiefs — the latter either Silk, Linen, 
or Cotton — and all the latest styles of Linen and Paper Collars. 
A very large and well selected stock of Neck-Wear — including 
Scarfs, Ties and Bows, variegated in colors and lovely to behold. 
In truth, a visit to their establishment well repays the time con- 
sumed. 

J. H. SCHKICHTE, MERCHANT TAILOR. 

Our task would not be complete without some account of a business 
man in Evans wille, who, by his liberal use of Printer's Ink, has made 
his name as familiar as a " household word; " who has been the most lav- 
ish patron of the Press, and who in turn has been furnished by News- 
papers, Magazines and Books, wings with which the fame of his estab- 
lishment has flown to many quarters of our land. However, we desire 
to set ourself right on one point prior to proceeding further. 

We have elsewhere indicated that "Clothes do not make the man ;' 
and we shall now undertake to prove in a somewhat inconsistent, but 
by no means paradoxical effort, that clothes do make the man, and we 
shall call to our aid no less an authority than the "myriad-minded 
bard," the late lamented Shakespeare. In his master play of Hamlet, 
we find Polonius, Lord Chamberlain to Claudius, King of Denmark, 
imparting some valuable information to his son Laertes, prior to his 



132 EVANSVtLLE: HER COMMERCE AKD MANUFACTURES. 

departure for France. Scarcely a passage in all the Proverbs, or a 
wisdom-pointed thought in all of Solomon's sayings, contains more 
force or beauty than that passage, for Shakespeare wrote also with an 
inspired pen when he put it in old Polonius' mouth to say these few pre- 
cepts to his son's memory : 

"Give thy thoughts no tongue, 

Nor any unproportion'd thought his act. 

Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. 

The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, — 

Grapple them to thy soul with hooks of steel: 

But do not dull thy palm with entertainment 

Of each new-hatch'd, unfledg'd comrade. Beware 

Of entrance to a quarrel: but, being in, 

Bear it, that the opposer may beware of thee. 

Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice: 

Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment. 

Costly thy habit, as fhy purse can buy, 

But not expressed infancy ; rich, not gaudy : 

For the apparel oft proclaims the many 

This fact, then, established, we shall take especial pleasure in re- 
ferring to another house engaged in the Clothing business, viz : John 
H. Schrichte, Merchant Tailor, No. 124 Main street. We place his 
name here, then, confident that his staunch character, energy and capi- 
tal have advanced his pursuit to first-class position and thereby entitles 
him to honorable mention. The house over which he now has absolute 
control was established by Mr. H. Feldman, some twenty-eight or 
thirty years ago. In 1865, Mr. Schrichte came in as a partner, and 
the following year he bought Mr. Feldman's interest, and has continued 
th6 business alone and over his own name up to the present date. His 
specialty is Fine Tailoring and the very best class of Custom-made 
work. Schrichte's name has become the synonym for fine and elegant 
work, and his trade includes the most fashionable and "tony" of the 
"bloods" of this and adjoining cities. Nor have we a more liberal, 
conscientious and accommodating tradesman in our city, and if our own 
personal wishes could be gratified we would seek no higher purpose in 
this regard, than to see Schrichte the absolute controller of an immense 
trade, for his excellent and fashionable fabrics would undoubtedly in- 
augurate a happier and bettered condition of the community in which 
he resides. 



HATS, CAPS, FUES AND STKAW GOODS. 133 



Hats, Gaps, Furs and Straw Goods- 
la some form or other, man appears to have made use of a 
Hat, to protect his head from the cold of Winter, the burning 
rays of the sun, or against blows in battle, from the most remote 
periods. As a part of defensive armor, the Hat was the helmet, 
which still retains its primitive shape ; as a protection from the 
weather, it was the Cap, such as we see in the ancient figures, re- 
presenting the Goddess of Liberty. Among the Eomans the Cap 
was regarded as a symbol of liberty, and slaves were presented 
with a Cap on receiving their freedom. Hats, as a piece of dress, 
seem to have been introduced as a distinction among the Ecclesi- 
astics m the Twelfth Century, though it was not till the year 1400, 
that they were generally adopted by respectable laymen. But in 
nearly all ages, the Hat being the most conspicuous article of 
dress and surmounting all the rest, it was natural to give to it 
special care and attention, to place it in showy plumes and jewels, 
and surround it with bands of gold and silver. According to an old 
ballad, descriptive of the different kinds of covering for the head : 

" Any Cap, whate'er it may be, 

Is still the sign of some degree." 

The rank of persons being determined by the shape of the 
Hat, we find that the King donned the crown as a badge of his 
royalty; the Cardinal wore a red Hat, indicative of his willing- 
ness to shed his blood for Jesus Christ ; and the Court Jester 
adorned his conical-shaped head-covering with a diminutive tin- 
tinnabulating bell. So too, even at this date, we frequently 
measure a man's importance by the appearance of his chapeau, 
and there are •' none so poor to do him reverence," who persists 
in wearing a "shocking bad Hat," or a miserable " little old Hat." 

From general statistics, we learn that it has been estimated 
that a capital of about $8,000,000 is invested in the trade in the 
United States ; that about 24,000 persons, male and female, are 
employed in it, and about 11,700,000 Hats and Caps are annually 
made, of the value of 15,020,000. The local Hatting trade, though 
unquestionably entitled to rank, as a leading pursuit in Evans- 
ville, from the aggregate value of its merchandise sales as well 
as manufactures, has so few salient points, and has been so little 
indebted to the labors of the inventor, that a few words respect- 



134 EVANSVILLE: EtBK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

ing it must suffice ; yet, as an evidence of the further sub-division 
of trade, and as an evidence of it« great increase, year by year, 
very much may be said. Virtually, the same rales governing the 
Wholesale Departments of trade, in the way of Dry Goods and 
ISlotions, and Boots and Shoes, in Bvansville, will apply to those 
houses engaged in the sale of Hats, Caps, Furs and Straw Goods. 
The same care in the selection of goods for this locality, and the 
same arguments that may be advanced concerning their advan- 
tageous condition may be applied here. 

In an economical point of view, the most gratifying feature that 
we have to note in this pursuit is the progressive and indomitable sj^irit 
of enterprise manifested by the Hat dealers of Evansville, and their 
establishments may be stated as entirely independent of the vaunted 
"leaders and introducers of fashions for Gentlemen's Hats" of the 
North ; for by uniform excellence in purchase of articles adapted to the 
home market, they have attained a very desirable and enviable re\)\i- 
tation. It has been their aim, also, to introduce the most novel and 
original styles ; and as a means to this end have established connections 
with the best manufacturers of the country whereby they are in receipt 
of all new goods and new styles as soon as they make their appearance 
in the great emjDoriums, bringing us to the standard of a first-class 
market, and quite as much in "fashion" as any of them. They have 
thus brought the taste of wearers to the very doors of their patrons, 
and been more uniformly successful in introducing beautiful designs 
than the soi-disant "leaders" — botchers, who frequently ignoring the 
cultivated taste of our Southern and Western customers, substitute and 
try to palm oflT the crude vagaries of their own imaginations. For 
artistic beauty and excellence of quality, as well as for the favorable 
prices asked we claim, then, for the wares sold in Evansville induce- 
ments co-equal with those offered in any of the largest and most cele- 
brated jobbing markets in America. The various wholesale houses en- 
gaged in the trade are located as follows : D. H. Lanphear, No. 102 
Upper First street; A. G. Torian (successor to Roach & Torian), No. 
115 Upper First street, and F. A. Weber & Co., No. 120 Upper First 
street. The leading retail houses are : John H. Dannettell, No. 209 
Main street; P. Vautier, No. 117 Main street, and A. H. Weber & 
Co., No. 120 Main street. The combined business of these houses will 
reach the formidable figures $600,000 per annum, showing a handsome 
increase of at least twenty per cent, for the past successive years. 

Before closing this article we should state that these houses also 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 135 



]). H. LANPHEAR, 



JOBBER, OF 



HATS, CAPS, FURS 



A^NT> STIl^^\r aooDS- 



ALSO, LADIES' AND MISSES' 



fiillii III & ilif iS^ ii 



1 «1W(! 



J^o. 201 U^r^ErR FMST S^EET, 



Evansville, Indiana. 



136 EVAN8VILLE: HBJR COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

deal heavily in Straw Goods and in Furs. Their importations of Furs 
embrace the Russian Sable, Canada Mink, Hudson Bay Sable, Mink 
or American Sable, Russian and Belgian Fitch, Siberian Squirrel, River 
Mink, French Cooney, and the Skins of the Bear, Hudson Bay Wolf, 
Otter, Beaver, Buffalo and Raccoon. These obtained, they manufac- 
ture and sell all the latest styles of Dress Furs, such as Victorines, 
Talmas, Eugenics, Muifs, Capes, Cuffs ; also, Bear and Otter Gloves 
and Collars, besides Carriage and Sleigh Robes of Bear, Wolf, Buffalo 
or Raccoon Skins. 

A. G. TOKIAN, WHOLESALE HATTER. 

During the month of December, 1864, Mr. A. G. Torian, the 
well-known Wholesale Hatter, whose extensive business house is 
at No. 115 Upper First Street, removed to this citty from Cadiz, 
Kentucky, a favored spot of that State, which has furnished our 
city with quite a number of her leading business firms. In Au- 
gust, 1865, Mr. Torian joined Mr. Jno. J, Roach in the Whole- 
sale Hat Trade, the latter having established the house the year 
previous. In August, 1868, Messrs. Roach & Torian moved into 
the building at present occupied, where they continued in co-part- 
nership until July 1st, 1874, at which time Mr. Roach retired, 
having seen the business of the firm successfully established, and 
supplying hundreds of the best paying customers in our tributa- 
ry country. Mr. Torian is now sole proprietor and conductor of 
the business, and being favorably known for his fair-minded 
transactions, cannot fail to retain his old trade, as well as to add 
many new names to his list of purchasers. 

DE WITT H. LANPHEAR, WHOLESALE HATTER. 

De Witt H. Lanphear, Wholesale Dealer in Hats, Caps, Furs and 
Straw Goods, may be found at No. 201 Upper First street, proprietor 
of one of our leading houses in that branch of business. Mr. Lan- 
phear entered the trade in January, 1865, in the house now occupied 
by Messrs. Forth & Below, and having as a partner Dr. J. W. Mitchell. 
The firm of Lanphear & Mitchell continued in existence until 1870, at 
which time Mr. Lanphear succeeded to the business. From that 
period until 1872, the trade of the house had made such gratify- 
ing increase, it was found necessary to secure more spacious quar- 
ters, and the splendid new building now occupied by him was 
taken possession of. It is 140 feet deep, 18| feet front and three 
stories high, giving ample room for the display of his extensive 
and well-assorted stock. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



137 



j^. C3-- TOi^iJ^nsr 



Successor to Roach & Torian, 



woooa^ii^atki 









Straw §oods and (gurs, 



^ 



No. 115 Upper First Street, 



EVANSVILLE, IND. 



18 



138 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

P. VAUTIER, WHOLESALE HATTER. 

Mr. P. Vautier is also proprietor of a large Hat house, No. 
117 Main Street, and he, too, is imbued with the progressive spirit 
of the age, and by persevering industry, and untiring energy, has 
achieved a notable success in his branch of business Twenty- 
three years ago he arrived in Evansville with very little other 
means than a knowledge of his business, and a cheerful disposi- 
tion, and buoyant spirits. In 1851, he made, with his own hands, 
the first Silk Hat ever manufactured in Evansville. From 1851 
to 1854, he conducted the business alone. Having admitted Mr. 
Alex. Marconnier as a partner, the firm, until 1867, was Vautier 
& Marconnier. In 1867 Mr. Vautier retired from the firm, and 
moved to New York. Mr. Marconnier then continued the busi- 
ness until his death, which occurred in 1873, whereupon Mr. Vau- 
tier again removed to Evansville and re-established himself. 
During the present Fall he has remodeled and refitted his store, 
so that now it is the handsomest Hat house in the city. In his 
manufactures he makes specialties of Fine French Felt and Silk 
Hats, while in his general stock may be discovered an excellent 
display of Straw Goods, and Ladies' and Gent's Fancy Furs. 
E. A WEBER & CO., WHOLESALE HATTERS. 

On February 12th, 1867, this young firm, the Weber Bros., 
who had recently arrived herefrom Madison, Indiana, began busi- 
ness in a small way, in the house now occupied by Fred. Brokamp 
"the tailor," at the corner of Main and Second streets. Whether 
from luck or not, but we are strongly inclined to believe as the 
result of enterprise, energy and strict attention to business, they 
saw their trade double from season to season, so that they were 
compelled to increase their room to meet the growing demands of 
their customers, and in consequence moved into the house. No. 126 
Main street. At the end of their fourth season, the business had 
grown so largely that, having to embark in the wholesale branch, 
they were compelled to separate the departments, leaving their 
retail house and manufactory at No. 126 Main street, and securing 
as the wholesale house one of the palatial metropolitan houses in 
the Lewis Block, No. 120 First street. This house is 150 feet long, 
by 25 feet wide, and is four stories and a basement high. 

It is a difficult matter for a writer of sketches to "straddle" 
two houses in one sketch, after the style of the Colossus at Rhodes, 
but the business being one of colossal proportions, the trouble is 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 139 



JOBBEKS AND MANUFACTTTKEKS OF 

HATS, CAPS, FURS 

And Straw Goods, 

No. 120 Upper First Street, 



Manufacturers and Retail Dealers in 

Hats, Caps, Furs 

And Straiv Goods, 

126 Main Street, 

EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 



140 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURI^S. 

somewhat set aside. First, then, we will go back to their Eetail 
Establishment, and give a brief notice of their facilities for re- 
ceiving and disposing of goods. This house is under the conduct 
of Messrs. A. H. Weber & Co., who are joint partners with F. A. 
Weber & Co., the wholesale dealers, in the manufacturing depart- 
ment. The building is three stories and a basement high, and 
eighty by twenty feet in dimensions. Their salesroom has been 
fitted and furnished in an elegant manner that would not look out 
of place in the busy marts of the largest cities. The walls and 
ceiling handsomely finished in delicate lavender frescoe-papering, 
the oiled walnut cases, the polished French plate mirrors, and the 
handsome silver-plated counter show-cases, give the place an ap- 
pearance quite distinguished. On this floor they keep in fine dis- 
play their retail stock and fancy goods. The second and third 
stories and the basement of the same building form their Manu- 
facturing Department. 

The Manufacture of Hats is an extremely interesting process, 
and combines the making of Silk and Soft Fur Hats. In the 
manufacture of the universally worn and always popular Silk 
Hats, they make specialties of the "Trade" and the "Broad- 
way " styles. They use the highly improved Grossamer Body, in- 
stead of the Fur Body, which is passing out of vogue. ThisGrOs- 
samer is first cut out by patterns in sizes ready to be put in shape, 
and then stiffened by a patented process, when they are taken to 
the blocks and properly shaped. They have two new sets of 
blocks for each season. The Silk Plush Cloth, glossy and beauti- 
ful, which they use, is imported direct from the houses of Martin 
and Hoover, of Paris, and is brought out in bolts like other 
goods. They have a pattern for each number, and after the cov- 
erings are cut they are then overstitched by hand, stretched over 
the body, dampened, pressed and trimmed, altogether making a 
very interesting series of manipulations. They turn out about 
three hundred dozen Fine Silk Hats per season. 

For the manufacture of Soft Hats, the principal Fur used is 
Beaver, Side and Bella JSutria, Coney and Double-ring Eussia. 
These Furs are imported and already prepared for Hatters' use. 
To make a Soft Hat, the Fur is first weighed — it requires three to 
four ounces for a hat — then bowed, formed, sized, blocked, pounced 
and finished, making in all seven different handlings. Their 
manufactures of Soft Goods embrace a line ranging from $30 to 



. BOOTS AND SHOES. 141 

per dozen. They also manufacture Ladies' Furs, on a large 
scale, and already have on hand several thousand different kinds 
of Skins, on which to begin work, for the approaching season. 

Returning, now, to their Wholesale Department, at No. 120 First 
street, we observe an extensive stock filling each floor of the large build- 
ing, and arranged and classified in a very attractive manner. The first 
floor is devoted alone to the display of an immense stock of stylish Silk, 
Fur and Wool Hats and Caps for Men and Boys. The second floor is 
stocked with Ladies' Trimmed Hats and Straw Goods, and the third 
and fourth floors are used for manufacturing Ladies' Trimmed Hats, 
and for the storage of "duplicates." 

The number of styles in Hats are too numerous to mention. How- 
ever, among the leading ones might be placed the "Mobilier," "Vien- 
na," "Nebo," "Orleans," "Neilson," "Nutra Feather Weight," 
"Windsor" and "Club." In short, their stock comprises upwards of 
150 different nobby styles. 

Boots and Shoes- 

Among the various ramifications of trade in our midst, that 
have been pushed forward to a position of prominence and mag- 
nitude, within the past few years, we know of none that ranks in 
better condition than our Wholesale Boot and Shoe interest. 
Standing next in importance to Dry Groods and Groceries in the 
aggregate value of merchandise sales in this citj^, it affords a 
pleasing illustration of what a few enterprisijig and liberal mer- 
chants can accomplish, both for the trade and themselves. Fifteen 
years ago the Wholesale trade in Boots and Shoes, of this city, 
was less than $100,000, and the entire business — Wholesale and 
Retail — $123,000. But coming into the hands of an active and 
resolute class of merchants, who had unlimited confidence in the 
marked and superior advantages possessed by Evansville, as a 
point for Wholesale distribution, they have been constantly in- 
creasing their stocks, maintaining a very close margin of profits, 
advertising their business extensively, and in this manner suc- 
cessfully cultivating a trade which was accustomed to seek other 
cities. And still, not satisfied with the restricted area heretofore 
tributary to this market, they have sought for, and obtained, new 
customers at places which could be easily reached and controlled 
fi-oni this point. 



142 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 

To indulge our erratic pen for a few moments, we are led to 
consider the antiquity of pedal casings, and to present some curi- 
ous facts connected with their history. We believe, the first men- 
tion of Shoes, in Biblical literature, occurs in Exodus, iii c 5 v. 
when the Angel of the Lord appeared unto Moses in a flame of 
fire, out of the midst of a bush, addressing him thus : " And he 
said, Draw not nigh hither ; put thy shoes from off thy feet, for 
the place whereon thou standest is holy ground." Again, in Deu- 
teronomy, xxxix c. 5 v., wherein Moses, speaking of the Cove- 
nant of the Lord with the children of Israel, after their escape 
from the land of Egypt and the hosts of Pharaoh, the following 
ing language is employed : " And I have led you forty years in 
the wilderness ; your clothes are not waxen old ujDOn you, and 
thy shoe is not waxen old upon thy foot." Which evidences great 
perfection in the manufacture of Shoes in those days. But the 
oldest form of the Shoe, it appears, was that of the Sandal, a sole 
to be worn under the foot, and secured to it by thongs. The an- 
cient Egyptians made Sandals of leather, and others for the priests 
of palm leaves and papyrus. The Hebrews made use of similar 
protections for the feet, sometimes formed of linen and wood, 
while those of sotldiers were of iron or brass. Among the ancient 
Greeks and Romans, the use of Shoes was not general. Mercury, 
the " messenger of the gods," and the Deity, who presided over 
commerce and eloquence, was usually represented with a winged 
Hat on his head, and winged Shoes, called talaria, on his feet. In 
Homer's Odyssey we find him thus portrayed : 

" The God who mounts the winged winds. 

Fast to his feet the golden pinions binds, 
That high through fields of air his flight sustain. 
O'er the wide earth, and o'er the boundless main. 
He grasps the wand that causes sleep to fly, 
Or in soft slumber seals the wakeful eye : 
Then shoots from heaven to high Pieria's steep. 
And stoops incumbent on the rolling deep." 

The Spartan youths were trained to go barefoot, and the heroes of 
the Iliad are usually described as without shoes when armed for battle. 
Socrates, Phocion and Cato, it is said, frequently went barefoot — 
though the females wore shoes, and their use finally became universal. 
Shoemakers have their tutelary saints in Crispin and Crispinian, who 
were put to death about A. D. 287. The tradition is that they were 
brothers belonging to a noble Roman family ; that becoming converts 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 143 

to Christianity they took refuge in Gaul, from the persecution under 
Diocletian ; and that they preached the Gospel at Soissons by day and 
exercised the trade of shoemakers by night. They converted multi- 
tudes before their martyrdom under Maximian. The societies of shoe- 
makers known as St. Crispin, are named in their honor. Shoes have 
also had a varied history in England. In the reign of William Rufus, 
a famous beau, Robert, surnamed the Horned, introduced shoes with 
long-pointed toes, twisted like a ram's horn. Though inveighed against, 
the style became fashionable, and in the reign of Richard II., the 
points had increased to such extent that they reached the knee, to which 
they were secured by chains of silver and gold. The upper parts were 
cut to imitate the windows of a church, and the whole was made ex- 
travagantly conspicuous. For three centuries, it is said, the clergy. 
Popes, and public officers sought in vain, by declamations, bulls and 
orders, to break up the fashion, and finally by act of Parliament Shoe- 
makers were prohibited making for the " unprivileged classes any shoes 
with points more than two inches long." Boots were first known about 
the Fifteenth Century, and were originally so-called from their resem- 
blance to a sort of leathern bottle for carrying liquors, called in Span- 
ish bota, and in old French bouts. Hence, when reference, now-a-days, 
is made to "snakes in the boots," the natural inference points to an 
undue amount of the revivifying liquid in the internal possession of the 
wearer. 

But many changes have taken place in the past few years, even in 
the local Boot and Shoe trade, for, like everything else made for wear, 
they are ruled by the stern fiats and fanciful whims of Fashion ; and 
what is in season one year, is oftentimes obsolete and considered quite 
"out of style" in the next. But these changes have generally been 
for the better ; and to cite an instance familiar to many of us, we will 
state that now-a-days a negro will not wear a "Brogan Shoe," as in 
the days of yore, but instead, must have a pair of "Star Boots," or an 
"Oxford Tie," or some other encasement for his delicate and diminu- 
tive pedal extremities, with an equally euphonious name, and made 
of material equally as soft and pliable. And so, too, with the females 
of that "previous condition of servitude ; " they now no more think of 
wearing anything short of cloth gaiters — which par 'parenthesis, usually 
range in sizes from Nos. 6 to 9 — than would our most fashionable belles 
condescend to hide their dainty feet in the casings of "Ancient Africa." 
The result of all these revolutions, however, has been to force dealers 
to buy nothing but the most stylish and best articles, and in these re- 
spects Evansville Jobbers are distanced by none. 



144 EVAN8VILLE: HER COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 

After these pi*eliniiiiary remarks, perhaps we are privileged 
to enumerate a few of the many inducements for custom that are 
held out by our jobbers. Standing as they do, "A No. 1," in Eastern 
markets, and being gentlemen of capital, energy and promptness, 
they have maae the wants and specialties of their tributary trade 
the objects of their undivided study. The business is conducted 
on as liberal terms as in any market in the country, and conse- 
quently goods can be, and are, sold much lower than in markets 
that strain a point to sell on long time and charge up a ravenous 
profit to their customers. Large and well assorted stocks are kept 
here the year round, and retail mercnants, living in the adjoining 
counties and States, are not necessarily compelled to buy more 
than a few weeks supply at one time, thereby always keeping only 
fresh goods, and just such as their customers want, avoiding the 
chances of old and unseasonable goods that Eastern jobbers fre- 
juently palm off on unexperienced dealers, and in addition, re- 
ducing their liabilities. They also save time, and traveling and 
freight expenses. The difference in house rent, clerk hire, cost of 
living — all in favor of Evansville, are arguments of weight, also. 
Operated then, on a liberal basis, we have close, prompt buyers, 
while the " slow pay " goes East, buys on credit, pays more exor- 
bitant prices, loses time, and violates the custom of patronizing 
home merchants — that very custom that puts bread into his own 
mouth. 

Another fact which stamps the superior advantagesof Evans- 
ville, as a Wholesale Boot and Shoe market, is this : Evansville 
Jobbers buy their goods exclusively from first hands, and in many 
cases having the goods made for their express orders, and on as 
favorable terms as any Jobbing House of New York, Philadel- 
phia, or Boston, can sell just as cheap as any of them, only adding 
transportation charges. Another fact — Wholesale Dealers, being 
more extensive buyers than retailers, control the manufacturers^ 
and whenever they are found working against their interest, as is 
their right, often withdraw their patronage. Therefore the choice 
lays between the jobbers of Evansville and those of other cities, 
not between the retailer and the manufacturer. 

The wholesale Boot and Shoe trade with us is of but twelve 
years' growth, and was first begun by Messrs. Morgan, Read & 
Co., who have, several years since, retired. Now it is of great 
importance, and includes such eminent houses as the following: 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 145 



PETER SEMONIN. GEO. L. DIXUN 



SEMONIN & OIXON 



W30®iEiA(Lg ©g^LlS^^ 



BOOTS & SHOES, 

113 Upper First Street, 



Hv^m«Tlll®f IM€® 



19 



146 EVAN8V1LLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

W. J. Dallam, No. 2111 Upper First street; Minor, Dickey & 
Hinkle, No. 26 Upper First street; H. & J. S. Eicker, No. 212 Main 
street, and Semonin & Dixon, No. 113 Upper First street. The ag- 
gregato wholesale trade of these liouses for 1874, at an approxima- 
tion, is one and a half millions of dollars, an increase of about 15 
per Cent, over the previous twelve months. Their trade extends 
over Southern Indiana, Southern Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Missouri, Arkansas, and parts of Alabama and Mississippi. They 
sell to a paying class of merchants, and find no trouble to success- 
fully compete with St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati or Louisville — 
if anything, prices being in favor of Evansville, on account of their 
uniformity. 

SEMONIN & DIXON. 
The tendencies of trade at the present time, are the most con- 
spicuous and suggestively interesting facts of the age in which we 
live. The history of the world is largely the history of its lead- 
ing and illustrious characters. The records of the world are 
largely the records of individual men. This is a recognized truth 
in the affiiirs of Kingdoms, States, and in commercial and indus- 
trial atfairs. In early times, war and the government of States 
absorbed the energy of Statesmen, and men of action and power. 
In modern times, commerce and the arts and industries of the 
country, hold a commanding position in this respect. To-day, 
the rewards of trade and commerce, as a whole, far surpass those 
of public life. Scarcely a prince in all Eurojie, enjoys the income 
of many of the leading merchants of the world. In our own 
countiy, this is especially true, the salary of the President, even, 
being a mere bagatelle, compared to the yearly income of vast 
numbers of our merchants. The building up of large, perma- 
nent mercantile houses, is of vital importance to the welfare of 
any nation. The interests of society at large are, to a great ex- 
tent concerned in it, as well as those of individuals. The influence 
of houses of this class, in Europe, has given character to civiliza- 
tion. It is a matter of much pride then, as well as a congratula- 
tion on our part, that houses of this character are springing up 
among us, right here in Evansville. The great commercial firms 
of this city are the result of the superior organizing t.nd execu- 
tive ability of their founders. Men of this class, are the life and 
soul of the world. These are they who are the very bulwarks of 
our commercial success, for they have inscribed honor and credit 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 147 



mutoh, dickey & hiitkle 



WHOLESALE DEALEES IN 





SHO 



CORNER OF 



VINE AND FIRST STREETS, 



In Odd Fellows' New Block, 



HTanPTlll'®i 



^® 



J. K. Minor. E. Dickey. W. B. Hinkle. 



148 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

and mercantile victory on the untarnished folds of our commer- 
cial banner. 

These preliminary remarks well fit us, then, to speak briefly 
but properly of the distinguished Wholesale Boot and Shoe house 
of Semonin & Dixon, No. 113 Upper First street. Organized first 
by Mr. Peter Semonin, in 1861, and, with Mr. Thos. J. Hunt as a 
silent partner, Mr. Semonin, over his own name, conducted a large 
and increasing business for seven consecutive years. Mr. Gfeo. L. 
Dixon entered the trade alone in October, 1864. In January, 1868, 
the firms of Peter Semonin and Geo. L. Dixon were consolidated, 
Mr. Hunt still remaining silent partner and resident Eastern buyer, 
the firm doing busines under the style Semonin, Dixon & Co. 
January 9th, 1873, Mr. Hunt died, and since that time the house 
has existed as that of Semonin & Dixon. Their present establish- 
ment is a splendid building four stories and a basement high, and 
14:4x25 feet large. Their stock at all seasons is enormous, and 
their sales annually more than a half million of dollars, extending 
throughout Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee and 
Mississipi^i. Such success as has been the lot of this firm seldom 
falls upon mercantile life, no matter how ardently and zealously 
it is pursued, or what intelligence and business tact is behind to 
guide and control it. 

MINOR, DICKEY & HINKLE. 

This house, though not possessing the same claim to antiquity 
as some of its cotemporaries, is nevertheless ranked as a leading 
house in the exclusive Wholesale Boot and Shoe trade of the city. 
It was only on January 16th. 1874, that the firm was organized, 
but no one unaware of this fact would ever discover the slightest 
degree of difterence in their business and that of a firm boasting 
much greater age. The firm is composed of Messrs. James K. 
Minor, Eb. Dickey and W. B Hinkle. Mr. Minor, for a number 
of years, has been engaged in the same line of business in this 
city, and until recently was a partner with Mr. W. J. Dallam. Mr. 
Dickey has an established reputation for commercial ability and 
enterprise, partly gained while a partner in the eminent grocery 
firm of Ragon, Dickey & Ragon ; while Mr. Hinkle is well known 
throughout this section as an enterprising and untiring business 
man, having for a long time been connected with the extensive 
dry goods house of Mackey, Nisbet & Co. Their place of busi- 
ness is one of the most central and eligible in the city, being No. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



149 



"W. J. DALLAM. 



C. F. DALLAM 



W. J. DALLAM & SON, 



MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS 



And Wholesale Dealers in 



mmwm AWBk 



112i First Street — Up stairs, 



Mwmm^Wiile. MM, 



F. Vautikr, 1851 to 1854. Vautier & Marconnikr, 1854 to 18G7 

A Marconnier, 1867 to 1873. 



MANUFACTURER OF FINE 

DEALER IN STRAW GOODS, 

ILlK^bi' Dl](£] (i^Dtl^" ?D[fl)©^ (F(!llT»ii) 

Orders faithfully and punctually attended to. 



No. 117 Main Street, 



Evansville, Ind. 



150 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTtTRES. 

26 Upper First street, the corner l)uilding in the magnificent Odd 
Fellows' Temple. They began by opening out a bran new Spring 
stock, and their business even surpassed their most sanguine ex- 
pectations, fairly doubling its amount in the Fall. Thus, by judi- 
cious management and strict attention to business, they have 
already secured a large and lucrative trade in the Southern and 
Southwestern States, and from indications bid fair to become one of 
the largest Wholesale Boot and Shoe establishments in this section 
ot country. The rapid increase in their sales is the best evidence 
of a due regard for the interests of their customers in the quality 
and prices of their goods, and proof positive of a liberal system of 
transactions. We trust all who do likewise may meet with like 
success, for the building iip of so mammoth a business is not a 
purely selfish transaction. It becoTtics a public benefaction in 
making our citj^ a great metropolis. It is one of the arteries of 
our commercial life. 

Mr. Oscar L. Barbour, one of the most aflPable, courteous and 
gentlemanly salesmen in the scope of our acquaintance, is con- 
nected with this house, and his great popularity has made him 
an invaluable attache. 

W. J. DALLAM & SON. 

Messrs. W. J. Dallam & Son are another of those houses 
that elevate the mercantile reputation of the city in which they 
are eetablished. Mr. Dallam, Senior, entered the jobbing trade, in 
the city, in 1863, in company with Mr. James K. Minor, but for 
many years prior to that date, had been prominently connected 
with the Dry Goods and mercantile interests of Henderson, Ky. 
Messrs. Minor & Dallam dissolved partnership in July, 1873, each 
gentleman continuing the business alone. Soon after, Mr. Dallam 
admitted his son, C. Frank Dallam, to an interest in the affairs of 
the house, and having secured central and commodious quarters, 
at No. 211^ Upper First street, at once entered, as successful com- 
petitors, in the extensive jobbing field open to Bvansville. They 
are now the consignees of a number of the principal manufacturers 
of custom-made Boots and Shoes in the North and East — and they 
have, by their uniform observance of the mercantile virtues, con- 
tributed to place the Boot and Shoe Jobbing Business, in the 
foremost ranks of leading pursuits. 



DKUGS AND CHEMICALS. 151 



Drugs and Chemicals. 

The importation, manufacture and dispensing of Drugs, Medi- 
cines and Chemicals, at the present day, may justly be ranked among 
the most important and lucrative branches of business in our city, and 
there are circumstances connected with the progress and present condi- 
tion of the several departments which are well worthy the attention of 
the mercantile public. The original apothecary in primitive times, was 
the practicing physician, who imported his own supply of Drugs and 
dispensed them himself. A corner of the principal store in the town 
was alloted to the few medicines which were in common use, and which 
all knew how to apply, such as Glauber Salts, Cream of Tartar, Flower 
of Sulphur, Castor Oil, etc., and to the most famous Patent Medicines 
of the day — Turlington's Balsam, Godfrey's Cordial, British Oil, Bate- 
man's Drops, and Opodeldoc. Indeed, but little dignity seems to have 
been imparted to the business for centuries back, for we read in Shake- 
speare's "Romeo and Juliet" this unflattering description of a " drug 
store," which must have been indicative of those in existence in those 
distant days : 

"I do remember an Apothecary, — 

And hereabouts he dwells, — whom late 1 noted 

In tatter'd weeds, with overwhelming brows, 

Culling of simples; meagre were his looks, 

Sharp misery had worn him to the bones: 

And in his needy shop a tortoise hung, 

An alligator stufed, and other skins 

Ofill-shap'd fishes; and about his shelves 

A.beggarly account of empty boxes, 

Green earthen pots, bladders and musty seeds, 

Remnants of packthread, and old cakes of roses. 

Were thinly scattered to make up a show." 

Nor has it been many years since the legitimate Druggist was 
first known even in the United States, f(»r Bishop, in his " Histo- 
ry of American Manufactures," says : " The war of 1812, and the 
commercial restrictions which preceded it, caused such a scarcity 
and dearness of Chemicals, that numbers attempted tlie prepara- 
tion of the more prominent articles; and the complete establish- 
ment of the manufacturing business in this country, dates from 
that period. Many of these works were undertak(;n by foreign- 
ers, who had learned something of Chemical manipulations in 



152 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

German, French or English factories, or by capitalists among our 
own Druggists, who made use of foreign skill, or pretentions to 
skill, in getting their works into operation. It was in this way 
that factories for the making of Prussian Blue, Scheele's Green, 
and other Pigments and Chemicals were from time to time started." 

But the Druggist having entered the field, he soon relieved 
the physician from " compounding prescriptions " and thus sepe- 
rated the Apothecary from the mere shop-keeper, and elevated the 
business to a professional rank. Tiien by adding Paints, Window 
Glass, Oils, Dye-Stuffs, and Garden Seeds to his Drug stock, in or- 
der to make the two ends of his account meet, with the progress of 
wealth and population, this new division of labor grew to its 
present enlarged and important status. And inasmuch as the 
business touches on the one hand, the science of Medicine, and on 
the other, that of Chemistry, it may be foreibl}^ added, he who is 
the best educated, who combines with worldly common sense and 
prudence in the management of his business, the greatest scienti- 
fic skill in his calling, is generally the one destined to be most 
successful in the pursuit of wealth. 

The Drug trade in our city is conducted by three classes of traders: 
the Importer and Jobber, the Manufacturer and the Retailer or the 
Apothecary. These limits, however, are not strictly maintained except 
by a few, for the Retail Druggist generally supplies orders from the 
country from country physicians and the jobber is very often his own 
importer. The countries from whence drugs are imported are almost 
as numerous as the varieties of articles, but to detail them all, how- 
ever, would be an endless task. The best Antimony is imported from 
Hungary; Assafoetida is the fetid concrete juice of a plant that grows 
in Persia, and is used in its fresh state in that country as a condiment ; 
Camphor comes from the East Indies and Japan ; Cassia from the West 
Indies ; Jalap is a Mexican plant, found near the city of Xalapa, after 
which it is named; the best Opium is the juice of the white poppy that 
grows in Turkey, Egypt and the East Indies ; Hellebore is a native of 
the mountains of Switzerland and Germany ; Sarsaparilla is imported 
from South America, Honduras and Quito ; and Senna and Scam- 
m9ny from Arabia. In truth, one might well designate a well-stocked 
Drug house, a museum of valuable curiosities from all quarters of the 
globe. It may be remarked, too, that the Drug business covers so 
large a field, and embraces such a variety of distinct articles and pro- 
ducts, that almost every prominent house in the trade may be said to 



DKUGS AND CHEMICALS. 153 

be a representative of some particular department. The trade witli the 
city apotliecaries, with tlie larger druggists in other cities ; with inte- 
rior apothecaries and druggists in the country towns and villages, may 
be said to be distinct and have their proper representatives in particu- 
lar houses. For the use of country stores, many of the Medicines most 
in use are frequently put up in small and neatly labelled vials and sold 
in dozen packages. As the only guarantee ot the i^urity of the Medi- 
cines thus sold lies in the integrity of the Druggist, it is of the greatest 
importance to the physician and the country druggist, that they deal 
with houses of established reputation in this particular, no less than of 
competent skill in their profession. To aid such customers in making 
a fortunate selection in this essential matter, and also to illustrate the 
different departments into which the Drug business is divided, wc sul)- 
mit to their consideration sketches of a few leading Wholesale Drug 
houses. 

By way of general remark, we may say, that as a Wholesale 
Drug and Chemical Market, Evansville, it is claimed, compares 
favorably with any importing market in. the West, both in tlie 
amount of business, as well as its advantages, while the abundant 
capital employed, enables our dealers, at all seasons, to be well 
supplied with the amplest and most varied stocks to be met with 
in the South west, and which they are fully prepared to, and wo 
believe do, undersell any competing market that is not extensive- 
ly engaged in the manufacture of standard articles. As a class of 
merchants tho}^ ^"j'^y the most enviable reputation for liberality, 
fairness and reliability, while extended experience has not only 
been a good schoolmaster to them in the way of teaching them to 
select none but goods of the purest, freshest and most exact na- 
tures, but has given them decided knowledge of the wants and 
demands of the Southern and Western trade. That they are uni- 
formly conscientious in their figures, a steady and influential 
trade — wedded to these, their idols — fully attests, and that they 
sell as low as can be sold from manufacturer's first prices, is un- 
deniable. Their stocks, as before stated, are always ample and 
well assorted, and embrace almost innumerable articles included 
under the general heads of Drugs, Chemicals, Medicines, Paints, 
Oils, Dye-Stuffs, Perfumery, Fancy Articles, etc., etc., many of 
which are as familiar in the mouths of the " initiated " as house- 
hold words. 

It is said abroad, and, perhaps, with equal truth as wit, that "Per- 

fumerv of some kind is sold everywhere in the United vStates, except 
'20 . 



154 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

on 'Change and at an undertaker's." A New York journal, referring 
to this aphoristic saying, remarks : " However that may be of all other 
cities of the American Union, of the famous "Fourth City of the 
World," as New York is proudly appellated, the above apothegm might 
be further amended to read ' In fact, everywhere but at a Perfumer's.' 
For perfumers yer se — a fact not generally known — the great metropo- 
lis of New York has none. Perfumers, with the exception of a few of 
well diversified excellence, monopolized mainly by the three cities of 
Philadelphia, New Orleans and Boston, the entire United States have 
none of any name or fame extraordinary, either cis or trans- Atlantic. 
And as yet no new Richmond signalizes the faintest public desire to 
enter the most poorly-paying and worst- joromising field of Perfumery." 
This explanation permits us to say, that, in fact, the Druggists here, 
as in a measure elsewhere in America, is the Perfumer as well. He 
manufactures his own Colognes, and, as a rule, is almost invariably re- 
ticent about giving the reci2:)es ; but he also imports the finest "Farinas," 
both German and French, as well as all the other favorite and most 
costly Essences, Bouquets and Esprits of the day. In Paris every- 
thing is perfumed, in the language of the immortal Flora, "that a 
lady can wear, from the crown of her head to the sole of her foot. Or 
that can be pinned on, or stitched on, or placed, or put on with a tie." 
As in the days of Madame de Pompadour, amid the marvelous luxury 
of the time of Le Grdiid Moiiarque, the fashion is revived for gallants 
in lieu of the favorite colors, to float the special Odeurs chosen by their 
beautiful mistresses. ' In this country, however, the various Perfu- 
meries are generally named from some new-fangled notion or sensation, 
and almost every city can produce its specialties. 

But returning to the «ubjcct more especially under discussion, 
to-wit: the Wlioicsale Drug Trade of Evansville, we may say, 
the best evidence of its general prosperity, is in the fact 
that it steadily increases each year, at the rate of not less tlian 
$100,000 per annum. In 1868, according to the published report 
of the Evansville Board of Trade, the sales amounted to $620,586. 
In 1873 the estimated sales approximated one million of dollars, 
and believing the ratio of increase has been fully wbat we claim, 
if not greater, we may, without exaggeration, foot up for 1874 not 
less than $1,100,000 in transactions. This, we maintain, is a most 
excellent showing, for the year has been one of unusual dullness 
and many vicissitudes generally. The foot-prints of this trade 
have not only crossed the borders of our own State, but have pane- 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



155 



LEIGH & LEMCKE 



WHOLESALE 




^^ m m m m w/ & kr m 






y-ii ixw \AJJ) u\\ l-V 



No. 22 FIRST STREET, 



ODD FELLOWS' BLOCK, 



Ewmm^wiJM,, ImMmmsi.j 



156 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

trated far into those bordering on the Mississippi Eiver south 
from hero, and with the decided stride beyond prior sales, gives 
fair and flattering promise of a wide future. extension. 

LEICH & LEMCKE, WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS. 

Messrs. Leich and Lemcke have both been residents of this 
city for more than twenty years, with a brief hiatus ad interim. 
In 1864, Mr. Charles Leich. with Mr. A. Carlsted, as co-partner, 
established the first Wholesale Drug huuse in Evansville, under 
the firm name of Leich & Carlstedt. In 1865 ihey sold out to 
Messrs. Ferris, Sparks & Co., and removed to Cincinnati, where 
they carried on the Wholesale 'Drug business, under the firm 
style of Leich, Carlstedt& Co. In 1868 they dissolved co-partner- 
ship, and during that same year, Mr. Leich and Mr. Alexander 
Lemcke established themselves at the old house, in Evansville, 
where they have since successfully conducted their trade, and 
which was largely added to in April, of 1872, by the purchase of 
the extensive Drug stock of Messrs. Cloud, Akin & Co. 

The house at present occupied by the firm, is at No. 22 Up- 
per First street, and was completed in January, 1874. Itpartakes of 
the popular Italian style of architecture, and is 140 feet deep, 25 
feet broad, and five stories high, counting the basement. In the 
interior it is splendidly arranged, and was built expressly suita- 
ble for the Drug business, and is without a doubt, one of the most 
admirably constructed buildings for the purpose to be met in any 
of the larger cities. On the first floor an enormous stock of num- 
erous articles may be seen — Chemicals, Druggist Sundries, em- 
bracing Surgical instruments and Surgical outfits; a heavy line 
of Toilet Groods, Fancy Soaps, Cosmetics, Perfumery; flair Oils 
and Barber's Supplies. Also Patent Medicines for " all the ills 
that flesh is heir to," and Paints, Oils, White and colored Leads, 
Zincs, and a thousand and one other articles, "sold by Druggists 
everywhere," In the rear a spacious Laboratory is cut oft', and 
which is used for rebottling and arranging Oils, Tinctures, Acids, 
and other Chemicals, which may be ordered in broken packages 
by retailers. 

The second floor is arranged for Drugs proper, such as Herbs, 
Roots and all powdered or pound goods. Immense and varied assort- 
ments of Dye-woods, Gum Camphor, Spices and condiments are to be 
seen here. The rear portion of this floor is set aside for fine Imported 
Licpiors for medicinal purposes. They have a large stock of Wines 



ADVEETISEMENTS. 



157 



m WMt- 



Wholesale Druggists 



AND DEALEKSIN 



Ami 






i 



mm 



^9k ^ $i> 



gaints, iils, §ye (Stuffs, 



Surgical InatnimontR, Pliysicians' Shop Furniture, &c.; Shoulder 

Braces, Abdominal Sup])ortors, Trusses, Window Glass, pure 

Wines and Brandies for Medicinal Pur])i:>ses, and Agents 

for all the most Popular Patent Medicines. 



No. 106 Main Street, 



EVANSVILLE, - INDIANA 



168 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTITEES. 

and Brandies — Port, Madeira, Sherry and Cognac. Their Cognac 
Brandy they purchase from the producers, Messrs. Kohler & Fohling, 
of San Francisco, one of the heaviest and most reliable liquor houses in 
California. Bulky goods, such as Sulphur, Soda and articles of that 
character, are to' be seen in great abundance on the third floor. The 
fourth story contains Glassware, both Window Lights and Druggists' 
Glassware ; Graduates, Glass, Porcelain, Wedgewood and Iron Mor- 
tars, Flasks, etc., etc., so many different articles that it would be diffi- 
cult to enumerate them. The cellar is devoted to the storage of Var- 
nishes, Acids, etc. In this department they have also Fluids on draught, 
with connecting pipes running from the other stories, which saves great 
labor and time. In the cellar is also built a fire-proof vault cut off by 
solid brick walls, and only accessible by means of a heavy iron door 
opening into it from the alley — and which is used for the storage of 
hazardous merchandise, having capacity for 400 barrels. The vault 
has a ventilator which is opened every to morning allow the combustible 
vapor arising from carbon oil to escape. At night it is closed to pre- 
vent fire from reaching it. In case of any accident, also, they have 
water-works in the building. Altogether, the building justifies our 
complimentary mention. 

KELLEK, & WHITE, WHOLESALE DKUGOISTS. 

It always affords us a keen sense of delight to be able, in our 
sketches here and there, to chronicle the triumph and success of com- 
mercial men. Whenever we observe such progress, Ave must confess it 
flatters our own pride, for whatever trade advancements one firm makes, 
is of indirect benefit to the whole city. Such is the case wdien we 
speak of the Wholesale Drug house of Messrs. Keller & White, No. 106 
Main street. In 1850 this firm was established by Mr. De Witt C, 
Keller and Dr. David A. Farnsley, under the firm name of Keller & 
Farnsley. In 1853, Messrs. Keller & Farnsley, in conjunction with 
Mr. Isaac T. White, bought out the establishment of Mr. Crawford 
Bell, one of the pioneer Druggists of the city, with whom Mr. White 
had been engaged in business for eight years previously. Thus con- 
solidated, the business was conducted under the name of Keller, Farns- 
ley & Co. During the succeeding year, Mr. Farnsley died, and in 1854, 
the firm style was again changed, this time to Keller & White, which 
latter it has retained for some twenty years, giving almost a quarter of 
a century of experience and veneration to the concei'n and ranking it 
among the oldest houses in our city. 

Their establishment is thi^e stories and a basement high, besides 
which they have a rear warehouse, and a splendid fire-proof vault, on 




ADVEKTISEMENTS. 159 

*^*^ CLOUD, AKIN & GO 

Proprietors of 

EYansTille Laloratory, 

AGENTS FOR 

Cloud's Invigorating Cordial, 
Armistead's Family Medicines 

Hungarian Liniment 

AND 

Hungarian Condition Powders 

li Wpp©p Ftoai St* 

Eyansyille, Indiana, 



m 



160 EVAN.SVILLE; HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

First street, for the storage of Coal Oil, which has capacity for 400 
barrels. The basement floor is used for oils including Linseed, Lard 
and Lubricating ; Varnishes of every variety. Putty, Acids and Earth 
Paints of every character. The first floor is the salesroom, where may 
be found large quantities of Drugs in broken packages, Patent Medi- 
cines, Chemicals, Perfumeries, Window Glass, White Lead and Ground 
Paints. They have also a very large assortment of Surgical Instru- 
ments, Trusses, etc., of which they make a specialty, and sell more, 
perliaps, than any other firm in this entire section of country. Their 
second floor is stored with whole packages of Drugs, a large assortment 
of fine Liquors, and a full line of Dye Stuffs, Sponges, Corks, Soda 
and hundreds of miscellaneous articles needed in the Drug trade. On 
the third floor they have a large stock of Shop Furniture, Bottles, Vials 
and other articles in the trade. The business of this firm for the past 
year or so has increased wonderfully, and now extends into many of 
the prominent cities in the territory trading with Evansville, reaching 
as far West as Missouri, and as far South as Interior Alabama and 
Mississippi. 

CLOUD, AKIN & CO., WHOLESALE CHEMICAL LABORATORY. 
No visitor to the city of Evansville in his peregrinations could 
fail to be impressed by the metropolitan and splendid appearance of 
the extensive new block of buildings situated on First street, between 
Vine and Division, and known as the " Akin Block ; " nor is there 
scarcely a Druggist of any pretentions, whatever, throughout the length 
and breadth of the Southern and Western country, unfamiliar with the 
firm name of Cloud, Akin & Co., who, by reason of their euter2)rise, 
their energy and thorough-going wide-awake business tact in introduc- 
ing a line of health-giving preparations to the sick and afflicted, has 
thus rendered their fame co-extensive with that of the city. 

The business house they occupy has been built with an eye single to 
its adaptation to their especial business. It is 140 feet long, 25 feet 
wide and four stories and a basement high. The i'vont is of massive 
iron, painted in imitation of sandstone, and the architectural plau fol- 
lowed is that of the superb arched German, with occasional applica- 
tions from the designs of the French, giving it at once an appearance 
of elegance and solidity. Externally it is decidedly the best looking 
business block in the city, while its interior, in finish and appointments, 
well comports thei'ewith. We cannot fi)llovv in detail each floor, con- 
sequently will only note the more prominent features. The l)asemeut 
or ground floor is partitioned off" in the I'ear 25x32 feet, for a superb 



DRUGS AND CHEMICALS. 161 

engine of 10-horse power, made by Wm. Heilman, Evansville. In 
this room may also, be found a finely constructed machine used for ex- 
tracting the mercury from the ingredients entering into the manufac- 
ture of Blue Mass — of Avhich the firm has made a specialty. The pro- 
cess is very interesting, and was invented by Dr. Cloud. The Blue 
Mass, after it leaves this machine, is then passed through iron steam 
rollers, and thence to the kneading machines, where it is mixed with 
other ingredients, and is then ready for the pot. In another portion 
of the room are two excellent Drug Mills, one of iron and the other 
with a set of buhr stones, each used for grinding all the material con- 
sumed. In this way purity of all constituent articles is certainly ob- 
tained, and the firm has found it not only the cheapest but the most 
reliable manner of securing the fullest strength in all goods. Next we 
find the Blue Mass passed to another kneading machine where it is 
more thoroughly mixed with the other component parts of pills, after 
which it is rolled out and is then ready for the pot. 

Ascending, now, to the first floor, we observe a neatly fitted 
business office and accountant's department, and in proximity to 
a splendid salesroom bristling with well-stocked shelves, and deco- 
rated by immense piles of their preparations. In this portion of 
the building are several large tanks which receive the percolated 
liquids from the upper stories. Here they have placed tlieir steam 
jackets for making Armistead's Ointment, and also a still with ajD- 
paratus for making all kinds of Essences. On the second floor is 
placed a large iron tank which is heated by coils of steam pijDe, 
and is used in the manufacture of Simple Syrups. Adjoining 
this tank is a superb filter, containing closely packed charcoal, 
sand and pebbles, through which all water used is filtered. Two 
pounds of sugar to one of water is what is required to form the 
Syrup. From the iron tank the Syrup is conducted through fun- 
nels to a large tank on the floor beneath, and from which Armis- 
tead's Tonic Syrup is made. All of the barks, roots and herbs 
which they use, as before stated, are ground by machinery in the 
basement, thence carried by an elevator to the second story, where 
they are packed in a large percolator, the menstrua used being 
allowed to flow into the percolator, and passing through the ma- 
terial, extracts the body of its strength, and then passes into a 
large tank below. In this tank the pyro-phosphate of iron is added 
in solution, and the whole is then again passed through a hydro- 
static filter into a settling tank on the first floor. However, in 

21 



162 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

case the filtration may not be perfected, it is allowed to stand a 
certain time, after which it is finally conducted to the bottling 
tank. The process throughout is one of deep interest, and if we 
professed to be other than a rejjorter of what we saw, we should 
be happy to present a more scientific and technical recital. In 
the third story of the building are to be seen neatly contrived 
hoppers for receiving sawdust, which is turned on at will through 
spouts connecting with the packing department below. The re- 
mainder of the third and fourth stories are used for the storage of 
glasswai'e and an extensive stock of crude material. 

There are other features connected with the establishment 
to facilitate work. For instance, on the first fioor is an excellent- 
ly arranged Chemical table, where formulas are overhauled, and 
compounding is done. The firm also has a department devoted 
exclusively to their Printing Material, and it is already a well- 
known fact, that they are among the most liberal patrons of prin- 
ter's ink, and ardent devotees of the glorious " Art Preservative " 
of all the firms in the Western country. They issue annually 
Almanacs, Calendars, Cards, Circulars, etc., and in addition, are 
the publishers of a spicy and interesting literary and scientific 
monthly, known as the Crucible. The products of their manufac- 
tory in the Chemical line, are : Blue Mass and Mercurial Chalk ; 
Grocers' specialties, such as Fruits, Syrups, Cordials, and small 
bottled gouds in that line. Their Proprietary Goods are both 
popular and famous, and include the following : Cloud's Invigor- 
ating Cordial, Armisfcead's Ague Tonic, Armistead's Sugar-Coated 
Liver Pills, Armistead's Lung Syrup, Armistead's Universal 
Ointment, Armistead's Pile Ointment, Armistead's Eye-Water, 
Deckerman's Celebrated Hungarian Condition Pow^ders, Decker- 
man's Hungarian Liniment, Cloud's Extract Jamaica Ginger, 
Cloud's Compound Extract of Buchu, etc., etc. Very recently 
they have also introduced to the Southern trade Dr. Cloud's Mag- 
nolia Baking Powder, which has already ste]>ped into great popu- 
larity. They have also established headquarters for their Texas 
trade in the city of Austin, under the supervision of the Morley 
Brothers, and are making advances in other sections. 

The firm of Cloud & Akin is now in the ninth year of its ex- 
istence. It is composed of Dr. H. W. Cloud, who removed here 
from Louisville, Ky. He is a graduate of the State LTniversity 
of Indiana, and is at present a Trustee of that institution. He 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 163 



J". E. LIXjL-X', 

No. 24 Sycamore Street, 

Pharmaceutical Chemist 

MANUFACTURES 

STANDARD MEDICINAL 

Elixirs, Wines, Syrups, &•€., 
AND ALL PHARMACEUTICALS. 

Saccharated Pepsin; 

Liquid Pancreopepsine. 

Price Lists and Discounts sent on application. 



164 Et^ANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

is well-known for his eruditeness in Chemical and general infor- 
mation, as well as for his social suavity and friendliness to all en- 
terprising movements set on foot in our midst. Mr. Wm. M. 
Akin was formerly a resident of Carlisle, Indiana. He does not 
pay personal attention to this business, being largely engaged in 
pork-packing, and ranks second to none of our leading citizens in 
point of reliability, business push and cleverness. 

J. E. LILLY, MANUFACTURER OF STANDARD CHEMICAL AND 
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. 

The manufacture of standard Pharmaceutical preparations is 
conducted on a much more extensive scale in the city of Evansvile, 
than many, even of our own citizens, have the faintest idea of. 
Very true, almost every Druggist throughout the country manu- 
factures some special preparations, for the benefit of his local cus- 
tom ; but the celebrity of those preparations scarcely if ever attains 
universal runs. 

The establishment of Mr. Lilly, No. 24 Sycamore street, is an 
exceptional instance. "While a very elaborate description of his 
Laboratory and the many beautiful and interesting as well as in- 
structive processes gone through in manufacturing this line of 
goods, would prove exceedingly readable, still we do not under- 
take to acquaint our readers with all that we observe during our 
investigations — a personal visit on his or her part being the only 
means of obtaining that. Mr. Lilly commenced operations in this 
city in 1870, since which time he has been quite successful in 
manufacturing a class of goods that Druggists furnish to practi- 
tioners, his idea throughout being to concentrate in one pint of 
fluid all the medicinal strength contained in sixteen ounces Troy 
of the crude drug. The first floor of his building is where his 
large stock of manufactured goods is displayed, and in the rear is 
an engine room supplied with an engine of 10-horse power, built 
by Schultz, Thuman & Co., Evansville. The second floor is the 
wrapping and labelling department, where all goods are put up in 
attractive styles. He has an alphabetical arrangement for his 
copyrighted labels, which contain not only the formulae for mak- 
ing Wines, Tinctures, Syrups and Infusions., but also the dose, 
medical properties and antidotes for poisonous fluid extracts. On 
one side of this room is a large enclosed chemical case so constructed 
as to prevent any damaging action or influence of light on the 
chemicals. In his Percolating department he has over fifty Per- 



DKUGS AND CHEMICALS. 165 

colators constantly in service. The process is very interesting. 
A perforated diaphragm sets in a conical-shaped Percolator. The 
crude drug, ground to a fine powder, is placed within and mois- 
tened with Alcohol of proper strength, regulated according to the 
substance to be acted upon, thus resulting in strength and purity 
of the liquid. In the rear portion of the first story is the Labora- 
tory or kitchen proper. Here one may see quite a num.ber of 
steam vats, tanks or stills used in the cooking ot various prepara- 
tions. Also a steam table capable of holding many different sizes 
of vessels, and having its steam so regulated that there if; no dan- 
ger from burning or scorching the extracts being prepared. They 
have also a still for Spirits of JN itre, with a capacity for 400 pounds 
of Nitre per day, which is heated by a coil passing around the 
still, and which is prevented from exploding by a safety valve 
placed at its top. The third floor is the storage room for crude 
Drugs, which are nicely arranged in barrels, bins and on shelves. 
In this department, likewise may be found a steam Drug Mill, a 
Root and Herb Cutter and sieves for powdered goods. 

Mr. Lilly manufactures over two hundred different kinds of 
Fluid Extracts, about seventy -five different kinds of Solid Ex- 
tracts, besides a large list of Elixirs, Syrups, Wines, Tinctures, 
and Miscellaneous Goods. He is also making two preparations 
that are positively growing famous — the Pepsin Saccharated and 
the Liquid Pancreopepsine. The former is made from ihe gas- 
tric juice of the hog, while the latter, contains the combined 
principle of the gastric and pancreatic juices, the point gained 
being a thorough digestion of animal and cooked foods, and 
emulsionizing of all oils and fatty substances. In his manufacto- 
ry this season, he has used the stomachs of not less than 5,000 
swine. The preparations made here have been endorsed and re- 
commended by all the leading physicians of the city as " Pure 
Remedies of a fixed standard of strength, and as nearly free 
from nauseous qualities as possible." The trade of the house is, 
with not only the Wholesale and Eetail Drug houses of this city, 
but those in nearly all the prominent cities and towns of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Iowa and Kansas. He 
sells to fifteen Drug houses in Indianapolis alone, and also has 
customers among the largest Wholesale Drug houses of Cincin- 
nati and St. Louis. An extensive business is carried on, also, 
with Northern and Central Texas. 



166 EVAKSVILLE: HEE COMMEKOE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

Prof. J. B. Lilly, proprietor of this establishment, was also 
recently elected to the Chair of Chemistry, in the Evansville 
Medical College. 

A. P. GEST, DRUGGIST. 

A. P. Gest, whoseestablishmentisat the junction of Third and Lo- 
cust streets, is also a Druggist and Chemist of good standing in Evansville. 
For ten years he has occupied a post of distinction and credit at the 
Prescription Stand, and surely there are none in our city considered 
more reliable. The first five years of his experience were gained while 
an attache of the well-known Drug Stand, corner Seventh and Wal- 
nut streets, Louisville, while the latter five includes his connection with 
the Opera House Drug Store, of this city. On the 1st of July, 1874, 
Mr. Gest began business for himself, and moved into the new building 
now occupied by him, and which has been fitted up in the handsomest 
and most attractive manner. He pays particular attention and care to 
compounding proscriptions, but has other departments which may be 
considered specialties. Particularly is this the case with fine Toilet goods. 
He' is the Sole Agent in this city, for the sale of Alphonse 
Vidot's Teintxire cf Or. There are peculiar properties of excellence 
claimed for this Hair Dye, and the interested public may well ex- 
amine them. The elegant appearance of Nature's ornament, the 
hair, is a laudable ambition of every lady of taste ; and since the 
golden hue has been so much admired in fashionable circles, it 
has been the unceasing endeavor of the proprietors of this article, 
to obtain a simple means by which it is to be acquired by every 
lady, without trouble or unnecessary expense, and with material 
perfectly harmless. The Golden Tincture, therefore, may be used, 
not only without fear, but with perfect confidence, as its mild 
tonic properties will strengthen the growth of the hair, and pre- 
vent its falling off. 

THOS. C. BEIDWELL, DKUGGIST. 

Mr. Thos. C. Bridwell occupies one of the oldest and best 
known Drug Stands in the city, at the corner of Mam and Third 
streets. In November, 1866, he first entered the trade in this 
city, but his Drug experience extends over a period of eighteen 
years. The firm first organized as T. C. Bridwell & Co., Mr. E. 
M. Hathaway, of Owensboro, Kentucky, being a silent partner. 
In Januai-y. 1872, Mr. Hathaway sold his interest to Mr. J. W. 
Garrard, and on the 22d of July, 1874, Mr. Bridwell bought Mr. 
Garrard's interest, since which time he has conducted the affairs 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 167 



T. C. Bridwell, 



»SW©Oie'Ws 



'» 



AND DEALER IN 



Fine Toilet Articles 

Corner of Third and Main Streets, 
EVANSVILLE, IND. 

GENUINE SARATOGA AND BLUE LICK WATERS 

On Draught, fresh from the Springs. 

Prescriptions carefully compounded. 



168 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUREH. 

of the house alone. The busmens done at this stand since Mr. 
Bridwell's arrival, has constantly gi'own with the great increase 
of trade centering at the Crescent City, and if visitors to the city, 
ten or fifteen years ago, could now look in upon the stage of ac- 
tion, they would be surprised and bewildered by the constant ac- 
tivity, the number of original packages coining and going, and 
the large stock of goods, embracing everything usually kept by a 
modern, first-class Drug House. 

Mr. Bridwell makes a specialty in his Prescription Depart- 
ment. When he first commenced, this branch was restricted to 
very narrow limits, but having worked it up, increased his stock 
and facilities, and exercised judicious management, he can now 
boast of a splendid custom, notwithstanding other new stores have 
started up here and there. But there is yet another department 
in his trade, to which he pays especial attention, and which has 
increased wonderfully of late, that of Genuine, Natural Mineral 
Waters, on draught. He was the first person to introduce Blue 
Lick and Saratoga Water, on draught, in this market. His sales 
of the former will reach fully 100 bbls. per annum. He is the 
sole agent for the Celebrated Excelsior Spring Water, for which 
is claimed many modicinal qualities, and is said to surpass even the 
widely reputed Co-ngress Water. The following analysis, made 
by R. D. Allen, M. D., of Saratoga Springs, New York, will show 
the components of the Excelsior Water: 

Chloride of Sodium 370.642 grains. 

Carbonate of Lime 77.000 " 

Cai'bonate of Magnesia 32.333 " 

Carbonate of Soda 15.000 " 

Silicate of Potassa 7.000 " 

Carbonate of Iron , 3,215 " 

Sulphate of Soda 1,321 " 

Silicate of Soda 4,000 " 

Iodide of Soda 4,235 " 

Bromide of Potassa a trace. 

Sulphate of Strontia a trace. 

Solid contents in a gallon 514 746-1000 grains. 

Carbonic Acid... (cubic inches) 250 

Atmosphere 2 

Gaseous contents • 353 cubic inches. 

Mr. Bridwell has also recently intro<iuced the Waters from 
Coat's Spring, located in Pike County, of this State, which are 
quite superior, and will find ready sale when properly known. 
Personally, Mr, Bridwell is a very popular gentleman — upright 
and strictly honorable — and these qualifications, added to careful 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 169 



St. George Drug Store 

SX. OEOIiOE HOTEL, 

EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 

W. L JOHNSTON, Proprietor. 

THE FINEST 

Drugs andChemicals 

French, English and American Perfumery, Soaps and 
Toilet Articles, Fancy Goods of every descriptzon. 

PRESCRIPTIONS 

Of the PUREST MEDICINES carefully compounded at all hours. 

True Soda and Mineral Waters on Draught: Genuine 
Fruit Syrups used only. 

22 



170 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 

attention to the details of hiis business, have secured a large trade, 
and the entire confidence of his customers. 

W. L. JOHNSTON'S ST. GEORGE DRUG STORE. 

In all large cities there are Apothecaries who, judged by their 
success, are not excelled by those of any other country, notwith- 
standing they may lack the ultra science of the Pharmacien of 
Prance, or the University training of the Apotheke of Germany. 
In confirmation thereof, we would refer, in Evansville, to Mr. W. 
L. Johnston, of the now famous Saint George Drug Store, whose 
establishment is as remarkable for the order exhibited in its inte- 
rior arrangement, as he is well-known and appreciated as a prac- 
tical Pharmacist of superior ability, correctness and scholarly at- 
tainments. He became the proprietor of this stand onl}' on the 
1st of September, 1874, but had been a popular and favorite Pre- 
scriptionist in his former place of business, corner Main and Third 
streets. Mr. Johnston is a graduate of Asburj^ University, Green- 
castle, Ind., and since his location in this city has been heartily 
endorsed by the leading physicians of the city, thereby giving him 
as is claimed almost absolute control of the Prescription business 
of the city. He has the finest Prescription Case in Evansville and 
the most elegant and splendid Retail Drug House in Indiana. The 
native citizen feels justly proud of the establishment, and the 
visitor cannot fail to be attracted and impressed with its hand- 
some features. Occupying the corner store in the St. George Hotel 
building, at the junction of First and Locust streets, it is central 
and convenient to all the better class of trade. Stepping into its 
inviting precincts one promenades across mosaic marble tileing, 
is surprised to observe the artistically frescoed walls ; to notice 
that the building is heated by steam with gilt radiators ; that the 
front doors and windows are of the purest and clearest French 
Plate Glass, as well as to witness the superb arrangement i>f goods, 
whether placed on oil walnut shelving or displayed in silver show- 
cases gracing oil walnut, marble-top counters. Near the entrance 
stands a magnificent marble Soda Fountain, which has been built 
after a design representing the Temple of Juno. It is the finest 
specimen of art in this line in theWestern country, and cost $1,700. 

Mr. Johnston makes specialty of Fine Perfumeries, Toilet 
Articles, and Fancy Goods generally, and carries a line unsurpassed 
if equaled for recommendable qualities. One of the features of 
his trade, also, is the sale of English Breakfast Teas. These em- 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 171 



A. P. GEST, 

Druggist & Chemist 

Corner Third and Locust Streets, 

A New House, 

With New Stock 

And New Prices* 

Fine Toilet Articles, 
lubin's and atkinson's imported extracts, 



▼M»#e W©taimr© 9^mw 



A PREPARATION TO GIVE A PERFECT BLOJfDE 
HUE TO THE HAIR; PERFECTLY HARMLESS. 



172 EVAN8VILLE: HER COMMEROE AKD MaNUFACTLTRES. 

brace Uucolored Japan, English Bi-eakfast, Oolong, Mixed and 
Young Hyson. They are put up in liandsome packages, and he 
guarantees furnishing the verj^ best article, obligating himself to 
sell at one dollar per pound, whether the purchaser desires a pound 
or a fraction thereof, while grocers charge SI 50 tor the Teas of 
other brands. 



The China and Queensware Trade- 
in the line of China, Queensware and Glass, the last twenty -five 
years of the city's life has witnessed the most marvelous development. 
A great interest in that time has expanded and widened its circle till, 
like a girdle, it binds Evansville to a large and prosperous area of grow- 
ing towns and cities. Our Queensware dealers, who have proven such 
indefatigable workers in this grand field of enterprise, have lifted the 
bvisiness out of that narrow groove which it formerly occupied and 
built it up to wondrous metropolitan proportions. Laboring not alone 
for immediate results, they have forecast the future to the time when 
Evansville should be the feeder of the Lower Ohio Valley, with her 
gigantic arms of commerce reaching out over a great country. Rank- 
ing in Evansville as they do — among our most ambitious and sagac- 
ious business firms, success has rewarded their efforts and stamped their 
judgment with the seal of approval. There is a kind of business suc- 
cess which is reckoned by the two columns of the ledger ; and there is 
another kind which takes other things into consideration, and which 
stands on higher and broader grounds. This latter has been the basis 
upon which the Queensware merchants of Evansville have founded their 
fortunes, enlarged and placed it in the front rank of the trade in the 
West. 

There are numerous facts intimately connected with this great in- 
terest that might be taken advantage of, enhancnig the value of our 
article as a readable paper. The art of making vessels of baked clay 
is frequently alluded to in the Scriptures ; and it is a somewhat singular 
fact that to this material, which is more durable than wood or metal, 
we are indebted for many points of knowledge respecting the history, 
religions, customs and manners of the Ancients. When Gideon, by 
command of the Angel of the Lord, entered the multitudinous camps 
of the Midianites and attacked them by night, "he divided the three 
hundred men into three companies, and he put a trumpet in every 
man's hand, with empty pitcher Sy and lamps within the pitchers." 



THE (JHtNA AND QUEENSWARE TRADE. WA 

When by agreed signal the trumpets were blown and the pitchers 
broken, consternation and dread seized the enemy, and the sword of 
every man was^set against his fellow, while the shout of victory went up 
from the followers of the bold Captain — "The sword of the Lord and 
of Gideon." In the book of Daniel we also read of large images being 
made of clay and covered with brass or bronze, in truth, the potter's 
art was adopted to very many different uses. 

That class of ware, which we call China, was first manufac- 
tured in the country from whence it takes its name — but very lit- 
tle is known of the early pottery manufacture of the Bast. The 
Chinese ascribe its invention to the Emperor Hong-ti, 
2,700 B. C, and the first production of Porcelain they fix in the 
Han dynasty, about 185 B. C. Common Pottery is manufactured 
to an immense extent for the requirements of the humbler classes, 
and Earthenware vessels, of very large size, are employed by the 
wealthy Chinese as reservoirs for gold fish, and aquatic plants, 
aud for storing grain, &c.; but porcelain has extensively supplant- 
ed it as an article of export. Porcelain is used, not merely for 
domestic utensils, but also, for slabs and tiles, with which costly 
edifices are coated. Such was the famous Pagoda, of Nankin, de- 
stroyed in 1856. For many years the finest articles were not ex- 
ported, and great care was taken to prevent strangers from learn- 
ing the process of manufacture. The Chinese Porcelain excels 
all other kinds of ware, in delicacy of its texture, and the partial 
transparency which it exhibits when held against the light. The 
finer and more costly kinds of Porcelain, derive their value, not 
so much from the quality of their material, as from the labor be- 
stowed on their external decoration. When the pieces are sepe- 
rately painted by hand, with devices of different subjects, their 
value as specimens of art, depends upon the size of the piece, the 
number and brilliancy of the colors employed, and more especial- 
ly upon the skill and finish exhibited by the artist in design. 
The paint is applied with camel's hair pencils, and then burnt 
into the ware. The "Magic Porcelain" of the Chinese has 
figures upon its surface, said to be invisible when the vessels are 
empty, but becomming apparent when they are filled with water. 
In Europe, themost ancient Pottery worthy of notice, was that 
of the Etruscans, though all of the early nations, Greeks, Gauls, 
and Scandinavians, each made vessels of baked clay. Chinese 
Porcelain was imported into Europe by the Portugese, in the early 



174 EVANSVILLS: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

part of the Sixteenth Century. The Dutch and English after- 
wards brought the ware from the East, and as it became known, 
every attempt was made to ascertain tlie secret of its beautiful 
translucency, and to produce the same ware in European countries. 
Such was the origin of the Porcelain Works of Dresden, from 
which the art extended to Vienna and Berlin, and to Belgium. 
The French, however, have been most successful in their pro- 
ducts, and have become celebrated for their excellent wares made 
at the Eoyal Manufactories of Serves and Vincennes, where the 
clay which makes the finest wares is obtained near Limoges, in 
the Department of Haute Vienna, Southeastern France. 

The manufacture of Earthenware, in Staffordshire, England, 
which in 1852, comprised 138 establishments, giving employment 
to 60,000 persons, goes as far back as the time of the Eomans. In 
theyear 1690, two brothers named Elers, from Nuremberg, settled at 
Bradwell, where they made a new improved Bed Ware, and in- 
troduced the glazing of vessels by throwing common salt into the 
oven. Jealousy succeeded in driving these two men out of the 
country after the secret was taken from them, Astbury succeed- 
ed them in the manufacture, and introduced a White Stoneware, 
which it is said, accident brought under his notice. In ti*avelingon 
horseback to London, his horse's eyes became attacked with some 
disorder ; an ostler of the inn where he stopped, cured them by 
burning a flint and reducing it to fine powder before he blew it 
into the horse's eyes. The potter observing the beautiful white 
color of the calcined flint, immediately saw how it might be em- 
ployed as an ingredient in his own business. This step in advance 
led the way to the improvement of Isaiah Wedgewood, with 
whose name this beautiful art, in England, is indissolubly linked. 
Of the seven difterent kinds of Ware introduced by him, two are 
of especial value ; one, his Tableware or Queensware, as it is com- 
monly known, and the Porcelain Biscuit or Wedge woodware, of 
which Mortars, and other Chemical utensils are made. In 1760 
he produced specimens of the peculiar Creamed-Colored ware, 
which, by permission of Queen Charlotte, he was allowed to desig- 
nate " Queen's Ware," and which soon came to be applied to a 
great variety of articles. These inventions of Wedgewood showed 
that Porcelain could be made in England. Cookworthy discovered 
the earths in Cornwall, and, having secured to himself, hj patent, 
the exclusive right of using these materials, was the first person 



THE CHINA AND QUEENSWARE TRADE. 175 

who made the true Porcelain in that country. This was in 1768. 
It is now manufactured at Derby, Coalport, in Shropshire, Worces- 
ter and Swinton, in Yorkshire. The " Statuary Parian " or " Ca- 
rarra Biscuit for statuettes and other objects, was invented in 
1845. 

In the United States the Potter's art has not kept pace with the 
advance made in other trades or with its development in Europe. 
Though possessing, to an almost unlimited extent, the proper material 
for the formation of stoneware, and though our manufacturers have 
proven that the wares they do make rivals the imported in texture, 
durability, hardness and finish, the home product is but slight when 
compared with the vast quantities made in and exported from England. 
It will thus be seen that the Queensware Jobbing Trade, in order to be 
successful, must combine that of Importation also. Consequently those 
of the Evansville merchants engaged in the business are also direct Im- 
porters. They buy their goods direct, and many articles are manufac- 
tured on their especial order, billed in foreign markets and sent to the 
Custom House at Evansville without molestation from the custom 
officials at the seaboard, the duties being collected at this, the Port of 
Entry. English, French, Belgian and German wares all come to our 
dealers from the hands of the manufacturers, and are invoiced at our 
Custom House. These facts are potential arguments in favor of Evans- 
ville as a point of distribution, and when properly understood by the 
trade no doubt will result advantageously. Beyond ordinary Glass- 
ware our dealers buy only a small portion of their stocks from Ameri- 
can manufactories. Lately, however, manufactories for a superior 
article of White wai-e, and quite as good as theQueensvvare of England, 
have been established at Trenton, New Jersey, and Liverpool, Ohio, 
and their products have suddenly become so popular that English Pot- 
ters have just cause for alarm. 

The annual business in this line with us will amount to half a 
million dollars, being a steady yearly increase of fifteen per cent. Per- 
haps one-fourth of the entire sales consist of Table-glass, and fully 2,000 
crates of goods are sold here each year. Although our dealers meet 
with some disadvantage in inland freights, they have a more than coun- 
terbalancing advantage in cheap rent, clerk hire and more economical 
living, than in most other cities. Inasmuch, then, as they claim to 
duplicate any bills from regular importing houses anywhere in the 
United States, only adding necessary freight charges; and since as lit- 
tle transportation as possible is an all-important point in buying such 



176 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

destructible wares, it stands to reason that the nearer the market the 
better it is for purchasers. We believe, however, that a majority of 
the retail merchants trading with Evansville recognize and appreciate 
the truthfulness of our remarks in this respect, for, from our own per- 
sonal knowledge, we could recite instances where Western and Southern 
merchants have gone to New York to purchase supplies, and have re- 
turned to Evansville to buy their Queensware and Glass, the difference 
in prices not being sufficient to pay the additional freight charges. 

The houses engaged in this trade are : Messrs. HoUingsvrorth 
Bros., No, 108 I>pper First street; L. Ichenhauser, No. 18 Upper 
First street; Mark & Warren, No. 118 Upper First street, and 
Brown & Oliver, No. 30 Main street and 219 Uppper First street. 
The house of B. Burbank, No. 14 Main street, is <ievoted exclu- 
sively to the sale of Builders' Glass. 
MARK & WARREN, WHOLESALE CHINA AND QUEESNWARE_ 

Prominent in the row ot metroplitan structures in the most 
central and busiest portion of First street, is the building No. 118, 
occupied by Messrs. Mark & Warren, Wholesale Importers and 
Jobbers of China, Queensware and Glass Goods. The establish- 
ment will attract attention by its spacious dimensions and elegant 
exterior, as well as the magnificent stock of goods which greets 
the eye of the passer-by, and impresses him with some faint con- 
ception of the immense collection of wares seven such stores — 
each 140x25 feet large, must contain — that being the amount of 
space neccessary to accommodate the goods which this firm car- 
ries, the grand aggregate handled by them being nothing if not 
enormous. 

If it were expected of us that a detailed account should be 
given of their stock, quite a lengthy report might be made inter- 
esting, but we shall only note the more important features. On 
the first sales floor is kept a large assortment of the trade sam- 
ples and stock, and its neat and tasty arrangement makes it in- 
viting and beautiful. On the left a series of splendid show-cases 
opens up their superb Plated Silverware, in which the firm enjo^'s 
rare advantages, which it generally shares with its customers. 
The display is not only elegant, but it is of the finest and best 
quality. Purchased from the best manufacturers, the Goods are 
just a little below the Solid Silver Plate itself, and for household 
use have already supplanted the latter in many quarters. Everj'- 
thing for table use or ornament is here complete: Castors, Break- 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 177 



Direct Impoi'ters and Dealers in 

IJieens ffare, CMaa M Glass fare, 

LampSj Looking Glasses, &c. 

Special attention given to Importing 

Hotel, Boarding House and House 
Furnishing Goods. 

We receive our Goods direct from the Potteries of England, France 
and Germany, hence, pay no second-hand profits which rightfully 
belong to our Customers. 

Sole Agents in this City for 

J. &G.Makin's Stone China "Ware 

ALSO. FOR THE 

A-nsonia Clocks, 

Of which we keep a large stock on hand for sale at wholesale only. 
A call at our Store, 

1 IS Wpp©P PIrBt StP'©© tf 

Will be time profitably invested. 
23 



178 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

fast, Dinner, Lunch and Tea Services, and everything that can be 
imagined in its line. Next we see richly decorated Dinner Sets 
of Serves^and Vincennes China. The three divisions in style are 
the Plain White, Decorated and Gold Band, and range in price, 
from $60 to $250 per set. This firm supplied the Hotel St. George 
throughout, in this line — a fitting testimonial to their taste and 
capacity in this direction. The next department is a most beau- 
tiful display of Cake-stands, arranged pyramidically and crowned 
at the apex with Bouquet-holders. These are of the purest 
French Glass, and their tinkle is as sweet as the sound of silver 
bells. They are cut and engraved in^a handsome manner, and no 
such goods were ever displayed in the State of Indiana before. 
Botn of these lines are of foreign importation, shipped direct from 
Europe — this firm being the first to put goods into the new Cus- 
tom House after Evansville was made a Port of Entry, and 
their importations, under an increased demand and an extension 
of business, have constantly grown larger since. Their trade in 
Dresden, Belgian and German goods is looming up into grand pro- 
portions. 

^^^^Thus one might go on describing the wonders of the world in this 
branch of industry, so excellent is the arrangement and so beautiful 
the expose. A specialty among the foreign goods is the Silvered and 
Chryseled Glassware in Vases, a style of work calculated to take the 
place of silver. Its outward ' appearance is very rich, and it requires 
no trouble to keep it bright and untarnished. Here are Vases of all 
sizes, Card Baskets, Candlesticks, and everything that is made in that 
line of goods. Next in order, we observe a large variety of Ornamental 
Vases, richly painted by^the^most accomplished artists in this line. 
Especially beautiful is a pair adoi-ned with scenes from Goethe's famous 
drama representing Faust and Margaret. Upon another pair are me- 
dallion pictures of Rubens and Rembrandt, while a third — the dupli- 
cate of which attracted much attention at the Vienna Exposition — de- 
pict the gambols and "wanton wiles" of a Group of Cupids. The 
stock of Belgian and Bohemian Glassware embraces every article of 
table service — plain, cut, engraved, ground and frosted ; in pure crys- 
tal, or colored in amber, rose, turquoise, green, ruby, etc. ; also, fancy 
articles ot most elegant designs, gilded, colored and decorated in end- 
less diversity of styles. The Parisian Statuettes, Busts and Groups 
present a great variety of subjects, historical, allegorical, mythological 
and fanciful, including many reproductions of the most famous sculp- 



THE CHINA AND QITEENSWARE TRADE. 179 

tares, both ancient and modern. Also similar designs in Bisque, 
together with' Vases, Card Receivers and Flower Pots, etc. The Lava 
Ware includes Vases, Urns, Table Ornaments, Smokers' Requisites, 
Cuspadores, and a long line of fancy articles ornamented in black, 
green, red and gold. In real and imitation Bronze, the stock com- 
prises life-like figures of historic and fictitious personages, Busts, Groups, 
Animals, Birds, and many fancy devices for table and mantle orna- 
ment. The imitation bronzes in lava, are so perfect as to require the 
closest examination in order to detect the difference. The stock of 
German China is very large, embracing an immense variety of articles, 
useful and ornamental, Toys, etc. A new style of ornament, also of 
foreign importation, is the Bog-wood Inkstands, Match Boxes, and Cigai- 
Stands, and other unique and quaint designs. 

The principal wholesale department is in the second story. The 
entire length of the room is shelved on both sides and filled with sam- 
ples of open stock, mostly of those kinds of goods in general use. Long 
tables range down the center, with aisles on either side, to the complete 
length of the building. Suspended over the tables are samples of 
Hanging Lamps, Hall Lamps, Chandeliers, etc., of 100 different varie- 
ties. The next department of note is that devoted to their immense 
stock of Ansonia Clocks. This large manufactory, doing business in 
every city in the land, with its mammoth factories at Ansonia, Connec- 
ticut, and its warerooms on Cliff street, New York, have entrusted 
Messrs. Mark & Warren with their sole agency in this section, and the 
samples are of endless kinds, from the cheapest to those of the most 
elegant finish and intricate workmanship. This is quite a feature with 
the magnificent collection of foreign goods and home goods of all de- 
scriptions. 

This firm is composed of Mr. Daniel G. Mark and Judge James 
Warren. The latter is one of our most esteemed citizens, one of the 
first lawyers of the State, and is in every respect a broad-minded, liberal 
citizen. He takes no active part in the management of the business. 
Upon Mr. Mark has always devolved that arduous but pleasant duty — he 
being the managing business head of the concern. A courteous and 
enterprising gentleman, his success has followed in the path of a most 
industrious, far-sighted course. Always at his post of business, he is 
interested in every great enterprise calculated to build up the city's 
prosperity. His business life began twenty-nine years ago, and for 
twelve years he was in the employ of Preston Bros., in Illinois and this 
city. The house over which he now presides was established twenty- 



180 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

live years ago, and in 1865 wlien Mr. Mark took charge; its affairs were 
in a good condition, but he has pushed it by his energy and work be- 
yond all expectation. The books show that he doubled its business in 
the first year of his management, 1865-6, And to-day, in the midst 
of a vigorous prime, he controls the largest and best regulated Queens- 
ware house in the State or Western country. 

The Iron Trade. 

The Iron Trade of Evansville is a branch of our general busi- 
ness that we have very just reason in being proud of, for the supe- 
riority of the houses engaged in this trade, is already vei'y gen- 
erally conceded. The abundance of Iron produced in the vicin- 
ity of the city, and its consequent cheapness, have naturally con- 
centrated attention upon its advantages ; while the fame of our 
dealers, as well as that of our engineers and machinists, attracts 
from abroad a large and constantly increasing patronage. From 
the lights before us, and by referring merely to what is proven 
elsewhere, it is very manifest that Evansville is situated in the 
district entitled to be called the center of the Iron •production of the 
Central United States. It is further manifest, that the center of the 
Iron interest is likely to remain in the district tributary to Evans- 
ville, inasmuch as the business has satisfactorily improved, and 
kept pace with the progress now going on in our rising city; for 
the establishments situated within its limits have been able to sur- 
vive disasters that have borne down those in other places; and, 
consequently, there must exist circumstances peculiarly favorable 
to its progress. This progress is also unmistakable, and, as we 
have it from well-posted dealers, made itself apparent during the 
year 1874, by an increase of 15 per cent., which, at a minimum 
calculation, brings it up in financial value to the palmiest aaysof 
the city. In some respects, however, the. advance of the business, in 
a large measure, is due to the increased value of the material, but 
taking all circumstances into consideration, we are enabled to 
show decided gains, since, not only has all the old trade sought 
Our doors, but it has brought with it a large run of custom hitherto 
uncontrolled by Evansville. The sale of Merchant Iron, this 
year, will amount to $350,000, 

In addition to their stocks of Mer^ant Iron, the houses engaged 
in the trade here, also, have, in connection with their business, large 



ADVERTISEMENTS, 18 i 



SAMUEL ORR. JAMES DAVIDSON. JAMES L. ORR. 



'OBIiSl #PP M fl#^ 



DEALERS IN 



IROISr.STEEL TIN PLATE 



COPPER, WIRE, ZINC, 



Horse Shoes and Horse Nails, 



Wagon and Buggy Wood Work, Blacksmiths' and 
Tinners' Tools, &c. 



Sycamore near Water Street 



."^^nnmll^t Itridl 



18^ THE IRON TRADE. 

and varied stocks of Heavy Hardware, Wagon-makers' Materials, and 
Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Tools and Outfits, embracing such lead- 
ing articles as Anvils, Vises, Bellows, Hammers, Chains, Nuts, Bolts, 
Washers, etc., etc. 

SAMUEL ORR & CO., IRON DEALERS. 

One of the oldest as well as one of the most prominent of all 
the firms now doing business in the city of Bvansville, both in the 
extent and nature of their operations, is that of Samuel Orr & Co., 
Nos. 14 and 16 Sj^camore street. It is a firm that we take both 
pride and pleasure in pointing out as thoroughly reliable — for a 
man, like Samuel Orr, who has devoted a lifetime of study and 
practical experience to the trade, may fairly be presumed to un- 
derstand its wants and peculiarities, and the fact that he has been 
successful, is a sure guarantee of continued success. The house 
was organized in the year 1836 b}^ Messrs. Alexander and James 
Laughlin, of Pittsburgh, who, in connection with Mr. Orr, con- 
stituted the firm of A. Laughlin k Co., the business, however, be- 
ing under Mr. Orr's management. Mr. Alex. Laughlin retired 
from the firm about twelve years after its establishment, and the 
business was then conducted by Mr. Orr under his name alone, 
Mr. Jas. Laughlin being a silent partner. In 1863, Mr. James 
Davidson and Mr. James L. Orr, son ot the senior member of the 
house, were admitted to partnership, and the firm then became 
Samuel Orr & Co., and has remained so ap to the jjresent time. 

Their stock is very large and assorted, and includes Mer- 
chant Iron, Wagon Makers' and Blacksmiths' Tools and Stock, 
Tin-Plate and Tinners' Stock, etc., etc. Their trade extends over 
Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and 
indeed, all of the States trading with Evansville; but the most re- 
markable fact connected with their business, is, that they have 
never yet sent out a " drummer " relying alone on the excellence 
of their Goods and their established reputation, for the trade that 
has grown from such small proportions to its present enlarged 
condition. 

The Hardware Trade. 

The term Hardware is, if possible, more vague and less sus- 
ceptible of accurate definition than the term Machinery. Its 
metes and its bounds no philosopher, that we have yet heard of, 
has attempted to define, and in popular usage it is made to em- 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



183 



GEO. S. SONNTAG, 




Corner First and Sycamore Sts, 



EVANSVILLE, InD. 



J. LAWTON, 



DKALEU IN 



SIGN OF THE 

Mammoth Knife, 

30 Inches Long, 

One of the most beHutifiil 

Specimens of Cutlery 

ever seen. 



HARDWARE, 

CUTLERY. 

Mecliaiilc's Tools of All Kliitls, 

LOCKS, HINGES, SCREWS, NAILS, Etc. 

rtSl Main St., Cor. of Fifth, EVANSVILLE, IND 



Vnlued at $iioO.OO. 



FRED. P. STRAUB. 



J. LOUIS STRAUB. 



FRED. P. STRAUB & CO., 

No. 224 Main Street, bet. Second and Third, 

4 Doors below the Court House, 

EVANSVILLE, IND. 

SIOIV OF THE BROAD AXE. 



184 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

brace all of the unclassified manufactures of Iron and Steel. All 
of the tools and etceteras of the mechanic arts, from a " rat-tail 
file " to a huge circular mill-saw — articles as various in appear- 
ances, sizes and uses as can well be conceived — Coal Scuttles, 
Watch Springs, Dumb Bells, Carpet Tacks, Faucets, in all their 
countless varieties — from those drawing wine twenty years old 
from a cask in a bon vivanfs cellar, to those spouting muddy wa- 
ter from the boilers of an Ohio river Steamboat — Screws, Nuts, 
Bolts, Locks, Nails and Hinges — are alike included in the hetero- 
geneous enumeration af Hardware stock. Indeed, it is such an 
indefinite, comprehensive and collective department of trade, it is 
hard to say whether Machinists Tools, Mill Work, Iron Water- 
wheels, Engines, and, in short, the whole subject of " Iron and 
its Manufactures," should not have been treated as a branch of the 
Hardware business — for a well posted Hardware man we regard as 
a walking index to an encyclopedia of valuable information, and 
his head should be labeled — " Ten Thousand Facts Worth Know- 
ing ; Inquire Within." We, however, design to make some practi- 
cal, rather than philosophical, remarks on the sale of certain lead- 
ing articles of Hardware and Mechanics' Tools, as conducted in 
Bvansville. The application of Iron, to purposes of utility and 
ornament, is so varied, and the discoveries of its adoption to pre- 
viously unheard of aims, succeed each other so rapidly, that we 
would not envy the task of the philosopher who would attempt to 
describe and classify them. No life could be long enough, no ob- 
servation acute enough, to execute it; and no publisher patient 
enough to await the preparation of the first volume of an inter- 
minable series. 

Our impression is, that in a miscellaneous Hardware stock 
there are four distinct classifications, to-wit: Edge and Hand Tools; 
House Trimming Goods ; Mechanics' Drawing and Measuring Im- 
plements, and General Hardware. The first department includes 
Penknives, Razors, Shears, Scissors, etc.. Mechanics' Edge and Wood 
Tools, Planes, etc., and it is, or should be, an axiom with wood- 
choppers, and, indeed, all workers in wood, carpenters, etc., that 
the best tools are the cheapest. Especially so, too, with Files — 
they being of the first importance to all workers in metal, from the 
engine builder to the maker of the most delicate watch-movement, 
it becomes necessary that none but the best should be selected. In 
this single article of Files, what wonderful variet3^ There are 



ADVEETISEMEKTS. 



185 




Boetticlier, Kelloii i Co. 



ImpDileib and Wliolesalt; Dealers in 



ardw^are 




OWTliHIlT, 



GUNS, &c. 



No. 122 First Street, 



Sign of the Big Padlock, 



EVANSVILLE, IND. 



24 



186 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Taper Files, Cotter andPillar Files, Half-round, Triangular, Cross 
and Round Files, Square, Equalling, Knife and Slitting Files and 
Rubbers, all of which may be equal in size, and yet differ in the 
forms and sizes of their teeth. Then there are Double-cut and 
Single-cut Rasps; indeed, every imaginable File under the sun ex- 
cepting "Indian File," and enough files, too, to rank the depart- 
ment of great importance. 

In House Trimming Goods, we believe, Locks take the prece- 
dence, and are quite as varied as Files ; therefore, to enumerate the 
great diversity of style and ornament of these wares, employed in 
their construction, materials of silver, bronze, brass, glass, porce- 
lain and minerals of every degree of beauty, polish and difference 
of form and structure, would comprehend an extent of detail almost 
bewildering to those uninitiated, but easily overcome by the 
thoroughly acquainted and accomplished dealers. 

Mechanics' Drawing and Measuring Instruments form the next 
department. That all scientific investigations and accuracy in 
mechanics must be based upon careful manipulation, and that cor- 
rect results can only be attained by correct instruments, are points 
self-evident, and need no elucidation. In the purchase and sale of 
instruments for mathematical, engineering and mechanical draw- 
ing, the great principle which should prevail is to combine the 
utmost precision and accuracy with simplicity, lightnessandsolidity 
of workmanship. 

Under the head of General Hardware may be considered all 
the odds and ends of the trade, such as Nuts, Washers. Chain- 
Links, Chains, Stirrups and Levers, Hooks and Thimbles, Sister 
Hooks, Connecting Shackles, Clinch Rings, Marline Spikes, Plate 
Hinges, Draw Plates, Bunter Heads, Can Rings, Bolts, etc., and 
all kinds of curious articles of a similar nature. Likewise: Sad- 
irons, (or fiat-irons,) Laundry Irons, planed and polished Tailors' 
Irons. Self-shutting Gate Hinges and Latches, Barn-door Rolls 
and Rails, Bed-keys, Anvils, Tea-scales and Weights, Foot- 
scrapers, Dumb-bells, Wagon-boxes, etc., etc. 

The past few years, and especially those which have succeded 
the war, has made many changes in this trade — a great improve; 
ment being noticeable in the quality of goods sold, which is owing, 
in part, to the fact that the colored population in the States, that 
depend on Bvansville for their supplies have become direct pur- 
chasers as well as customers, The low grades of Pocket and Ta- 



THE HARDWARE TRADE. 18^ 

ble Cutlei'y are rapidly disappearing from the shelves of Hard- 
ware dealers, and Cotton Cards are almost obsolete. That inter- 
esting implement known as the "Jim Crow Card " has passed 
into a relic of the •• olden days and golden ;'' for a darkey now 
either "shingles" his knotted and combined locks, or permits 
them in unkempt ringlets to straggle out ragged and unoiled to 
coyishly dally with the breezes of heaven. Axes, too, have un- 
dergone a change, and in place of those weighing six or six and a 
half pounds, the call is almost universally for those weighing 
from four to five pounds, and in a great many instances even 
lighter. Then again, before the war, probably, there were not 
more than a hundred kegs of horse-shoes sold in Evansville in an 
entire year, while to-day the sales of this article will reach many 
thousands of kegs. This last instance is due to the fact, that for- 
merly, almost every farmer of the South, had about his planta- 
tion a negro blacksmith, who made all such articles for home con- 
sumption. But, with his new found freedom, the ''man and 
brother" has forever turned his back on such pursuits, and con- 
sumers are forced to obtain their supplies from Importers and Job- 
bers. Another feature of its transmogrification we might men- 
tion in this connection : We allude to the trade in Plows and 
various other Agricultural Implements, formerly dealt in bj'' 
Hardwai'e men, but which is now, for the most part, confined to 
regular Agricultural Implement Warehouses, where it legitimate 
ly belongs. A great many more instances in this connection, 
might be mentioned, if it were deemed necessary, but we will now 
pass to a consideration of the advantages Evansville possesses for 
promptand cheap distribution of goods purchased of her merchants. 
Beyond the question of rents, cost of living, clerk hire, etc. 
between Evansville, as compared with other large cities, which, 
by the way, are circumstances most decidedly in our favor, there 
is another important advantage which is well worthy the consid- 
eration of country dealers, and which is the incontrovertible fact 
that Evansville merchants operating on ample capital are enabled 
to pay cash for their stocks, thereby obtaining larger discounts 
from the manufacturers of this country and of Europe which extra 
discount will put the goods in their houses, so that if the Evansville 
merchant does sell goods at the same price as his Eastern rival, he 
makes more clear money on them. But the foregoing are not, by 
any means, all the proofB that could be adduced to show the favor- 



188 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

able circumstances lliat surround Evansville as a wholesale Hard- 
ware market, but we will, for the present, desist and point to one 
irrefragable argument in delense of the assertions we have ad- 
vanced. It is this: in almost every city, town and hamlet of the 
vast stretch of country obtaining supplies in the Evansville mar- 
ket, there arc merchants who buy all of their Hardware here, sell- 
ing alongside of those who trade in New York, Cincinnati or St. 
Louis. Our customers are able to sell just as cheap, they get their 
goods home in less time, can recuperate their broken stocks at any 
time within a very few daj^s. which he who buys in the East can- 
not do in less than three weeks. Stocks in this market will be dis- 
covered as large and as well selected and assorted as in any city of 
the West. The houses are imposing, conveniently arranged, and 
we ma}^ well pride ourselves on having some of the most perfect 
specimens of Hardware Houses in America. 

The trade for the past year has advanced fully fifteen per cent, 
over and above that of the previous one, and will amount to $600,- 
000. More German and English Hardware — including Pocket and 
Table Cutlery, has been imported this year than ever before known. 
Our Importers and Jobbers being thoroughly conversant with the 
trade, offer purchasers all the facilities and advantages that they 
could possibly meet elsewhere. The houses engaged in this trade 
which may be spoken of as leaders are : Messrs. Boetticher, Kellogg 
& Co., No. 122 Upper First street; J. Lawton, No. 431 Main street; 
Geo. S. Sonntag & Co., No. 125 Upper First streer, and Fred. P. 
Straub & Co., No. 224 Main street. 

GEO. S. SONNTAG & CO., WHOLESALE HARDWARE. 

The pioneer Wholesale Hardware house in the city is that of Geo. 
S. Sonntag & Co., and to this firm is due much of the credit for intro- 
ducing Evansville to the world as a favorable point for wholesale pur- 
chase and distribution. Mr. Sonntag has been intimately connected 
with the mercantile advance and prosperity of the city since 185U. In 
1856, in copartnership with H. O. Babcock, Esq., he began the whole- 
sale of Hardware, and for two years a ^very successful business was 
carried on under the firm name of Babcock & Sonntag. In 1858, the 
business was dissolved by mutual consent, since which time Mr. Sonn- 
tag has conducted its afl^airs alone. As a General Hardware Importer 
and Dealer, he has the entire confidence and esteem not only of our 
home merchants, but of a large number of the leading retail purchasers 
throughout the States of Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mis- 



THE HARDWARE TRADE. 189 

souri and Arkansas. His establishment is a perfect model for arrange- 
ment of stock and attractiveness, and located at Nos. 121 and 123 
Upper First street, is 38x75 feet large and four stories and a basement 
high. 

J. LAWTON, HARDWARE DEALER. 

Promiuent among meritorious houses in the Hardware line, 
stands that ol Mr. J. Lawton, No. 431 Main street. Provided 
with an adequate and well assorted stock, and having almost unlim- 
ited experience in the business, he has infused much confidence 
into his extensive list of patrons, and built up a steady, paying 
trade. Mr. Lavvton, it may be said, was brought up in the Hard- 
ware business, for his connection therewith in Cincinnati and this 
city, extends over a period of nearly forty years. Six years ago 
he came to Eyansville, recognizing the importance and tlie flatter- 
ing promises Evansville held out to him as a merchant. Perfectly 
familiarized with the minutiae of the trade, having made it a 
study, he entered at once upon a successful career and still has 
confidence that only a few more years will elapse before this citj- 
will be ranked with the leading markets of the Western country. 
He makes specialty of Fine Cutlery and the finer classes of Gen- 
eral Hardware and Agricultural Implements, the demands of his 
custom being such, he finds no sale or room tor Common Goods. 

FRED. P. STRAUB & CO., HARDWARE DEALERS. 
Ampng those whose history is identified with the rise and progress 
of the Hardware business in Evansville, and whose genius, enterprise 
and high standing have contributed to its development, we know of no 
house now actively engaged in extending its triumphs, more deserving 
of honorable mention than Messrs. Fred. P. Straub & Co. The house 
was organized by Mr. elacob Straub, on the 1st of January, 1858, first 
occupying the house on Main street now occupied by the Singer Sew- 
ing Machine Company. January 1st, 1859, he admitted his son, Fred. 
P. Straub, as a partner, and they then removed their stock to the house 
located on the corner of the alley running into Main street, between 
Second and Third streets. January 1st, 1868, this partnership was 
dissolved, Mr. Straub, Sr,, retiring and Mr. J. Louis Straub, another 
son, taking his place in the firm, which was then changed to Fred. P. 
Straub & Co. During 1870 they I'emoved to their present commodi- 
ous place of business. No. 224 Main street. Their store, which is con- 
ceded on all hands one of the handsomest arranged in this section, is 
truly a model of interior excellence, and, as it was said of FalstaflT, we 



190 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEltCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

believe, that he was not only witty himself but the cause of wit in others ; 
it may be said of this firm, that they arc not only ingenious themselves 
but the cause of ingenuity in others. Their trade is confined more 
especially to supjjlying the wants of the highly-skilled artisans of this 
city. They buy from first hands for cash, and sell for cash, which ar- 
rangement gives them great advantages. Their stock includes a full 
assortment of general Hardware, both fine and common. 

BCETTICHER, KELLOGG & CO., HARDWARE DEALERS. 

The extensive concern of Messrs. Bceiticher, Kellogg & Co., 
is situated at No. 122 Upper First street — in the splendid build- 
ing known as the Lewis Block, and is one of the handsomest and 
most imposing business places along that busy thoroughfare of 
bustle and commercial commotion. For centrulity, convenience 
to customers and proximity .to the various shipping points, rail- 
road depots and steamboat landings, it is a very desirable locality. 
Besides their General Hardware Stock, they make specialities of 
the following Groods : Wheeling and Green Castle Nails ; Shef- 
field, Rogers, Wostenholm's and Marsh's Cutlery ; Henry Dis- 
ton & vSons, and Spear & Jackson's Saws ; Smith & Wesson's, 
Sharp's and Blue Jacket Repeaters, and the Derringers of 
Sharp's and Southerner's make ; Henry's Squirrel Rifles ; Axes 
of their own brand — C. H. Kellogg — and " L. X: L." Golden 
Blade and Double-Bit Axes ; Spades and Shovels from Ames & 
Sons, Rolland's, Lippincott's and Thomas, favored brands ; 
Smith's "Bvansville Hoes," of which they have complete control ; 
also the goods from the New York Belting and Packing Company, 
besides vei'y many other special features. 

This house was organized in 1853 by Mr. Charles S. Wells, who 
remained in business until his death, January, 1863. A new firm was 
then formed under the name of Wells, Kellogg & Co., which continued 
until January, 1866, when it was dissolved by the withdrawal of Mr. 
H. K. Wells, the two remaining partners, Chas. H. Kellogg and 
Edward Bcetticher, continuing the business under the style of Boet- 
ticher, Kellogg & Co. Mr. E. Bcetticher and Mr. Chas. H. Kellogg 
have been connected with this house sixteen years, and being yet in their 
prime and excellence of manhood, whole-souled, genial, enterprising, 
live, young merchants, they are, we hope, good for many more years 
to come. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS AND SEEDS. 191 



Agricultural Implements and Seeds. 

The oldest born of the father of mankind was a " tiller of the 
ground," and Abel, his brother, was a "keeper of sheep." 
After the flood "Noah became a husbandman and planted a vine- 
yard." Abraham, we are told, was " very rich in cattle," and 
Lothad ''flocks, and herds and tents." The munificent present of 
Jacob to his brother Esau, consisted of "two hundred she-goats, 
and twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes and twent}' I'ums, thirty 
milk camels with their colts, forty kine and ten bulls, twentj' she 
asses and ten foals." Such was the employment for ages of the 
Kings, Prophets and Judges of Israel — Saul, David, Gideon, 
Blisha, and the thousands whose names and memories are all for- 
gotten. The history of Boaz, the "mighty man of wealth." and 
of the sweet maiden of Moab,who " gleaned in the fields after the 
reapers," will be remembered and'wept over long after the pyra- 
mids have crumbled to decay ; while the wealth and luxur}' of 
Job, after his poverty and humiliation, still glows in our imagina- 
tion like the most dazzling tale of fiction. And Agriculture has 
been a stable pursuit, for the cheering promise of IJtvelation has 
said : "While the earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest, and 
cold and heat, and Summer and Winter, and day and night shall 
not cease." But throughout the long centuries that have gone 
Agriculture has lacked the aid of its handmaiden mechanic art. 
Its low condition may be inferred from the fact, that wherever 
the human family have been found, whether civilized or barbarian, 
it was in nearly an equal state of advancement and progress. 
whether on the fields of Europe, along the marshes of the Nile, 
among the Children of the Sun, or the worshippers of Bramah. 
The Spanish conquerors found, on the plains of Mexico and Peru, 
an Agriculture equal to their own, fields of waving corn, which 
reminded them of the luxuriance of Castile, and irrigated plains 
of unrivaled verdue stretching from the mountains to the sands 
upon the shores of the Pacific. 

In the first quarter of the present century, inventive genius came 
to the aid of manufactures. In the second quarter commerce was the 
object of its especial favor. In the third quarter, now almost finished. 
Agriculture has been the great recipient of its bounties. The fourth 
and culminating quarter no doubt will witness the grand perfection of 
all, so that the world will enter upon the Twentieth (Century of the 



192 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Christian Era in grander array than century ever dawned upon the 
globe. For what changes have w^e not witnessed in the last twenty- 
five years in the Implements of Agriculture and the results of labor? 
What wonders do we now behold upon the field, which were not fore- 
shadowed, not even dreamed of, so short a time as a quarter of a Cen- 
tury ago ! Well might we exclaim with the dusky Moor, were it not 
for that enlightened intelligence which modifies the forms of industry 
and directs labor into new channels, "Othello's occupation's gone!" 
Nay, in a land less blest than ours in the privileges of education and 
comforts of liome, among a people not so gifted as our own in that apti- 
tude which adapts itself to changed circumstances, and makes them 
tributary to its possessor's advantage who noAV so ignorant as not to see, 
or who so prejudiced as not to acknowledge, that these various inven- 
tions have lightened the burdens of toil, and become so many instru- 
mentalities of civilization and refinement. 

Agriculture, accoi'ding to the census returns, affords occupation to 
nearly three-fourths of the inhabitants of the United States, and gives 
employment to more capital than all the other pursuits combined. In 
no other department of human industry are statistics of greater im- 
portance; and all wise governments have considered it their duty to 
collect them. From them we learn not only the progress of Agricul- 
ture, but the advance of the republic in wealth, civilization and power. 
On the success of the farmer hinges the great question of cheap bread, 
and the ha23piness and intelligence of the nation. If productiveness of 
crops can only be secured by unremitted and severe labor, we must 
despair of a general spread of intelligence ; and if the natural resources 
of the soil be not renewed, our posterity must be heii-s to a barren and 
desolate land. Farming, then, can be said to approximate perfection 
only when great productiveness is secured without severe manual labor 
and without detriment to the soil, and the only means to obtain this 
end is explained in the use only of improved labor-saving machines, 
soil fertilizers and seeds of undoubted purity and worth. 

In the purchase of Agricultural Implements, it is especially desirable 
that farmers do not incur more expense than what is absolutely neces- 
sary for the right management of the farm ; but in no other thing will 
the oft-repeated assertion that the " best is the cheape^^t " be found more 
true. Farmers, however, are not the only persons interested in this 
matter, but country merchants, who desire the prosperity of their 
neighborhoods, and in fact, all merchants should give it especial atten- 
tion. For the benefit of all, then, we shall treat it with a view to the 



ADVERTISEMENT8. 193 



H. O. BABCOCK. H. H. BABCOCK. 



i, Wm Bifefc#v##fe (^ '©i#®i) 



DEALERS IN 



Agricultural Implements 



SEEDS, &c. 



SPECIA L TIES— Clover Seed . 

Tiniofhy Seed. 

Herd's Grafm. 

Orchard Grass. 

Blue Grass. 



2 1 1 Upper First Street 



EVANSVILLE, IND. 

25 



194 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMEUCE AND MANUFACTUKE8. 

two practical considerations of what Agricultural Implements to buy 
and where they can be bought. 

It is superfluous to remai-k that the Plow is the Implement of first 
importance and consideration in the trade, and among those most im- 
portant for general use are the Hill-side Plow and the Sub-soil Plow. 
Governor Randolph, the son-in-law of Thomas Jefferson, has the credit 
of being the inventor of the former, and the latter is said to have been 
invented in Scotland and first imported into this country about 1840. 
Be that as it may, it is gratifying to observe that the demand for Plows 
of a heavier grade is rapidly on the increase. The ruinous plan prac- 
ticed by a majority of farmers and planters, for years past, of merely 
scratching the surface of the ground three or four inches deep, year 
after year, until all the substance that could be drawn from the over- 
taxed soil had been carried off by its products, and some of the finest 
tillage lands of the country turned out as old sedge fields, not worth 
working, while underneath lay a rich sub-soil, which, to the thinking, 
progressive farmer, would prove a mine of wealth, has given way to 
the more enlightened system and common sense plan of feeding the 
hungry soil by giving it sustenance from its own bosom— the natural 
source from whence, with proper cultivation, it might all be drawn. 
Large Plows are being extensively used, and many of the 
best farmers of our country are breaking the ground from eight 
to ten inches deep, with the most gratifying and profitable re- 
sults. Deep Plowing is now the motto, and with the present feel- 
ing, we may hope soon to see all our waste lands reclaimed and 
made as valuable as formerly. After the soil has been turned over 
by the Plow, an Implement is required to pulverize it, and disen- 
gage fjt'om it the roots and lower stems of weeds, and thoroughly 
intermix its component parts. This service is usually derived 
from the Harrow, an Implement nearly, or quite, as ancient as 
the Plow, but which has not undergone as many improvements 
and which may yet be regarded as not only very simple, but es- 
sentially impei-fect. We cannot undertake a history of the Har- 
row, but I'emember to have seen it referred to by Sbakspeare, who 
allows the ghost of Hamlet's father to "unfold a tale " to that un- 
fortunate Prince concerning his sudden taking off that would 
"Aarro?/; up his soul." Seed Sowers are the next Implements 
needed; then follows the Cultivator, a labor-saving contrivance 
that will be found exceedingly useful for stirring the earth be- 
tween the rows of Cotton, Corn, Tobacco and other Crops. It is 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS AND SEEDS. 195 

generally quite light, easily arranged and of easy draught for one 
horse or mule; a thorough pulverizer of the surface soil, and ex- 
terminator of weeds and grass. Next in order of use come Hay- 
ing and Harvesting Implements ; the most ancient of which we 
have any knowledge of is the Sickle or Eeaping Hook. This was 
succeeded by the Scythe, and the Cradle, which continue to be the 
principal instruments in use for the cutting of hay or Grain. 
Both of these, however, deniand great muscular action, and humane 
genius has been exercised for more than a centur}'^ in trying to 
supersede them by machinery. Eecently success has not only es- 
tablished and witnessed valuable improvements in this branch, so 
that amidst so many rival and conflicting claimants for popularity 
and preference, it is difficult to decide upon their relative merit. 
Of Machines, for Threshing, the only one universally known, and 
now in general use, is the Flail. Within the present century, 
however, a Portable Machine, propelled by Horse-power, and 
known as the Threshing Machine, has met with very considerable 
favor. In this city, may be found, on sale. Threshing Machines 
manufactured here, and those manufactured elsewhere, each claim- 
ing peculiar advantages. 

But we might go on in an almost exhaustless sketch of the 
various kinds of Implements offered, for all kinds are to be met 
with in our Warehouses, embracing in part. Threshing, Mowing 
and Eeaping Machines, Improved Cider Mills, Hay Eakes, Culti- 
vators, Plows, Harrows, Cutting Boxes, Farm Pumps, Horse- 
Powers, Seed Sowers, Corn and Cane Mills, Clover HuUers, Sugar 
Evaporators, Hay Presses, Cotton Gins, Corn Planters, acdall the 
other leading Improved Implements needed for the successful cul- 
tivation of the land of the country. 

But it is only within the past few years that Agricultural Im- 
plements have joined issue with Field and Garden Seeds, and now 
the trade of Evansville stands without a rival among the cities of 
this section. The sales of Clover, Timothy and Eed Top Seed, it 
is said, exceeds that of any other city this side of the Alleghanies, 
being situated, as we are, immediately in the center of the section 
growing them, and yet it is comparatively a new business here. 
The first seed house established here was in 1859, but to-day at 
least four large establishments are in successful operation, and the 
trade will amount to $500,000 annually. As we shall take advan- 
tage of every point where practical suggestions, that may lead to 



196 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

profitable results, may be made, we take occasion here to impress 
upon the Agriculturists of our productive country the importance 
of seed raising. There is not a single vegetable produced in this 
locality — and none others need be wanted — but will bring forth 
as good, and if anything, better seed, than those raised in more 
northerly climates; and Seed, like everything else of God's crea- 
tion, by the haj^py process of acclimitation, being " native here and 
to the manner born," prove, ^practically , their adaptation to the soil 
from whence they sprang. In Philadelphia and other Eastern 
cities, we find that the seed trade is of immense proportions, and 
that many tons are shipped annually to the British Provinces, to 
India, and South America, the West Indies and the shores of the 
Pacific; and if our people would but profit by these facts, and raise 
their own seed, liundredsof thousands of dollars would be retained 
here annually, to say nothing of the new branchesof industry that 
would spring up in connection therewith. 

Among those engaged in the trade of Agricultural Implements 
and Seeds in this city are the following houses: H. O. Babcock 
& Co., 211 Upper First street ; G. I. Bliss & Co., 205 Lower First 
street; Headley & Co., 213 Upper First street; Wm. Heilman, 125 
Lower First street; Hornbrook & Co., 214 Upper "Water street, J- 
Lawton, -131 Main street; Roach & Hubbard, 24 Upper First street, 
and Thos. Scantlin & Sons, 19 Main street. 

H. O. BABCOCK & CO., SEED AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT 

DEALERS. 

The first Seed and Agricultural Implement house established in 
Evansville was in 1859, but it resulted disastrously to the originator, 
and in the following year — 1860 — the business was bought by Mr. H. 
O. Babcock and placed on a substantial, progressive footing. Mr. 
Babcock has been a merchant in this city since the year 1846, and for 
ten years was a member of the firm of Babcock Brothers, composed of 
Elisha S. Babcock, Chas. Babcock and H. O. Babcock. In 1850 Mr. 
H. O. Babcock withdrew from the firm and formed a copartnership 
with Mr. Geo. S. Sonutag in the Hardware business, under the style 
of Babcock and Sonntag. In 1858 he retired from that firm and, as 
before stated, embarked in his present business, first occupying, for 
two years, the house corner Main and Water streets, and next the 
house No. 213 Upper First street for twelve years. January 1st, 1873, 
the firm, now composed of H. O. Babcock and his son, Henry H. 
Babcock, moved into their present quarters, No. 211 Upper First 



• THE GROCERY TRADE— WHOLESALE. 19t 

street, a commodious building 30x155 feet large, being one of the 
roomiest stores in the city. In addition to this, they have a large 
warehouse, Nos. 408 and 410 Main street, all of which is found neces- 
sary to accommodate the extensive stock they carry. 

When Mr. Babcock first began the trade his business was con- 
fined to the sale of a few Garden Seeds, amounting to not over 
$4,000 a year, and wlien placed in comparison with his present 
immense business, sinks into insignificance — but by diligence and 
enterprise, he has come to witness his commercial influence ex- 
tend over a vast stretch of territory. He makes specialty of 
Field Seeds, and his house may be ranked as headquarters for the 
purchase of Clover, Timothy and Red-top Seeds, and having 
almost entire control of those products, which are largely raised 
in this section, is enabled to supply all the leading markets in the 
Union. He numbers among his customers nearly all the leading 
Seed Merchants in New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, 
Louisville, Nashville, Memphis and St. Louis — and it is a well- 
known fact, that Evansville offers better advantages in this line, 
than any other place in the West. 

In addition, this firm are the Sole Agents, in this city, for the 
Celebrated Buckeye Reaper and Mower, and Grain Drill; Sulky 
Rakes; Racine, Wisconsin, Wagons, etc., etc. 



The Grocery Trade — Wholesale. 

In its wholesale branch the Grocery Trade of Evansville engages 
the attention of more merchants than any one other vocation. In the 
crowded thoroughfares of the city may be found its spacious warehouses, 
one day being filled, and the next day, as it were, emptied of their im- 
mense stocks ; for, of all mercantile pursuits none surpass this branch 
for vivacity and bustle. On every street and thoroughfare one en- 
counters the throngs of well-laden drays and ponderous transfer wagons, 
rolling ceaslessly and noisily in their busy career, which mingled and 
confused with the emphatic and sometimes profane ejaculations of the 
almost innumerable army of teamsters, and draymen, and porters, and 
laborers — all highly essential features of the trade, present a truthful 
panorama of a commercial Babel, yet everything moving with the reg- 
ularity of clock-work. Costly and capacious buildings, in keeping with 
the demands of the trade, are being erected in the leading marts. New 
sections of country, rich in resources, are being made tributary, until 



198 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE ANB MANUFACTURES. 

the business now stands out bold and prominent symbolizing that emi 
nent quality of go-ahead-ative-ness that characterizes the Evansvilh 
Wholesale Grocery Trade, either as individual firms, or taken as i 
fraternity. To meet this gratifying growth and wide-spread enlarge 
ment how are our merchants prepared ? Go into the warehouses, and 
if an appearance of quantity and variety please the eye, it is here ir 
perfection. Coffee, from the West Indies and Brazil, and Tea from 
China, stacked alongside with Sugars from Cuba, and Sugars and Molas- 
ses from Louisiana, and Rice from the Carolina plantations. There, too, 
are huge piles of Salt and Pepper, and all the condiments from " where 
the spicy breezes blow soft o'er Ceylon's isle," and which to alter the 
old adage make up the "variety of life. " There are all manner of Canned 
Goods — the "crustaceous Bivalve" and the lively Sardine — Fish, Fruits, 
Soaps, Candles, Cheese, Preserves, Jellies, Candies, and the thousand 
and one articles incident to the trade, arranged in order, and standing 
pyramidical in their huge accumulations. 

Since the war this trade has been constantly extended until 
to-day, it covers a larger scope of country than at any time be- 
fore or subsequent to the cessation of hostilities. But like al] 
other important branches of trade with us, in its embryotic state, 
its condition was anomalous, and many obstacles had to be sur- 
mounted and many difficulties conquered. A great blow was given 
to the business, by the results of the war, which broke up the in- 
timate relations with New Orleans, and destroyed the Sugar, Mo- 
lasses and Rice trade, from that market. But these were only the 
more apparent of our losses. Previous to that period, the Gro- 
cery Trade was quite extensive, owing partly to the fact, that the 
Agricultural products of the country to the north of this city, 
both in Indiana and Illinois, were shipped South, and Evansville 
was the natural place of sujDply for the dealers of those regions. 
With tne change in the current of shipments to the East, there 
also came a change, to some degree, of the Grocery trade. Also, 
the increased freights on heavy goods operated somewhat to the 
disadvantage of cities as far West as Evansville. Indefatigable 
effort and enterprise in rebuilding the fortunes of this trade, has 
resulted in a most propititious state of things. The increase the 
present year — which has been u, calamitous season for nearly all 
commercial interests — which amounting to inWj fifteen jper cent. a,d- 
vance, in the volume of sales, will bring our Wholesale an- 
nual trade up to $5,500,000, while the Retail transactions arecer- 



THE GKOCEKY TEADE— WHOLESALE. 199 

tainly not less than $1,500,000, giving us a grand total of approxi- 
mated value — six millions of dollars. The handsome figures shown 
in the Ketail sales, evidences the marked growth of the city, and 
a flattering increase in the resident population. 

With vast advantages over competitors, in low freights over 
the several Railroads diverging from this point; with the Ohio 
River open at all seasons of the year — barring isolated instances ; 
with regular packets plying the Ohio, Mississippi, Tennessee, Cum- 
berland, Wabash, and Green Rivers, what more favorable circum- 
stances could our Grocers wish for? Bvansville Merchants, too, 
have invariably, since her earliest days, 8to<;d high lor their ener- 
getic undertakings, their clear-sightedness, integrity in transac- 
tions, as well as for that controlling lever of success — plenteous 
capital to push their interests to the very verge, na}^, within the 
very precincts occupied by older markets. We assert, proudly, 
too, that but few cities of the Union can exhibit the same records 
as to solvency. Examine your Mercantile Directories; or inquire 
of your Banker, and both will sustain us, that if failures have 
ever occurred, they have been decidedly few — none of them in- 
volving large sums of money, since our traae assumed anything 
like its present proportions. The Exclusive Wholesale Houses 
having this record, and controlling this trade, are located in the 
city as follows: Apple & Manheimer, No. 16 Upper First street; 
Matthew Dalzell, No. 124 Upper Water street; 1. & D. Heiman, 
Nos. 101 and 103 Upper^First street ; Louis Kahn & Co., No. 226 
Upper Water street ; Preston Brothers, No. 208 Upper First 
street; John D. Preston & Co., No. 107 Upper First street; Ra- 
gon Brothers, Nos. 15 and 17 Upper First street ; A, Behme, No. 
18 Upper First street ; Viele, Stockwell & Co., corner First and 
Sycamore streets; Wheeler & Riggs, No. 200 Upper First street. 

Through the efforts of these firms, weare to-day selling nearly 
all the trade south of here and West — formerly controlled by Lou- 
isville and Cincinnati — and so soon as the advantages of this 
market are sufficiently advertised, and more good, responsible, 
wide-awake representatives of their interests are dispatched 
throughout the country, we may reasonably expect and claim the 
bulk of trade from the Central, Southern and Western States. 

RAGON BROTHERS, WHOLESALE GROCERS. 
Were we called upon to single out a commercial firm distin- 
guished at home and abroad — wherever the city of Bvansville is 



200 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

known, for all of the ODininanding qualities of success and promi- 
nence in the business they have espoused, we should have to go no 
farther, but would point out quickly that of Ragon Brothers as 
entitled to front rank in the great Grocery business of the Western 
country. This trade has always been one of the strongest points 
upon which we have advanced our claims to be classed as the com- 
mercial center of the surrounding valleys so fertile and blossoming, 
but among the firms who have contributed to this grand success 
none other can be entitled to more praise than the Messrs. Ragon. 
Tiieir career in this city has been one of uninterrupted and emi- 
nent success and has carried their fame wide-spread throughout 
Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee — the formidable rivals, 
nay, the peers of any competitive house, be they stationed here or 
there. Even during the gloomiest days of the " panic," their busi- 
ness moved forvvard unflagged and their buoyant industry re- 
mained unchecked. They put on a full head of steam — bought 
largely and sold largely — while many others idly sat and held 
their hands, curtailed expenses and let their stocks run down. 

Enlarged business and lack of room, forced them to seek more 
commodi.jus quarters. Accordingly, on August 1st, 1874, they 
moved into a mammoth and splendid new building, Noe. 15 and 17 
Upper First street, which was erected at a cost of$25,00U for their 
especial business. The style of architecture adopted is the modern 
French renaissance, upon which has been engrafted all of the pe- 
culiar excellencies of massiveness and elegance to be found in the 
costliest and most metropolitan buildings of the country. There- 
fore, for external beauty and attractiveness, or interior order and 
arrangement, their establishment is not a whit inferior to the most 
prominent Grocery houses of Baltimore, Philadelphia or New 
York. Passing through the busiest quarter of First street, one 
cannot avoid noticing its handsome jiroportions. Over the first 
story front are placed three beautiful life-size statues representing 
Plentitude, Commerce and Harvest respectively. The eaves of the 
elegant iron front are set oft' with basso-relievos representing cherubs 
supposed to be bearing the weight of the crowning Mansard roof 
on their wings. 

The building is 140x40 feet large and four stories and a base- 
ment high, giving more storage capacity than any similar house in 
the city. There are so many conveniences and points of excel- 
lence in the way of elevators, stairways, shelving and office, sample 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 201 



F. JET. Ragon. E. G. Ragon. 



Ragon Brothers 



\A/HOI_ESAI_E 



GROCERS 



Nos. 15 and 17 



FIRST STREET, 



■▼aBBviltof ln€ 



26 



m 



202 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

room and closet arrangements, that anything less than a detailed 
description does not mete out justice. In order, however, to show 
what an immense stock and wonderful variety they carry in the 
trade, during our visit we noted down some of the more prominent 
features. Every article has its space set aside, and rigid discij)line 
is enforced to keep goods in proper places. Their cellar is devoted 
to Sugars in hogsheads, Molasses and Syrups in barrels, half-bar- 
rels and ten and five gallon kegs ; Cheese, Tar, Rope and heavy 
goods generally. On the first floor are stored Yellow Refined 
Sugars, Coffees, Teas, Tobacco, Cigars and Snuffs ; Canned Fruits, 
Figs, Currants, Dates, Prunes ; Mackerel, Starch, Soda, Nails, Rice, 
Axle Grease, Candles, Nuts of all kinds — Almonds, Filberts, Pe- 
cans and Walnuts — Sardines, Oysters, Pickles in barrels, half-bar- 
rels, kegs and bottles; Brandied Fruiis, Maple Syrups and Sugars; 
Butter, Soda? and Lemon Crackers, Stick Candies, Baking Powders, 
Pepper, Spice, Ginger, Nutmegs, Mace, Cloves, Lemon Sugar, 
Ground Spice of all kinds, Mustard, Pepper Sauce, Catsup, Laun- 
dry Soaps, Washboards, Brooms, Wrapping Paper, Turpentine, 
Sweet and Castor Oils, Inks, Window Glass, Cotton Yarns, Batting, 
Cotton Warp, Candle Wick, Indigo, Madder, Fishing Tackle and 
Sportsmen's articles ; Concentrated Lye, Matches, Fancy Liquors, 
Gin, Bitters, and Golden and Silver Wedding Whiskies in boxes. 
Near the entrance they have fitted up a sample room, which is a 
little gem in its wa}^ and where all glass goods and fancy articles 
are displayed. 

The second floor is a j)erfect model for arrangement, and is 
known as the Fancy Grocery and Notion Department. On either 
side are shelves stocked with Pipes and Smokers' Articles, Toilet 
Soaps, Perfumeries, Prepared Drugs — such as Paragoric, Lauda- 
num, Liniments, etc. Next follow Slates, Pencils, Pens and Sta- 
tionery, brushes of all kinds. Hair, Clothes, Shoe, Horse. Scrub- 
bing, Whitewash and Dusting Brushes, Carpet Tacks, Blacking, 
Stove Polish, Paper and Cotton bags, Chewing Gum, and a thou- 
sand other things. Through the center of this room a table is placed, 
whereon is displayed samples of Fancy Candies, Bonbons, Com- 
fits, Crystalized Fruits, and Confectioneries generally. They have 
introduced to the trade, also, a new Prize Candy Scheme, some 
packages of which draw a Silver Pitcher, some an Accordeon or a 
Revolver, and which cannot fail to prove very salable. The re- 
mainder of this floor is the Liquor Department, where an exten- 
sive supply of Wines, Whiskies and Brandies may be seen. 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 



203 



John D. Preston & Co 



WHOLESALE 












40 



MBBT B^BHHm 



f 



f 



YANSYILLE, 



Indiana, 



204 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

The third floor is used for Glassware — Jars and Flasks, Vine- 
gar, Eefined Sugars, Hudnut's Celebrated Hominy, in barrels j 
Wire Groods, Sifters and Cheese Safes, Oil Cans, Table Salts, 
Wooden Ware, Axe Handles, Sugar Buckets, Faucets, Churns, 
Cedar Ware, Tubs, Trays, Wooden Bowls, Harvest Kegs, and Iron 
and Zinc Well Buckets. 

The fourth story is stored with such articles as Alum, Eosin, 
Blue Stone, Copperas, Spanish Brown, Sulphur, Brimstone, Salt- 
petre, Epsom Salts, Venetian Eed, and numerous articles of Mer- 
chandise assimilating in character. This firm employs a corps 
of salesmen numbering fifteen men in the house and on the road, 
beside a formidable shipping force. As to the personneloi the firm, 
we copy, and fully endorse the following extract, from the Evans- 
ville Courier^ published August 9th, 1874: 

"The firm which now occupies this building is composed of Messrs. F. H. 
Ragon and E. G. Ragon, the former of whom came to the city in November, 
1864, and commenced the Grocery business in the half of the store on Water 
street, now occupied by Taylor & Field. The latter came in 1869. The gen- 
tlemen came from Cadiz, Trigg county, Kentucky, and although they were 
personally strangers in this city, they understood the business wants of this 
section. By dint of the steadiest and strictest attention to business they have 
built up a trade which annually brings to the city millions of dollars. For 
four years they remained in the unpretentious store, but afterwards moved into 
the building on the corner of Water and Vine streets, from which they have 
just removed into their palatial seat of operations. 

" During this decade the increased trade and prosperity of the firm has been 
truly wonderful, and has sprung from the most untiring watchfulness and en- 
deavor. During all seasons the store is open from 6 in the morning till 7 in the 
evenmg, but in the push of business, when the marvelous trade of the house be- 
comes apparent, their doors remain closed only about six hours out of every 
twenty-four. Business then begins at 6 o'clock in the morning and the books 
are closed only at midnight. Such tremendous strain of body and mind the 
visitor to the establishment would scarcely realize the amount of labor per- 
formed by the members of the firm, for they both have a cordial greeting and 
pleasant word for all as if their minds were unencumbered with commercial 
cares. And yet either can always be found at their place of business and inva- 
riably at work. This is the kind of labor that has made fortunes, laid the founda- 
tions of commercial firms that have flourished for generations, and long after 
the founders have slept their last sleep. It has so fer won glorious achieve- 
ment in this city for the Ragons, and year by year will add to this most sub- 
stantial growth, keeping this firm in the future, as it is now, the synonym of 
our city's progress and prosperity." 



ADVEKTISEMENTIS. 205 



E]ST^BI_.ISH:Er)-184:0. 



Viele,Stockwell&Co. 



SUCCESORS TO 

Charles Viele & Co. and Stockwell & Co. 



WHOLESALE GHOCEES, 



AmM lijiqiw&F Memler^, 



Cor. First and Sycamore Sts., 



EVANSVILLE, InD. 



206 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANCTPACTURES. 

JOHN D. PRESTON & CO., WHOLESALE GROCERS. 

Possibly no business firm in the city of Evansville, to-day is ranked 
higher for probity, enterprise and conscientious dealing than the well- 
known Wholesale Grocery firm of John D. Preston & Co., whose place 
of business is at No. 107 Upper First street. Ten years ago this firm 
organized ; its first firm style being that of Preston & Menifee, the 
principal members being Mr. John D. Preston and Mr. W. B. Menifee, 
now Judge of the City Court of Evansville. In 1869 Mr. Menifee re- 
tired and the style of firm name was changed to its present form. As 
at present conducted it is one of the most prominent Grocery houses in 
the West. Having intimate connection with the houses of Wm. R. 
Preston, New York, and Henry Preston, New Orleans, they possess 
unrivaled advantages for the procurance of Sugars and Coffees — the 
two great staples in the trade. Their business to-day takes in all of 
the leading articles and miscellaneous etcetras in the Staple and Fancy 
Grocery line and extends throughout all of the leading cities and towns 
in Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama and 
the regular sections of country relying on Evansville for their supplies 
of merchandise. It is a young firm, comparatively, but lacking none 
of the push, energy and knowledge of the business that belongs to suc- 
cess. They hold a creditable hand with houses much older, and by suc- 
cessful competition with large establishments in other cities, have thus 
paved the way to commercial distinction. 

VIELE, STOCKWELL & CO., WHOLESALE GROCERS. 

Among the leading representative business houses of the 
city, there is not a single one more consjjicuous for successful 
career, or n\ore prominent in all of the points which insure re- 
spect and command attention, than that of Messrs. Viele, Stock- 
well & Co. It boasts greater age than any of the prominent 
Wholesale houses, and to-day commands a greater amount of 
capital and business requisites, perhaps, than any Grocery house in 
the State of Indiana. It has not, nor is it now, our purpose in sub- 
mitting personal sketches of the houses who patronize this work, 
to employ our pen in fulsome flattery, but to speak truthfully, 
faithfully and precise, concerning their Mercantile career, and to 
garner a few of the leading facts that have made remarkable, and 
historic their character as business men. 

For many years Mr. Chas. Viele, the founder of this great com- 
mercial establishment, has been one of the first and foremost spirits in 



THE GROCEKY TRADE— WHOLESALE. 207 

our mercantile circles, and he has lived to see that business adding 
manyfold to the prosperity and onward steps of the city, and placing 
it, by sure and steady advances, in a position that will bring the place 
to that propitious era when " old walls and happy days" will charac- 
terize it among the leading centers of trade and wealth in the Union. 
In 1840, in company with Mr. Asa Bement, the Grocery firm ot'Be- 
ment & Viele was organized. Afterwards Mr. Wm. Bement was ad- 
mitted as a partner, and then Mr. Russell Bement, now President of 
the Merchants' National Bank of this city. The firm also established 
a branch house in Terre Haute under the firm name of Bement & Co., 
and one at Bowling Green, Kentucky, under the style of Bement & 
Viele. In those days all merchandise consigned to Evansville was dis- 
charged from steamboats at the mouth of Green River, nine miles above 
the city, Evansville not being considered of enough importance to con- 
stitute a regular landing place. Transj^ortation by wagon, however, 
was not only very expensive but decidedly dilatory and annoying; for 
in those days leading Grocers purchased Sugar in lots of a thousand 
hogsheads or more. Much of the credit, then, is due to the old firm 
for first making Evansville the important port that it has grown to be. 
Their trade at that time included all of the towns in Indiana and Illi- 
nois within a radius whose northern extremity was Lafayette, and as 
lar west as the shores of the Mississippi. But several changes occurred 
in the firm and business ; Mr. Asa Bement having died, the house at 
Bowling Green Avas sold to a Mr. Price, before the war, and in 1867 
Mr. Viele bought the interest of the Bement Brothers here and sold 
his interest in the Terre Haute house to Bement & Co. The firm name 
was then changed to Chas. Viele & Co., and in 1869 Mr. Viele ad- 
mitted his eldest son, Geo. B. Viele, to a partnership. But during the 
Avar Bement & Viele established the branch house of Stockwell & Co. 
— composed of Geo. H. Stockwell — Bement & Viele being the Com- 
pany. After that the two firms, Stockwell & Co. and Chas. Viele & 
Co., were consolidated under its present title, Viele, Stockwell & Co., 
and on January 1st, 1872, the young firm, with an old and honorable 
record, continued the trade, Mr. Chas. Viele having retired a million- 
aire, to enjoy respite from the arduous duties that have marked his 
career as an energetic and an able business man. The firm of to-day 
is composed of Messrs. Geo. B. Viele and Geo. H. Stockwell, both 
young merchants, full of life, energy and mercantile ability, just in the 
hey-day of business strength and activity, and conducting the aflfairs of 
their mammoth establishment on high-toned principles of Catholicism 
and the cardinal virtues of commercial integrity. 



208 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMENCE AND MANUFACTUKES 

They are to-day engaged in the sale of Grroceries — Staple and 
Fancy — together with Foreign and Domestic Liquors, and carry 
one of the most extensive and variedly assorted Stocks to be ob- 
served in any of the great Grocery houses of the land. Their 
sales per annum, are considerably over a half million of dollars, 
and yet each year adds new customers to their books, and widens 
and extends their trade in a manner, nothing short of wonder- 
ful. The business house occupied by them, corner of First and 
and Sycamore streets, is one of model arrangement and adaptability, 
and a visit thereto, is not only instructive but pleasing. The first 
floor is devoted to Miscellaneous Goods; Canned Fruits, Preserves, 
Fish, Soap, Candles, Cheese, etc., etc. On the second floor, they 
have a large stock of Liquors, Cigars and Tobacco ; while the 
third floor contains numerous articles of light good». The firm 
has fitted up a handsome oflSce in the front part of the second 
floor. Yellow Pine and Walnut Panneling, Fresco Papering, 
French Plate-Glass, elegant Chandeliers and Arched Carving 
over the Desks are the main features, while all of the desirable 
contrivances needed for the business, are at hand. 

ANTHONY BEHME, WHOLESALE GROCER. 

Among the firms now engaged in business in Evansville, but few 
can trace their origin farther into the past than can that of which 
Anthony Behme is the surviving partner. The old partnership of G. 
Venneman & Co., was established in 1830. and continued without 
change until 1856, at which Mr. Venneman assumed sole control. His 
partners, H. Hakman, of Cincinnati, and J. F. Waschefort, of Teut- 
opolis, Illinois, retiring. Another change occurred January 1st, 1866, 
when its time-honored "and faithful employe, Anthony Behme, was ad- 
mitted to its membership, under the style of Venneman & Behme. 
Anthony Behme, on the death of his partner, became the sole proprie- 
tor on the 1st day of September, 1873. 

Until the month of September, 1874, he occupied the same build- 
ing that the original firm did, on Water street, but his business having 
greatly increased, ho removed at that time to No. 18 Upper First 
street, in the splendid building known as Akin's Block, which has all 
of the modern improvements, such as elevator, gas, water, etc. He 
lias never drummed for trade in any way, it being contrary to the rules 
of the house. It is this that characterizes Mr. Behme's trade to-day, 
that it is constant to him. Through a long course of years he has held 
it, and it is a matter of some pride to him that it is so. Local grocers 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 209 



ANTHONY BEHME 



■vsri3:oXjii]s.iLLE 





OCER, 



AND DEALER IN 



Cordage, Twines, Fishing-Taekle, 
and Broom-Makers' Stock, 

No. 1 8 Upper First St 



EVANSVILLE, IND. 

27 



210 EVANSVILLE: HEU COMMERCE AND MANUEACTUKES. 

are largely supplied by him, and his Groceries reach many portions of 
Kentucky and Illinois. The Wholesale Grocery trade of no city pre- 
sents a better example of gradual growth and extension than that of 
Anthony Behme. 

He is known to all our citizens as a careful, honest and up- 
right citizen. He emigrated from Westphalia, Prussiti, in 1848, 
and worked five years on his father's farm, in Grerman Township. 
On the 1st of October, 1853, he entered the store of G-eorge Ven- 
neman & Co., as the book-keeper, salesman, and business man. 
He held this place until his admission as a partner in the house 
increasing its business during its first year $150,000. In 1862, he 
was elected City Treasurer, on a citizen's ticket, by 245 majority, 
under the administration of Mayor Baker, and his fidelity to the 
people is well remembered. His trial balance on the first tally of 
the city books did not show a difference of one cent, which illus- 
trates his methodical and careful habits. A twenty -five years 
residence in this city has made him known and respected, not 
only for his business principles, but for his qualities as a citizen. 
He is a prominent member of the Holy Trinity Church as Trus- 
tee, and one of the new chime of noble bells, which he worked so 
hard to secure, was christened in honor of his name. 

H. A. COOK'S ORIENTAL TEA STORE AND ORIGINAL FAMILY 

GROCERY. 

In all large cities there needs must be some house deserving 
classification as the leaders in the especial pursuits adopted, or, 
rather, in all large cities, there may be found some house standing 
out prominently and noticeable for many points of excellence 
not attained by any of its competitors, and attracting trade on 
account of those admirable belongings. In the department of Re- 
tail Groceries, in the city of Evansville, we refer then with much 
pleasure, to that of H. A. Cook, No. 323 Upper First street, as 
deserving many encomia. As far back as 1852, Mr. Cook entered 
this business here, in company with his father, but he has had 
almost the oitire management of the concern from his boyhood. 
The house first occupied by Mr. Cook, was situated on First street, 
only a few doors from the one he now occupies for the same purpose. 
At the time of his commencement, nearly all the Wholesale Grocery 
houses in the city, had their retail counters, and, indeed, all of the 
paying and desirable Retail trade of the city, was controlled by those 
houses. Mr. Cook, however, nothing daunted, divided the business, 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



211 



Establislied 1852. 



i ©iiiif 11 f li gT®i: 



HI, Ji^. OOOIC 



DEALEE IN 



mn 



p©j 



i 



Choice Fancy and Staple Groceries, 

Baltimore 



AGENT 



Oysters 



New Opera House, 



Teas at J<Jeiv York Prices. 



Coffee (koasted (Daily. 



212 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMliRC:B AND MANUFAOftJliES 

and by introducing the Free Delivery System, brought it rapidly to 
such commanding standard, that other houses soon sprung up, 
operated on similar plan, so that now every leading Retail Grrocery 
house in the city, finds it imperative, as well as advantageous, to 
run wagons delivering orders to customers without money and 
without price. 

Cook's •' Oriental Tea Store " is now, not onl}^ one of the 
handsomest, but one of the most extensive concerns of this char- 
acter in the West. His walls are decorated with choice paintings, 
landscapes taken from designs representing the Celestials of 
the Flowery Kingdom, in many of their operations of Tea- 
gathering, Packing, etc. His Goods are classified in charming 
array, and altogether, the house is a model one for the business, 
and all conveniences and contrivances imaginable, have been in- 
troduced. He supplies Hotels, Steamboats, .Restaurants, Boarding 
Houses and Private Families, and conducts a large and lucrative 
business, that keeps even as busy and energetic a person as he, 
himself is, constantly employed. He makes a specialty ot Teas 
and Coffees, and his is the only house in Southern Indiana, em- 
ploying Steam Apparatus for Roasting and Gi-rinding Coffees. In 
Teas, his varieties include twenty-six kinds or qualities, and he 
announces his ability to duplicate the bills of any Eastern Tea 
Company. In Fancy Articles, such as Imported Pickles, Pre- 
serves, Sauces, and all kinds of Canned Goods — Fruits, Meats and 
Fish, he carries a heavy stock and of great variet3^ A speciality 
is also made of California Wines, and they are obtained direct 
from the Wine Sellers of San Francisco. During the season, he 
also deals largely in Game and Fish — Lake and Ocean, as well as 
Fresh Oysters, making a specialty of those of the celebrated " Ar- 
row" brand. 



The Wholesale Liquor Trade. 

The consumption of Spirituous Liquors, both as a luxury and 
in the works of Art, is so vast and wide-spread, that the Traffic in 
our city necessarily involves considerations of great commercial 
importance. The Revenue derived from the various branches of 
the pursuit,swells the business ofEvansville up among the millions, 
and we may justly lay claims to being the Wholesale center of the 
Liquor T'rade, for this, and adjoining States. Enjoying, as the 



Ttt^ WliOJ.JiSALE LlQttOil TtiAt)E. 21l] 

city does, a remarkable large share of patronage in this respect, 
and occupying a favorable position, with satisfactory connections 
with all of the leading Distilleries of Kentucky and Tennessee, 
our claims as the legitimate headquarters for distribution, will be 
readily admitted. 

The kinds of Liquors sold by our Wholesale houses are the 
widely celebrated products of Bourbon, N^elson and Anderson coun- 
ties, Kentucky; and KobertsoQ county, Tennessee; whose qualities 
are too well-known wherever a civilized drinker lives, moves and 
has his being, to need extolling at our hands. Nor do we pro- 
pose to be led into a discussion as to the relative merits of " Sweet 
Mash " or " Sour Mash," or to attempt any scientific explanation 
of the various systems of fermentation, either natui-al or unna- 
tural. This much, we however, say, that Whiskies manufactured 
on the Bourbon plan, and known as Sweet Mash Liquors, require 
both time and artificial process to ferment j^roperly, and inasmuch 
as '' age " in Liquors is mostly sought after, where purity is de- 
sired, it needs no additional light on the subject, for a word to the 
wise, is at all times, sufficient. Therefore, no words of praise ure 
expected at our hands to convince dealers and bibers, and we 
would be undertaking a work of superroffation to bring forward 
more proof, or to state wherein superiority lies. 

It has been quite difficult, in the mean time, for us to arrive at clear 
conclusions as to the annual financial value of this great business in 
our city, inasmuch as it is so widely scattered, or rather so uni- 
versally dealt in. But from the most reliable data that we could 
obtain, we unhesitatingly state the trade at not less than three 
million and Jive hundred thousand dollars for the year 1874. This, 
it wmU be seen, is quite small when we come to consider that there 
are sixteen wholesale Liquor houses, six EectifierB and over 300 
Saloons, each doing a j^aying business, either in the city or near it. 

According to returns made to Gen. J. C. Veatch, Collector of 
Internal revenue for the First District of Indiana, we find that 
there were 14,573 barrels of Liquor turned out in this District for 
the year ending July Ist, 1874 — exclusive of the Kentucky and 
Tennessee Whiskies sold here. The District includes the ten 
counties of Vanderburgh, Posey, Spencer, Clibson, Warrick, Knox, 
Pike, Martin, Dubois and Daviess. Perhaps a few statistical facts 
in this connection would prove more convincing of the importance 
of the trade, and hence we gather from the Kevenue Collector's 



2i4 EVANSVlLLfi: HElt COMMERCE ANB MANUFACTtnSS. 

books the following statement showing the amount of revenue 

collected on the manufacture of Spirits in the District, as follows: 

Total collections on Spirits, July, 1873 $48,178 79 

" " " August, 1873 57,465 49J 

" " " September, 1873 56,819 93^ 

" " " October, ■' 53,228 16| 

" " " November, " 63,047 56| 

" " " December, " 62,670 Olf 

" " " January, 1874 70,040 2l| 

" " " February, " 66,537 49| 

" " " March, " 62.961 05 

" " " April, " 84'906 32 

" " " May, " 33,842 43^ 

" " " June, " 21,821 32^ 

Grand total , $681,528 70* 

A very heavy trade is also carried on in fine old Apple and 
Peach Brandies. Many of the farmers of the more interior coun- 
ties — especially in Dubois, where some forty-five Fruit-vending 
Distilleries are located, preferring to render their fruils in this 
style than to haul them to a market that, at all times during the 
fruit season, is supjilied with the rarest and choicest stocks and 
specimens. In so far, then, as the qualities of Brandies that reach 
Evansville are concerned, we are of the opinion that they are de- 
cidedly better and purer than are generally found elsewhere, un- 
dergoing as they do, prior to being brought to market, great care 
in preparation and processes, whereby all deleterious substances 
and impurities are removed. 

The Wholesale Liquor Dealers of Evaysville, as a class, are 
men of means, thoroughly conversant with the business, and well- 
prepared to offer the very best inducements to customers from this 
and adjoining States. 

Although forcing the area of their trade in all directions, and 
penetrating some of the most distant sections of the Union, they 
are desirous of more custom, and we predict, if their commodi- 
ties are properly introduced, they will not wait long before the 
business will have increased many fold. In addition to the leading 
brands of Whiskies and Brandies, they also deal largely in the rarest 
vintages of Madeira, Port, Sherry Malaga, Champagne, Kellj^ Island, 
Claret and other Wines, together with all the choicest Gins, Rums, 
Liquors, etc., suitable for a gentleman's side-board or a banquet 
table. 

The leading Wholesale Liquor houses in the city are: H. V. Ben- 
nighof & Bro., 407 Main street; Bingham Brothers, 23 and 25 Lower 



ADVEKTLSEMENTy. 215 



G, B. Bingham. J. W. Bingham 

Bingham Brothers 

DISTILLERS 

AND 

Wholesale LIQUOR Dealers 

23 & 25 Lower Water Street, 

EVANSVILLE, InD. 



BRANCH ESTABLISHMENTS 



FAIRCHILD & BOGHAM, Nos. 91 & 93 Magazine Street, 
NEW ORLEANS. 



BINGHAM BROTHERS, 1313 Papin Street, 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Distilleries at PATOKA, IND., and EVANSVILLE, IND. 



16 EVANtSVlLLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MAISIUFACTUliES. 

Water street; N. F. Carr & Co., 224 Upper Water street; Alf. H. 
Edwards, 208 Upper Water street; Forth & Below, 119 Upper First 
street; Hedderich & Gumberts, 403 Main street; Hodge & Co., 200 
Upper Water street ; Eugene Kap})ler, 405 Main street. In addition 
to these, nearly all of the Wholesale Grocery houses have special de- 
partments for the sale of Wines and Liquors. 

BINGHAM EROTHEES, DISTILLERS AND WHOLESALE LIQUOR 

DEALERS. 

Among houses that are fully qualified to rank and credit, as being 
not only extensive but foremost in the Liquor Trade of the Southern 
and Western country, there does not exist to-day a lirm more deserv- 
ing such noted classification than that of Messrs. Bingham Brothers, 
of this city. Indeed, we may say that the very first place is due them, 
for their business is nothing short of stupendous and mammoth pro- 
portions, and their mercantile relations are of the most intimate char- 
acter with every leading city in the United States. The cumulation 
of a trade so wide-spread and involving so much capital, time and 
anxious carefulness, has at length culminated in worthy success and 
brought renown as well as opulence to their concern — meriting both 
praise and honorable estimation — for these grand commercial achieve- 
ments. But the one to whom, perhaps, honorable mention in this par- 
ticular is due, is Mr. Gordon Byron Bingham, now Senior member 
of the firm, inasmuch as he inaugurated the trade and nurtured it from 
the days of its infancy and unfledged existence. 

The firm was first organized at Patoka, Indiana, in the year 1854, 
and was composed of Messrs. G. B. Bingham and Sylvester J. Bing- 
ham, under the style of G. B. & S. J. Bingham. Major John W. 
Bingham, a younger brother, at that time resided in New Orleans, and 
was engaged in the commission business as a member of the firm of 
Fairchild & Bingham. In 1870 he came to Evansville and entered 
the trade here in connection with his bi'others. December, 1871, Mr. 
S. J. Bingham died, and soon after the firm style was changed to Bing- 
ham Brothers, its present form. This much by way of history. 

The firm now owns and operates two Distilleries at Patoka, Ind., 
and one Distillery and one Ee-Distilling establishment in this city. 
Their Crescent City Distillery, in this city, is located at No. 720 West 
Ohio street, and is a mammoth brick building four stories high, suji- 
plied with all modern improvements and machinery known in the busi- 
ness, and having capacity for 800 bushels of mash per day. The Patoka 
Distilleries combiwfid have capacity for 600 bushels of mash per day; 



ADVEKTIWEMENTS. 



217 



1 



^ 



m jm m 






Wholesale Dealer in 



Wilis, Liieei 



-A. IS r>- 



B^I^ STOI^ES, 



No. 224 Upper Water Street, 



EVANSVILLE, IND. 



NO PATENT LIQUOR SOLD BY US. 



18 EVANSVILLE: HEll COMMERCE AND MAN UFACTUllES. 

and when all force is employed thoy are capable of turning out 100 
barrels of Whiskies per diem. The Revenue duties on all products 
when running full "tilt" is about $4,000 per day. The entire busi- 
ness of the house,' exclusive of that transacted by the St. Louis firm, 
will reach the enormous sum of one arid a quarter millions of dollars 
per annum. 

Their Re-Distilling and Rectifying establishment or entrepot is at 
Nos. 23 and 2.5 Lower Water street. This building is a handsome 
brick structure, three stories high and 37-|xl20 feet large, and was put 
up for their especial business. Here is wdiere the heavy transactions 
of the firm are carried on, and here is where all Liquors are re-handled. 
The varied processes adopted would prove interesting and readable, if 
a graphic description could be given, but we shall have to deal with the 
subject succinctly and entii'ely non-technical. When Highwines are 
received from the Distillery they are taken to a trough and "dumped" 
in, from whence they are next pumped to a large Receiving Cistei'u on 
the third floor, and, by scientific chemical process, converted into Alco- 
hol or Cologne Spirits. On the first floor are three large Copper Stills 
with aggregated capacity of 50 barrels of Alcohol per day. From 
these stills the Liquor is forced, by steam, through copper-lined columns 
to a series of upriglit and horizontal worms coiled in cisterns and situ- 
ated in the third story. A constant stream of cold water is kept run- 
ning over these worms to vaporize the fluid, and by the addition of 
chemical ingredients, whereby all of the fusil oil, and other impurities, 
is removed, the Liquor thus produced is known as the Alcohol of Com- 
merce and French Cologne Spirits. But another handling is necessary, 
and in order to secure' this the liquors are then pumped to the second 
floor where are situated fifteen Leaching Tubs, filled with charcoal, etc., 
for filtration, where a mechanical process is pursued separating the pure 
liquid from the undissolved particles floating in it, and constituting 
what is known as' Rectifying,' inasmuch as the liquor has been refined 
by repeated distillation or sublimation, and the finer qualities have been 
separated from the grosser and foreign substances. This plan secures 
the manufacture of Domestic Liquors. 

In addition to their establishments located'in this vicinage, the 
firm has, also, a branch house under the firm name of Bingham Brothers, 
No. 1318 Papin street, St. Louis, Mo., and one under the name of Fail - 
child & Bingham, Nos. 91 and 93 Magazine street. New Orleans, La. 
Altogether they employ about seventy-five men, besides affording 
cooperage work to some forty more. Their brands of Liquors are favor- 



THK LKiUOK TKADE— WHOLESALE. 219 

ably known and liighly recommended in every State from New York 
to New Orleans, but the one which has received the most deserved en- 
comia, and to which particular attention is paid, is tlie ce]el)rated brand 
" Good-bye John." 

The business in this city is under the especial eye of Major John 
W. Bingham, audit would please us immensely to speak of his popular 
manners, thorough-going business cpialifications, and generosity of soul • 
or to publish a creditable account of his jovial and gallant bearing, or 
to attempt the portrayal of that happy smile of philanthropic liberality 
that, like the extending limits of a wave, radiates from his good-natured 
heart and seems to include all mankind. We would like, ^ve say to 
attempt this, but must let what we have said suffice for the time. 
N. F. CAIUI & CO., WHOLESALE LIQUOR DEALEK. 

One of the oldest and most respectable Wiiolesalc Liquor 
houses in the city, is that of N. F. Carr & Co., JSTo. 224 jUpper 
Water street. Mr. Carr first enterea tlie trade hei'e, ScjHcmber 
1st, 1863, being a member of the firm of Hodge, Can' & Co. and 
first carried on business at No. 119 Upper First street. I'he business 
of the firm grew to such huge proportions tliat a now build ino- 
was erected by them, at the corner of Water streets, which tliey 
moved into in July, 1864. He remained in partnershi]) with this 
firm until August 1868, when he retired in order to establish a 
house for himself, which he did at Nos. 3 and 4 South Water 
street, in November, 1869, and since that time has conducted the 
business alone, merely retaining the " Co.'' for com]i;niv"s sake. 

He remained at that stand until March, 1874, ^vhen he ao-ain 
changed his base, and secured his present admirable location. But 
still not satisfied with this house, and in order to accommodate and 
properly carry on a trade that has increased to such importance he 
has purchased the site. No. 216 Upper Water street, and projjoses 
erecting thereon, during the Spring of 1875, a model Wholesale Liquor 
House containing all of the latest improvements, in addition to beino' 
situated in such desirable nearness to the most popular steamboat land- 
ings. He trades exclusively in the oldest and finest brands of Wines 
and Liquors, and has the reputation of selling the oldest and best in 
the market. Most of the trade of the house is in the State^; of Ten- 
nessee, Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas, though many of the towns 
ot Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, also purchase largely of him. If 
personal cleverness, largeness of mind and generous conduct be fair 
indices, he will certainly C(mtrol even a greater trade than a( ])i'esent. 



220 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



The Tobacco and Cigar Trade. 

Of lato years the consumption of Tobacco by both sexes is so 
vast that the "obnoxious narcotic weed," which all phj^siolo- 
gists, and those who have made the laws of health a science and a 
study, agree is injurioas and destructive, has passed beyond the 
mere station of a luxury and may iUirly be classed among the 
necessaries of life. Therefore, among articles of traffic in this 
city, it to-day occupies a surprisingly prominent position, and we 
can neither ignore its claims for attention, nor deny it a place 
among the leading pursuits of Evansville. But we can not omit 
saying, in the meantime, that its importance fs surprisingly prom- 
inent, inasmuch as the use thereof is usually considered only the 
indulgence in a luxury, and it has found thousands of ilcvotees, 
notwithstanding the heavy duty the Government imposes on the 
maaufactarc of the articles comprising its trade. The Tobacco 
Trade of the city though, is quite diversified, and includes the 
operations of several distinct branches. First, we have the Sales 
and Commission houses, dealing in the Natural Leaf in all its 
grades and varieties, from the veriest Trash on through better 
qualities of Lugs, and Leaf. In this branch may also be included 
the operations of speculators, both home dealers and foreign pur- 
chasers, who are daily to be met at the " Breaks." Next may be 
mentioned the sales of Commercial houses, who import Manufac- 
tured Tobacco and Cigars, and finally the business transacted by 
the Manufacturers of Tobacco and Cigars in the city, all of which 
adds to the grand bulk of business in this line. But we know of 
no better manner of presenting the claims of Evansville as a To- 
bacco Market, than by reproducing the following article on this 
subject, taken from the St. Louis Journal of Commerce^ for April, 
1871, which being the disinterested view of an outsider, is enti- 
tled to some respect and credence : 

" Evansville as a Tobacco Market. — Prominent among the causes that 
are contributing to give Evansville a tirst rank among the leading cities of the 
West, are the superior facilities she is able to oft'er, alike to the planter and 
buyer, as a Tobacco market. During the last six years, the growth of tobacco 
has largely increased in Southern Indiana and Illinois, where it is proving the 
most prolitable crop that can be raised, while Western Kentucky and Tennes- 
see are everywhere known as the Tobacco Region of the country. Evansville 



THE TOBACCO AND CIGAE TRADIi. 221 

is situated in the very center of this section of which Tobacco is the staple pro- 
duction, and for one hundred miles in any direction all the different qualities of 
Tobacco are grown, which are needed to meet the varied demands of home con- 
sumption, and which are exported to Europe under the name of Western To- 
baccos. We do not, then, in the least overstate facts, when we say that Evans- 
vilie is located in the very center of the best and richest Tobacco-growing 
country in the world. With this entire section she is brought into most inti- 
mate and direct communication, by her packets which daily ply the navigable 
rivers that water it, and which have their outlets only a few miles above and be- 
low the city, while the completion of the railroads now in process of construc- 
tion, will add still more to her facilities for bringing the products of the planter 
to her doors. 

"Another fact which should command, and is commanding, the attention 
of buyers all over the country, is this: The Tobacco legitimately suitable for 
the purposes of the cutting trade, are largely grown around Evansville. It is a 
fact getting to be more and more recognized bj' buyers, that no other market in 
the West has grown so near it Tobacco equal in sweetness and other natural ex- 
cellences, to the cutting tobaccos within a few miles of this city. When more 
direct communication is obtained with the country north, the cutting manufac- 
turers of the Lake cities will gather to Evansville, as the best and most conve- 
nient market in which to lay in the supplies of the finest qualities of raw ma- 
terial suitable for their purposes. 

"The Tobacco merchants of this city are fully alive to these marked ad- 
vantages of their position, and are the kind of men who know how to push thinga. 
They represent a large amount of capital, with strong New York, New Or- 
leans and European connections, and are already able, to a large extent, to con- 
trol the product of Southwestern Indiana, Western Kentucky, Tennessee and 
Houthern Illinois. In addition to the facilities they offer for purchasing and 
moving the crop, by their agents stationed at all convenient localities in these 
regions, there are in the city large sales warehouses, to which plantersand coun- 
try dealers make their shipments, where they are offered the double advantage 
of quick returns and the competition of home buyers with agents from abroad 
in enhancing prices. The warehouses are all capacious, commodious structures, 
and offer the most ample and liberal storage facilities to their customers. 

"The Tobacco Board is another important feature of this market It is 
composed of regular buyers and factors, and regulates all matters pertaining to 
the trade. The organization is complete and thorough. Its officers, selected 
from the ranks of the leading business men of the city, consist of a President, 
Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer, and are elected for a terra of one year. 
The Inspectors, three in number, are appointed by the Judge of the Common 
Pleas Court, the Board appoints the Weigher and Auctioneer, and the whole 
organization is a complete means for carrying out the purposes of rigid justice 
between buyers and sellers." •■■ * •■-" * * ••• * •■• 

The, hiHtoiy of the Tobacco Trade of Evansville, by Public 
Warehouse sales, shows a growtli without parallel amoni;- the 
markets of the West. In 1868, a beginning was made by Messrs. 



222 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEJlCK AND MANUFACTUEES. 

Martin, G-ardner & Co., who opened the first Sales Warehouse in 
Evansville. Althoui^'h many predicted failure would attend the 
experiment, these geiitlenien fsu demonstrated the success oi' the 
new enterprise, that, in ISOy, anotlici- Warehouse was opened by 
Wright; Hughes & Co. inlSTUWm. 8. Ford entered the field, 
and at the beginning of 1871, still another Warehouse was added 
to the number, by Messrs. White, Dunkerson & (Jo. 

The trade since then has changed, and the leading houses in 
the trade now, ai-e: Messrs. White, Dunkerson & Co., 40U Upper 
Water street ; J Eichel & Go , 1,050 Main street ; G. P. Hudspeth 
& Co., corner Locust and Fifth streets; Isaac Keen, 210 Upper 
Third street; C. J. Moi-i'is & Co., corner First and Elm sti'eets ; 
and Mackey, JSIisbet & Co., whose office is at 104 Upper First 
street. In addition to the foregoing, there are quite a number of 
floating dealers, who liave offices in this city. 

The statistical showing for the ti-ade is as follows: Fi'om 
September, 1873, to September, 1874, the number of ])Ounds sold, 
was not less than 7,500,000, averaging, say 10c per pound ; num- 
ber of pounds sold to Stemmeries, 1,500,000; number of hogsheads 
en route for Seaboard, 15,000. Now, if we make a fair and lib- 
eral estimate of the financial value of the trade, we have the fol- 
lowing figures : 21,000 hogsheads, at $160, $2,440,000 ; 1,500,000 
jjounds to Stemmeries, at 7c jier ])Ound, $105,000; total, S3, 545,- 
000, vvhici), as will be seen, gives us an aggregate Tobacco busi- 
ness of more than three and a half millions of dollars — a clear 
gain to the city within six years. In additi(jn, we may also claim 
a large proportion of this money, as paid to our merchants for 
goods of all kinds, ]:»archased here b}' the shippers. Then, with 
proper ettort, and liberal assistan(;e att'orded our Warehousemen 
and buyers, we cannot see why Evansville should lujt early come 
to be one of the leading Tobacco markets of the country, for sit- 
uated as we ai'c, in the midst of one of the largest Tobacco-grow- 
ing regions surrounding any market ol' the woi'ld, we should cer- 
tainly be able to make this a ver}' lai go and remunerative trade 
to our peo])le in general. 

The sale of Manufactured Tobacco, and the manufacture of 
Cigars in the city, for the year 1874, has perceptibly increased 
over that foi- 1873. From the books of the Jlevenue Collector, 
for this Disti'ict,, we lenrn that there are some 59 Factoi'ies in 
operation in^this county — em]»loying altout 150 Cigar-makers, 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 223 



C. J. MORRIS & CO , 



Tobacco,andCotton, 



GRAIN, PRODUCE, and 



COMMISSIOIT MEHCHANTS 



CORNER 



F'MMt mmdl WiWMMm MtF§ § tB 



EVANSVILLE, IND. 



224 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURE8. 

imd turning out, the present year, 3,328,450 Cigars, on which a 

tax of $10,642 25 was paid — thus aggregating, withother sales in 

this line, financial value of not less than $500,000. The tollowing 

statement shows: 

Total collections on tobacco for July, 1873 $2,253 49§ 

" " " August, 1873 1,882 41 

" " " September, 1873 2,336 18^ 

" " " October, " 2,132 10 

" " " November, " 1,851 38^ 

" " " December, " 1,747 59| 

■' " " January, 1874 1,695 01| 

" " " February, " 1,911 69| 

" " " March, " 1,799 50 

" '• " April, " 6,371 75 

" " May, " ...; 3,758 86^ 

» " June, " 2,247 70| 

Grand total $29,391 70§ 

It is estimated, also, that there are between four and five hun- 
dred places in this city where Tobacco in some shape is sold, but 
as this calculation includes regular Tobacco and Cigar houses. 
Saloons, Groceries, Hotels, Drug Stores, etc., we shall not under- 
take to closely investigate its correctness. The regular houses in 
the trade may at all times be found supplied with extensive assort- 
ments of Imported Cigars, as well 'as the very best domestic pro- 
ducts; Virginia Tobaccos, both for chewing and smoking pur- 
poses ; Pennsylvania and "Connecticut Seed" leaf Tobaccos, 
Snuff's — Scotch, Rappee and Macoboy; together with splendid stocks 
of genuine, and imitation Meerschaum Pipes, Cigar-holders, To- 
bacco Pipes and Pouches, as well as countless varieties of Briai-- 
Wood and Clay goods. Their houses are the resort of the elite of 
the city, and strangers "strolling abroad in the evening" will find 
the "weed" here reduced toapointof nicet}^ and excellent in flavor. 

0. J. MORRIS & CO., TOBACCO MERCHANTS. 
This firm was organized under its present style only during the 
present season, and is the offspring of the well-known Tobacco Sales 
House of R. M. Martin & Co. Mr. C. J. Morris, the head of the 
present concern, entered the trade in this city in 1865, with Messrs. 
Martin, Gardner & Co., the founders of the Tobacco trade of Evans- 
ville, and was the first book-keeper employed by that house. At the 
conclusion of the Tobacco season of 1871, Major Lee M. Gardner re- 
tired from the firm and resumed the practice of law, his original pro- 
fession, and Col. R. M. Martin re-engaged in the purchase and sale of 
Tobacco, under the firm name of R, M, Martin & Co,, tjeing also, at 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



225 



Joseph Pendrich. 



Herrmann Pendrich. 




CIGARS, 



AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 







rs 




We make a Specialty of the Celebrated Brands : 

" LA VOS De CUBA," " ARKANSAS TRATELER," 

"THE GEM," "KEY WEST," 

"PARTAGAS," "VIRGINIA," 

"ROYAL ARMS," "TEMPTATION,' 

"MY PONY," ";SOLO DU," 

"BIG GUN." 

Also, make a Specialty of 

IMPORTED AND KEY WEST CIGARS. 

No. 105 Main Street, 

■▼AM ^viiiiiiHf Emm» 



Factory: Cp'umbiaj Uancg^ter Co., Penn§ylvani3. 

29 



226 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 

the same time, a partner in the firm of J. Eichel & Co., Tobacco Stem- 
mers. No, 1050 Main street. The season of 1874 proved an eminently 
successful one for this house, and after securing over one hundred thou- 
sand dollars as his share of the profits, Col. Martin retired from the 
business and left Mr. Cave J. Morris to succeed to the trade under the 
firm name of C. J. Morris & Co. 

Messrs. Morris & Co. have ample storage capacity in their exten- 
sive warehouse, corner of First and Ingle streets, and devote attention 
not only to the purchase and sale of Tobacco, but solicit consignments 
of Cotton, Grain and Produce. An energetic, prudent and popular 
business house, we predict a career of success for the new concern. 

FENDEICH EROTHEES, MANUFACTUEEES AND WHOLESALE 
DEALEES IN CIGAES AND TOBACCO. 

There can possibly be no house better or more favorably 
known, throughout all of the immense territory trading with 
the city of Evansville, than the acknowledged leaders of the 
Cigar and Tobacco business, Messrs. Fendrich Brothers, No, 105 
Main street. Their business career dates back many years, and 
their success as businesmen has Icept pace with the rapid growth 
of the city, and to-day has an elevated rank creditable to their 
reputation as shrewd, sagacious merchants, and creditable to a 
city that has already become famous for the eminent qualities of 
push and forw^ard movement that are to be witnessed on all hands. 
To be singled out then, as eminent merchants in such an enter- 
prising community, is a compliment that convej^s much more than 
ordinary praise. And yet, no one will dispute their full claims to 
this position. 

Originallv, the firm of Fendrich Brothers, was composed of 
the " Five Brothers," Baltimoreans by birth, and each one brought 
up in the business from boyhood, serving regular apprentice- 
ships, and in consequence, are practical!}^ acquainted with all the 
wants, peculiarities and requirements of the trade. Their first 
place of business was at No. 155 Forrest street, one door from 
Hillen street, Baltimore, Md., where they began in 1850. In 
1856, the " Five Brothers," who bad become the proprietors of a 
Sale Establishment in Baltimore, as well as a Manufactory at Co- 
lumbia, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, conclnded to establish a 
branch house somewhere in the growing young Westei'n countr}-. 
Accordingly Mr. Charles Fendrich w^as sent ont to secure a loca- 
tion. After examining the situation in Cincinnati, Louisville and 



THE TOBACCO AND CIGAR TRADE. 22T 

other cities, he finally ai'rived at Evansville, and soon becoming 
impressed with the advantages of the city for such purposes, de- 
termined to settle here. He was taken sick soon after his arrival, 
and retired from the business. Next, Mr. Francis Fendrich came, 
and afterward Mr. Herrmann Fendrich, the latter in Maj', 1857. 
Mr. Francis Fendrich remained in Evansville, until the Summer 
of 1865, when he vvifchdrew from the firm, and was succeeded b\" 
Mr. Joseph Fendrich, the Senior partner in the present house, 
owned and conducted by Messrs. Josejjh and Herrmann Fendrich 
under the style of Fendrich Brothers, now the oldest firm in the 
trade in Southern Indiana. 

The first house occupied by them was a little frame building located 
on Main street, near Second. Next they leased, for five years, the 
house adjoining their present place. But before their lease trans- 
pired, business had so greatly increased, that they Avere enabled to pur- 
chase their present site, on which they erected, during 1866, their 
superb bx'ick establishment, three stories and a basement high, putting 
in many modern improvements, and placing it among the metropolitan 
buildings of the city. Their manufactory, as before stated, is at Co- 
lumbia, Pennsylvania, and is under the especial supervision of Mr. 
John Fendrich, another brother of the firm. At that place, Avith re- 
cent additions and improvements made, they employ sixty cigar makers, 
and manufacture about 5,000,000 Cigars per annum. All of the 
cheaper grades in price, coming under $20 per M., they purchase of 
other factories. In their own products they make a specialt}' of the 
celebrated "Gem" Cigar, and turn out about 100,000 per month. 
Their other leading brands are the "Partagas," "Royal Arms," " My 
Pony," "Key West," "Dexter," "Virginia,' '"Temptation," "Solo 
Du," "Big gun," "La Vos de Cuba," "Arkansas Traveler"— all well- 
known by dealers throughout the country. 

At their wholesaling establishment in Evansville, they have, at 
the present time, one of the most complete, largest and best assorted 
stocks in any city west of the Alleghany Mountains. Two invoices to 
this house during the month of September, 1874, included more than 
200,000 Cigars. They also deal largely in Imported brands, particu- 
larly the famous "Key West." They also hold extensive stocks of 
Virginia Tobaccos, both for chew'ing and smoking purposes ; while 
Snufis — Scotch, Rappee and Macoboy — and a full line of genuine 
Meerschaum Pipes, Tobacco Pouches, Cigar Holders, Smokers' Requi- 
sites, as well as every conceivable variety of Briar-wood and Clay 
goods, adorn their shelves. 



228 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



The Wholesale Confectionery and Baking Trade. 

The increased manufacture ol' Canfectionery, and of Candies 
and Crackers, especially within the past few years, in Evansville, 
has far exceeded the most sanguine hopes of those engaged in the 
business. In its present development, it bears man}' of the dis- 
tinctive artistic characteristicsof French ingenuity and invention ; 
and the preparation of Sugar and Flour as luxuries, absorbs a 
large share of attention, and affords a livelihood to many persons. 
But a few years since, nine-tenths of the Confectionery sold to 
the Southern and Western trade, tributary to Evansville, was 
made in St. Louis and Cincinnati. But, to-day, that state of af- 
fairs IS completely changed, and full}^ nine-tenths noiv sold, is man- 
ufactured in Evansville, and not less than two-thirds of the Crackers. 

Within the past few years, there have been important ad- 
vances made in this manufacture, hy the erection of large estab- 
lishments, and the introduction of Steam-power and other modern 
appurtenances of improvement; so that at present there are six 
Confectioners, who carry on the business on a sufficiently large 
scale, to enable us to classify them among Wholesale Manufac- 
turers. It is possible, too, that the proper department in our 
work for this paper, is among the regular manufactories, but there 
being establishments in the trade, dealing in Imported Goods, we 
have assigned it this place. The leading houses in the trade are A. 
& W.Christ, 825 Main and 315 Upper Fourth streets ; Henry Her- 
mann, 123 Main street ; J. & J.Hermann, 223 Main street; Louis 
KoUenberg. 110 Main street; John Hassler, 308 Uppc]- B'irst 
street, and G-eo. Adauk, 320 Upper Second street. Besides these, 
there are about twenty-five or thirty Bakeries in the city, and a 
full complement of small Candy Shops, etc. Most of the houses 
direct particular attention to the city trade, but are quite anxious 
to extend their Wholesale area and influence' in other directions. 
The aggregate daily capacity of tliese houses will amount to sev- 
eral thousand pounds of Breadstuft's. The quantity of Sugar con- 
sumed by them is estimated at about one million pounds, while the 
Flour used will reach figures upward of three millions of pounds 
annually. Altogether, this branch of our trade will not fall 
short o^ four hundred thousand dollars. 

The ingenuity and invention of our Confectioners is seemingly in- 



WHOLESALE CONFECTIONERY AND BAKING TRADE. 229 

exhaustible, and every season they produce some novelty in the pre- 
paration of their palatable bon hons and delicate morceaux, for which 
Evansville is already becoming famous. But, to give a more exquisite 
flavor to their essences, or to secure vividness and durability of color 
to their confections, they make use of none of the noxious and poison- 
ous substances gathered from deleterious minerals, that are resorted to 
so extensively by the manufacturers of other cities, who manufacture 
more particularly for exportation. There are, probably, no dealers in 
the Union that can claim more careful and conscientious precautions in 
excluding adulterated and highly injurious ingredients, or have been 
more successful in producing brilliantly-colored and pleasantly -flavored 
Confections, that are wholesome and free from everything damaging 
to health, than the manufacturers of Evansville ; and when such an 
one can truthfully assert, that he makes the best Candy in Evansville, 
we take it, and think we will be supported by every merchant trading 
with this point, he makes the best in the United States. 

But to further substantiate Avhat we have said about Poisonous 
Candy, we extract the followiiig article, Avhich recently appeared in the 
columns of the New York San, a paper well-known for reliability • 
throughout the United States. What applies to New York, in this 
particular, will, also, apply to other cities. Tho Sun says : 

"The adulteration of Candies in New York has become, of late years, 
alarming ; and, in order to produce cheap articles, manufacturers are adulterat- 
ing with various extracts and substances, which are either injurious to the cus- 
tomers or a deadly poison ! Many children are, doubtlessly, yearly sacrificed 
by the absorption into their system of these abominations, inadvertantly given 
by mothers. Terra Alba, or white earth, costing but one and a quarter cents a 
pound, is extensively used instead of sugar, and lozenges are produced by 
cheap dealers, at from two to five cents a pound less than the cost of sugar at 
wholesale. In the manufacture of gum drops, glue is used instead of gum- 
arabic, the former costing but a few cents a pound, and the latter about forty 
cents. Verdigris, Tonka Beans, Paris Green, Chrome Yellow, Berlin Blue 
Analine and Sublimate of Mercury, are all used, each of which is a deadly 
poison, or very injurious to the system. The common method of flavoring 
candies, in order to produce them economically, can be readily accounted for. 
Poisons are much cheaper than genuine extracts. Peach flavors, in candied 
almonds and sugar plums, are obtained from fusil oil, which is very poisonous; 
the bitter almond flavor is created from unadulterated prussic acid; pine apple 
is. produced from very rotten cheese and nitric acid. Candies are made pur- 
porting to be flavored with fruits from which no extracts can be obtained. The 
imitations are all poisonous. Cheap candies are a means of desolation in njany 
households." 



230 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCi; AND MANUFACTURES. 

These revelations ai-e nothing short of alarming, but to es- 
cape such poisonous commodities, and to obtain goods free from 
impurities, with the additional advantage of having fresh articles 
at all times, and with the utmost care taken in packing, Evansville 
stands unrivalled as a market lor Confeclioneiy. ]n addition to 
Fancy and Common Candies, and Cakes of every known descrip- 
tion, our Confectioners also deal extensively in all kinds oi' For- 
eign Fruits and Nuts, Fine Beverage Syrups, Preserved and Can- 
ned Fruits, Prepared Fish and Meats, Teas, Chocolates, and a 
long line of culinary articles \isually found in well -stocked Fancy 
Groceries ; besides Fine Wines, Brandies, Liquors, Cigars and 
Tobacco. They also use particular care in the selection of, and 
fidelity in, the filling of orders from a distance toi- Balls, Banquets, 
Wedding Suppers, Parties, Picnics, etc. 

LOUIS KOLLENBEEG, WHOLESALE CONFECTIONEK. 
The oldest house in the Confectionery trade in the city is that one 
over which Louis Kollenberg has control, No. 119 Main street. This 
firm has been connected with the business in this city since 1836, at 
which time it was established by Gottleib Kollenberg, father to the 
present proprietor. After the death of Mr. Kollenberg, Senior, which 
occurred in 1850, the business was conducted under the firm name of 
C. A. Kessler & Co., the Kollenberg heirs forming the "Co." Three 
years since Mr. Louis Kollenberg assumed charge of affairs, and has built 
the business up to considerable proportions, and has attained an envi- 
able reputation for producing strictly pure articles of Confectionery. 
There is, probably, no firm in this section more careful and conscientious 
in excluding noxious ingredients, or more successful in producing 
brilliant and pleasantly flavored Confections that are wholesome and 
free from everything injurious. He has sought to make fine Confec- 
tions that would rival those of any city, and it may be safely asserted 
that he has succeeded. His house is becoming justly celebrated for 
their Cream Fruits, Glaced Fruits, Roasted Almonds, Gum Prepara- 
tions, Cordials, Dragee Goods, and all of the finer lines and qualities 
of Confections, Comfits, Bon-bons and Sugared Etcetras. In addition 
he also manufactures a full assortment of Common Candies, and deals 
in Foreign Fruits and Fancy Groceries, and has also a department for 
the sale of Fancy Goods, Notions and Toys. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 231 



LOUIS KOLLENBERG, 



MANUFACTURING 



CONFECTIONER, 



AND DEALEE 11^ 



Foreip Fruits anJ Faicy Broceries. 



DEPAETMENT OF 



MS€^ §iis& smmsM i mm^ 



ON SECOND AND THIRD FLOORS, 



No. 119 Main Street, - Evansville, Ind. 



232 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



The Grain and Flour Trade. 

In this important department of our city's Trade, -we notice 
one that, in the last few years' has grown with remarkable rapid- 
ity, and increased with a per centum almost wonderful. In fact, 
wc opine but few cities of the Union can exhibit such radical 
change, and all, too, for the better. With the facilities afforded us 
for the collection of necessary data, showing the bulk of this 
business, we have necessarily had considerable guess-work to do ; 
but with a fair modicum of discretion and judgment always dis- 
played, based more particularly on information gained during 
repeated and jjrolonged conversations with gentlemen thoroughly 
conversant with thebusiness,added to the figures obtained from offi- 
cial sources, we feel assured the Eeport we present, will not fall short 
of the mark. Prior to the war, the shipments of Grain and Flour 
from this market, were made exclusively to New Orleans and to 
points along the MississijDpi and its lower tributaries ; and even 
up to the time immediately preceding the completion of the Ev- 
ansville, Henderson and Nashville Hailroad, no very considerable 
trade was transacted by houses here with Green Line points. But 
since that event has been brought about, business in the interior 
of the South, and with the Coastine cities of the Carolinas, Geor- 
gia, Florida, and Alabama, has increased almost marvelously, so 
that now the attention of the best Merchants of those localities 
is being attracted to this section, which is another great feature 
of advancement in the trade. Vast quantities of Grain and Flour 
purchased at Terre Haute, Vincennes and other points, located 
in the Great Valley of the Wabash, and designed for Southern 
points, are shipped to Evansville as the grand distributing- 
center. The houses here still hold the bulk of the trade with 
New Orleans also, and these other additions that we have cited, 
are clear gains to the market. In this connection, we do not 
believe we misstate the case, when we affirm that a very decided 
advantage to be accorded Evansville, i^i the cheapness of origi- 
nal purchases as compared with competing mai-kcts. 

It must be remembered, also, that we are situated very near the 
center of the great corn belt of the United States. The quality pro- 
duced in the rich, alluvial bottoms, that dot the Ohio and Wabash 

Riyer Valleys, in numbers like the stars tj^st^t-uci the sky, or the reu|. 

*)■■'■■ ' ' 



THE FLOUR AND GRAIN TRADE. 233 

titudinous islands that form the Grecian Archipelago, and the greater 
part of which is brought here for distribution, is mostly white, and of a 
very superior quality. In the South it is considered equal to the best 
Virginia and Maryland White Corn, and never fails to command fair 
and steady prices. 

The quality of Indiana Wheat needs no encomium at our hands, 
and that which is raised in this section, has enthusiastic friends in every 
State, from New York to Texas. We would speak especially flatter- 
ing concerning the very superior White Wheat raised in Hopkins, 
Christian, Logan and Trigg Counties, Kentucky — a section of country 
blessed with as rare fertility and as many points of excellence as any 
under the broad folds of the American flag. These are facts that speak 
in eloquent terms of the superiority of this market. The leading kind 
produced in Indiana is Amber, or English AVheat, yet there is some 
considerable attention paid to the better grades of AVhite and Mediter- 
ranean, Our millers claim for the Flours made from these cereals, 
rising and baking qualities unsurpassed by the Flours of any other 
State of the Union, and when brought into competition with the pro- 
ducts of St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati or Louisville Mills, often- 
times take prominence and command better figures. 

Agents from all the prominent Southern cities are constantly 
here seeking consignments for their houses, and a number of firms 
have resident buyers stationed at Evansville, but so healthy is the 
condition of the market that there is reluctance on the part of 
merchants to comply, consequently most of the Grain that is 
shipped from Evansville, is sold before it leaves our warehouses. 
So great are the encouragements in the business that the best posted 
dealers confidently look to an increase of .trade that will shortly 
place it in volume and value far in excess of any other single com- 
modity. And with this view, we proudly point to our Grain In- 
terests as one of the grandest proofs of our commercial success 
attained and attainable. 

Nor is this merely the enthusiastic view of the writer, for the 
channels of communication which are contributing 1o this end 
were long since established, and the general train of influences 
seem to confirm them in this diretion. Since the war. the Missis- 
sippi Eiver has ceased to be the outlet for the great Grain trade 
of the Northwest, and Chicago is now directing her attention to 
shipments by lake, canal and rail, and the shippers and deahi s 
of that city are supplying the Eastern American and European 
30 



234 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

markets, particularly that of England. Prominent among the 
causes influencing the present course of freights in that section, is 
the lower j^rices, the result of the competition of the half-dozen 
trunk lines to the seaboard, the much greater speed of these routes 
of shipment, and less liability to loss by heat, etc. And as the 
different lines of road increase their rolling stock and other facili- 
ties, which they are rapidly doing, all these and other influences 
will be more apparent and potential. But another and, perhaps, 
the most influential cause contributing to this end, is the gradual 
but sure development of the great Wheat-producing region of the 
Northwest. The State of Minnesota is now almost one vast field 
of golden and waving Grain, and all that belt of land due west of 
that State to the Pacific has the same soil and climate. These ter- 
ritories are just entered upon, and fifty years of rapid emigration 
will scarcely develop a portion of their vast resources, yet every 
steamer that plows their waters and every railroad laid in their 
valleys will head toward Chicago, and contribute to still further 
augment the trade that ever must sweep round the head of lake 
navigation through her gateways to the East. 

Will, we then, be accused of presumptions argument, if we 
stoutly maintain that the Grain market to which the dealers and 
consumers of the Cotton States must look for their supplies, is 
none other than Evansville? We believe not, for this destiny 
seems a part of the measureless development marked out for us 
on the finger-board of Nature, and is almost inevitable. It is be- 
lieved, by many of the most sagacious Grain Merchants, and they 
are already girding on the armor of preparation tomeetthesenew 
demands, and to carr}^ forward their business to that leading sta- 
tion to which it is tending steadily and surely. Enlarged capaci- 
ties in the way of Elevators, Warehouses, etc., are being effected, 
and these are evidences that certainly point to anticipated ad- 
vancement, rather than to stationary condition, much less to re- 
trogression. The manifold advantages of Evansville as a mar- 
ket, both for exportation and importation then, are obvious. 
Being nearer to the consuraijig market, by several hundred miles, 
than any other Wholesale point, an extra freight is saved on that 
account; being in the very heart of the most productive Corn-grow- 
ing region in the West, and surrounded by this fertile stretch of 
country, being its grand natural outlet, and commanding the 
water transportation of Wabash, White and Green Rivers, with. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 235 



H. D. ALLIS & CO., 



Simiiidi 






AND WHOLESALE EEALERS IN 

FLOUR,GRAIN,&c 

COR. WATER AND VINE STREETS, 
EVANSYILLE, IND. 



JOHN S. REILLY. JAMES LAUGHLIN 



iC 







SALT AGENTS, 



AND DEALERS IN 



Haf, Gfain, Flouf, Feed, Lime, Cement aod 

I, 3, 5 and 7 LOWER WATER STREET, 

KILX-DRIED CORN MEAL and PURE 1 l(Pn«merhfiil«, a^'\s^ 

BTE FLOCK constantly on hand. / t&DaiIKSl^|lii@t ill0|(|a(l. 



236 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

large Warehouses and Elevators, favorable in their character for 
safety, both from fire and the ravages of the natural elements, we 
bear creditable comparison with the finest entrepots of the coun- 
try, and present claims indisputable, as well as exceedingly de- 
lightful. 

In order, however, to establish beyond peradventure, the fact that, 
as a point for the receipt and export of staple agricultural products by 
water, Evansville is without a rival on the Ohio River, we shall in- 
dulge in a little mathematical calculation. And yet, just at this point, 
we are surrounded by almost insurmountable obstacles, and shall have 
to stick to the conservative side of the question, coming within the 
margin and more than likely under-estimating the business. This is 
almost impei'ative, from the fact that the Chamber of Commerce books 
do not furnish as full data as might be reasonably expected from that 
institution, and we have had to engage the difficulty for the most part 
single-handed and alone. Comparing the Corn trade of Evansville 
with the largest cities on the Ohio River, even as far back as 1867 and 
1868, as appears from their respective Trade Reports, we find the fol- 
lowing result : 

1867. 1868. 

Bushels. Bushels. 

Exports of Corn from Cincinnati 1,135,119 626,778 

u " " Louisville 561,310 727,150 

u " " Evansville 1,999,707 2,017,797 

Thus it will be seen that Evansville outstripped both of the cities 
named, six years ago in this trade, and the business of to-day is by all 
odds greater than at that time. But in order to fix some financial value 
on this vast business interest, we anticipate our statistics published else- 
where, and present the following estimate of the business for 1874, in 
which is aggregated the Grain and Flour branded by our dealers and 
manufacturers, and including river shipments and lots on consignment: 

Corn bushels 2,500,000 at 55c $1,375,000 

Wheat, bushels 1,200,000 at 90c 1,080,000 

Oats bushels 400,000 at 40c 160,000 

Rvc'bushels 100,000 at 65c 65,000 

Barley, bushels 125,000 at 80c 100,000 

Flour,barrels 275,000 at $7 1,925,000 

Hay, bales 90,000 at $3 270,000 

$5,075,000 
The toregoing figures are extremely light, and yet, they are 
without doubt, convincing of the magnitude of the trade. Our 
basis of calculation shows that, although Corn opened at the be- 
ginning of the season at 35c per bushel, in the ear, along the river, 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



231 



Wm. Rahm, Sr. Wm. Rahm, Jr. 

WM. RAHM & SON 

DEALERS IN 

AND 









IL'M' ^M7 



Nos. 601 & 603 Fulton Avenue, 



WEWMmM^ IK II. 



J. GAVISK. 



# 



# 



J. A. GAVISK 



# 



JOHN GAYISK & SO^, 



if&l% -a, -T*. 'FY . 



'Wi 



Wmml^mm^- 



iAkl(^J 



DEALERS IN 

SUGAR CURED lAMS 

OF THEIR OWN FAVORITE BRAND. 

Sycamore Street, bet. Fourth and Fifth, 



238 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUEACTURES, 

and sold during the Summer as high as 75c per bushel, we have 
averaged the price at 55c per bushel, making no additional allow- 
ance for sacks, or the great bulk that was shelled. Wheat opened 
at $1 00, ^1 10 and $1 20, and closed at 85c, 90c and $1 00 per 
bushel, and yet our average is only 90c per bushel. The other 
estimates are based on just as liberal figures. 

The leading Grain and Flour dealers of the city are: Messrs. 
H. D. Allis & Co., No. 100 Upper Water street; E. S. Babcock & 
Son, No. 18 Sycamore street; L. M. Baird, No. 220 Upper Water 
street; Cross &Klamer, No. 321 Upper Third street; James & Couch, 
No. 122 Upper Water street; John M. Klenck, No. 415 Lower First 
street; Wm. Kahm & Son, Nos. 601 and 603 Fulton Avenue; Eeilly 
& Co., Nos. 1, 3, 5 and 7 Lower Water street ;Tho8. C. Smith & Co., 
No. 102 Upper Water street, and Taylor & Field, Nos. 304 and 306 
Upper Water street. 

Our Flouring Mills. 
To a stranger visiting the city, the dense volumes of smoke that 
blacken the sky and almost shut out the stars ; the tall chimneys that 
rear their giant forms in every quarter, and tower proudly above this 
busy city of so many thousand busy souls — become at once noticeable 
objects. These indicate the locality of our mammoth Flouring Mills, 
which are ceaselessly grinding as the "mills of the gods," only they 
do not grind slowly "but they grind exceeding small." Conducted by 
persons who have no practical concern with the ten-hour system, or 
the Eastern factory system, or even the solar system, they are never 
idle, but belch forth their breathings of fire and smoke and soot far out 
in the ghostly hours of the night, for on their industry depends the' 
condition of the larder, and to them we look for the "staff" of life.' 
Mammoth concerns, built with all due regard to the greatest improve- 
ments and achievements in modern mill machinery, they present a fine 
illustration of our city's greatness, a task that we have been so clearly 
demonstrating in these pages. Turning out their thousands of barrels 
of Flour per diem, what a strange contrast these enormous steam con- 
cei'ns bear to the contrivances of ruder days, when grain was reduced 
to Flour by pounding or grinding by hand, and what non-progressive 
people primitive generations must have been, for it is said that not 
till a century after Christ was the first water-wheel known, and not 
until the Eleventh Century was wind applied to those ponderous arms 
which now revolve on every hill-top in Europe. And it may be, also, 
stated, in these ever truthful pages, had La Mancha's moon-struck 



THE FLOUR AND GRAIN TRADE. 239 

Knight — he " of the sorrowful figure," made tilt at one of our modern 
monsters moving with a power and velocity equal to more than 
75-Rosinantes, then Toboso's hapless maid would have wept in widowed 
home, gallant Don Quixote filled an untimely grave, and Christendom 
remained uncharmed by Cervantes' peerless romance. But we grow 
redundant. 

The name of Mill is employed rather indefinitely in ma- 
chinery. A cotton factory is a mill, a windmill is a mill, a cofi'ee- 
grinder is a mill, and various agricultural implements are mills. 
But the "real original " of mills is, a Flour Mill. The ordinary 
Flour Mill is an object with which we are all familiar, and, as the 
machinery is much the same, whether the power employed be 
steam, wind, or water, it needs no particular, or at least, will not 
receive technical description, at our hands. The crushing appa- 
ratus is almost universally two huge stones, working round in 
contact with each other, and made from very hard silicious stone, 
imported from France, the technical name being burr or huhr. 
The stone is so porous that it requires to be filled up in part, with 
a composition of alum and grit ; and yet it is so hard that a pair 
of stones, in full work, will last twenty or thirty years. The mill- 
stone is not one solid piece, but is made of a number of pieces 
cemented by plaster-of-paris, and secured by iron hoops around 
the circuinforeace. There is much difference of opinion as to the 
best size of mill-stones, and the velocity which should be employed. 
The generality of mill-stones are from four to five feet in diame- 
ter, and make from eighty to one hundred revolutions in a minute ; 
but the tendency at present, is to diminish their size, and increase 
the velocity of their revolutions. G-reat velocity generates heat, 
which, in the large stones, is very injurious to flour, producing a 
condition of that article known as greased, indicated by a soft and 
slippery feeling ; but it is found that, with small stones, although 
the velocity be great, the G-rain does not remain long enough un- 
der thein to become heated. But we have made our preliminary 
remarks of quantum sufficit, and shall now introduce brief account 
of our Flouring Mills, merely saying, that but fewestablishments 
in the country are more indebted to the ujitiring industry and 
skill of their proprietors than these, and whose perseverance has 
met and mastered every obstacle. 

IGLEHEART BROTHERS' SOUTHERN MILLS. 

These Mills, owned and conducted by Levi and Wm. Igleheart, 



240 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFAOTUKES. 

were built in 1856, at the corner of Locust and Fifth streets. Their 
building is three stories high and 50x60 feet large. Their engine is 
30-horse i^ower. built by Reitz & Haney, Evansville. Four runs 
of 3J feet stones are used. Capacity of Mills per diem, 250 barrels; 
per annum, 50,000 barrels. Their special brands are "Igleheart's 
Fancy" and "Southern Mills." 

R. RUSTON'S YOSEMITE MILLS. 

The Yosemite Mills, R. Ruston, Proprietor, are located at the 
corner of Sixth avenue and Ohio street, near the St. L. & S. E. R. R. 
The engine employed is of 16-inch cylinder and 36-inch stroke, built 
by Shultze, Thuman & Co., Evansville. Fovir runs of three and 
a half feet stones are used. Capacity of Mills per diem, 250 bar- 
rels ; per annum, 50,000 barrels. There are six bins, each 38 feet high 
and 40x10 feet large, inside of the mill building, but being built inde- 
pendently of the mill, consequently no strain is put on the structure. 
These bins have storage capacity for 10,000 bushels of grain. The 
special brands turned out are "Ruston's Standard," "Yosemite Mills " 
and "Prince Alexis." 

H. VAHLBERG'S GREAT WESTERN MILLS. 

Are located at No. 400 Fulton Avenue. Mr. Vablberg has 
been in the business ten j'ears, seven of which were passed at his 
present location. When he first began, his capacitj^ was only 80 
bbls. per diem, but in 1873 he adopted all of the latest improve- 
ments, and having put in four runs of 4-foot stones, now turns 
out 200 bbls. per day, or 50,000 bbls. per annum. His engine is 
12-inch bore and 30-inch stroke, built by Reitz & Haney, Evans- 
ville. His standard brands are : " Extra Family/' " Great West- 
ern Mills," "Fulton Avenue Mills." " Magnolia Mills " and "Jack- 
son Mills." 

NICHOLAS ELLES' CANAL MILLS. 
The celebrated Canal Mills, of which Nicholas Elles is pro- 
prietor, are located at No. 821 Canal street. He employs an en- 
gine of 40-horse power, built by Wm. Heilman, Evansville. 
There are three runs of 3^ foot stones. Capacity of Mills, 200 
bbls. per diem ; per annum, 40,000 bbls. His special brands are: 
"Nicholas Elles' Family," " Canal Mills," "Tennessee Mills, "and 
the now justly famous "Gold Dust." 

BROSE & BRO'S. SUNNY SIDE MILLS. 

This is the smallest of our Mills, but certainly one of the 
most compact and convenient anywhere. Their engine is ot 14- 
inch bore and 26-inch stroke. Capacity of Mills, 50 bbls. per 



THE FLOUR AND GRAIN TRADE. 241 

diem; 10,000 bbls. per annum. Special brands : -'Brose'sP^ancy " 
made of Wlnte and " Sunny Side " of very Clioice I\ed Wlieat. 

The Evansville Elevator Company. 

We have previous!}' indicated the unmistakable growth of 
the Grain Trade with us, and nothingseems to more clearly estab- 
lish that agreeable state of affairs, than theconfirmatory fact that 
a large Elevator is now in course of erection, for without its use 
it has become almost impossible to handle the Grain that seeks 
this market, while its construction will only add another induce- 
ment for shippers to seek Evansville as a point of sale for their 
crops. 

The Evansville Elevator Company, organized in June, 1873, 
and by November, 1874, was ready for business. The following 
Board of Directors were elected : A. E. Shrader. John W. Bing- 
ham, George H. Start, E. S. Babcock, Jr., and Charles E. 
Baker — Mr. Baker, President and Superintendent, and John 
S. Eeilly, Secretary and Q'reasnrcr. The Elevator is lo- 
cated on West Ohio street and Wabash avenue, having premises 
fronting 325 feet, with a depth of 250 feet and 200 feet river 
frontage. The Transfer Building is 28x50 feet large ; Storage 
House lor Grain and Warehouse, 118x96 feet large — giving stor- 
age capacity for 100,000 bushels of Grain, and transfer capacity of 
100 carloads daily. The engine employed is of GO-horse power, 
and was built by Schultz, Thuman & Co., Evansville. The Com- 
pany has placed near the river, a Corn-sheller, with endless chain 
attachment, for transferring Ear Corn from boats and barges, and 
with the same power and maehinerj'^ will handle packages of Salt. 
CottOn, Tobacco, etc. The Grain stored here is inspected by an 
Inspector, appointed by the Chamber of Commerce, and is 
weighed by a sworn Weigh master. 

This enterprise is in the hands of gentlemen thoroughly con- 
versant with the business, who, recognizing the great desiderata 
of this market, can not fail to eleviite its status, and place it on 
the royal road to success, if properly encouraged. 

H. D. ALLIS & CO., FLOUR AND GRAIN MERCHANTS. 

In its various forms and changes, the firm of H. D. Allis & Co. 

is now the oldest Grain and Flour house in existence in this city. Mr. 

Allis began the retail grocery bu^^iness in Evansville, in the Fall of 

1837. In 1839 he admitted Mr, Lewis Howes as a partner, and the 

31 



242 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

iirm became Aliis & Howes, who merged into the sale of Wholesale 
Groceries, and continued until 1856, at which time they sold out to 
Tenney & Soronson. Messrs. Allis & Howes then embarked in the 
Wholesale Liquor business, and soon after the occupation of Memphis 
by the Federal forces, Mr. Howes removed to that city and established 
a branch house in the General Commission and Grocery line. In 1868, 
this firm was dissolved, and Mr. Allis engaged in the Flour and Grain 
trade under the iirm name of H. D. Allis & Co. They now occupy 
their old and well-known stand at the junction of Water and Vine 
streets, and carry the heaviest stock in this section. They are the 
agents for the f )llowing standard brands of Flour : ' ' Cynthiana Mills," 
"Our Own Favorite," "Bingham's Bakers' Delight," " Bingham's 
Dexter," and "' Southwestern Mills." 

IlEILLY & CO., GRAIN AND FLOUR MERCHANTS. 
The firm of Reilly & Co. was established by Mr. William Reilly, 
nmv deceased, in 1860, and succeeded to by the present firm, composed 
of John S. Reilly and James Laughlin, in January, 1872. Both mem- 
bers of the firm are young men, but are numbered among our most 
energetic and progressive Grain merchants, and are to be commended for 
their sterling business qualifications and upright dealing. Their busi- 
ness has very greatly improved of late, and their double Warehouse, 
Nos. 1, 3, 5 and 7 Lower Water street, has the greatest storage capac- 
ity of any establishment devoted to similar purpose in the city. They 
transact a genei-al commission business and deal in Hay, Grain, Flour, 
Feed, Lime, Cement and Salt. They make specialties of Kiln-dried 
Corn Meal and pure Rye Flour. They areaLso agents for Ohio River 
Salt, and for the Improved Howe Scale, manufactured at Brandon, 
Vermont, and for which Gilbert & Co., Cincinnati, Chicago and St. 
Louis, are the General Western Agents. This firm is also interested 
in the Evansville Grain Elevator. 



Ship Chandlery, Boat Stores, Etc. 

Another department of business with us, assuming a distinct- 
ness and sub-division of its own. is that designated by the collec- 
tive nouns — Ship Chanfllery and Boat Stores. A ' Boat Store '" is 
neither a Grocery, Hardwai-e or Queensware establishment, and 
yet it combines in a degree a proper understanding of all three. 
ii.nd partakep somewhat of the xrature of each. Tbue compreheTi- 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 248 



J. E. RANKIN & CO., 

WHAEPBOAT PROPRIETORS, 

Fori arflini & Coimnission lerclaiits 



ATHORIZED SHIPPING AGENTS OF 

St, loois aod Souttieaslero Railwaf Companf, 

EYANSYILLE AND GRAWFORDSVILLE RAILWAY CO., 
EVANSVILLE, IND. 







5 

WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

MANILLA AND HEMP RGP£^ 

ire (§ope,^,arred (Rigging^^gurchase flocks 

-A. nsr ID 

STEAMBOAT SPIKES OF EVERT DESCEIPTiOB. 

WmrprnmlmM MmdlB to Q)w§Mr.j 

Corner Sycamore and Water Sts., 

Evansviile, Indiana. 



•M4 EVAXSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANTFACTURES. 

sive and yet ramitied, it requires a life-long experience and full 
knowledge of what is needed in the trade, as well as capital, to 
properly and successfully conduct it. In its stock are comprised 
not only supplies needed while running a boat, but its complete 
outfit, and raanv elements of construction — Spikes. Oakum, Leads 
for Painting purposes; Eigging — such as Sparring Eiggiug and 
Line and Chain Eigging. Pantry Outfit, including Queensware 
and Tableware generally. Lanterns and Trimmings — Oils of all 
kinds. Lubricating and Illuminating : Wire-rope, such as has been 
adopted by the Government : Tiller Eope to be used in case of fire 
on board; Tarpaulins and Screens, Purchase Blocks. Dunnage, 
and also a full stock of Tar. Pitch. Turpentine and Eosin. Groce- 
ries, Provisions and supplies generally. 

However, we may say that the bu:;iness is conducted with 
much success by the houses following the same in this city, and 
will amount to not less than 8150,000 per annum. The principal 
firms are: "William Bauer, Xo. 15 Lower Water street; Horn- 
brook & Co.. 214 L'pper Water street, and Sinzich. Eankin & Co.. 
corner Water and Sycamore streets. 

J E. RAXKIX & CO. AXD SINZICH, RANKIN & CO. 

J. E. Eankin it Go, Proprietors of the Mammoth Wharfboat, 
are the direct successors to John S. Mitchell, Brown. Dunkerson 
& Co., E. K. Dunkerson & Co. and W. G. Brown & Co., the five 
firms representing a period of twenty-five years" business experi- 
ence, and one of the firm, Capt. E. Schoenlaub. having been con- 
nected with and interested in each of the concerns. The present 
firm name is but tour years old, and is composed of E. Schcenlaub, 
John J. Sinzich and James E. Eankin. Besides being the princi- 
pal'shipping agents of the city merchants, and representing the 
■■Pittsburgh and Xew Orleans. ' ■'Cincinnati and Xew Orleans,'" 
"Cincinnati and Memphis." ••Louisville and Xew Orleans,'" 
■'Evansville and Tennessee Eiver."' and ■Evansville and Cumber- 
liind Eiver Packet Companies," they are. also. Shipping Agents of 
the ■•St. Louis and Southeastern "' and ■■Evansville and Crawfords- 
ville Eailroad Companies,"' for the latter of which they have 
handled, during the past two years, of Eastern through freights 
alone, 35.210 bales cotton, 13.829 hogsheads tobacco. 3.300 barrels 
whisky, and 2.700 tons (equaling 270 car-loads) of miscellaneous 
freights, consisting principally of flour, spar, lumber, dried fruits 
and woodwork. Their bills of lading annually cover the property 



SHIP CHANDLERY, SALT. CEME^iT. ETC. 245 

Of the principal shippers in Chicago. Indianapolis, Terre Haute^ 
Olney, Vincennes, Sullivan, Princeton and Evansville — shippers 
of Pork. Flour. Whisky and Grain to the S<juthern markets. 

Sinzieh. Rankin ic Co. are the siiccessor.s to J. Sinzich k Son. 
aad Kankin. Hart & Co., the two firms having consolidated in 
1872; now composed of John J. Sinzich. £. Schoenlaub and James' 
£. Rankin. They are the leading dealers in the city in Cordage. 
Purchase-blocks and Rigging-apparattLS and manufiacturers" agents 
for Wire Rope and Rogers" Boiler Scale Preventive. 

This trio of gentlemen, organized and doing business as two 
firms, are certainly ranked among our best mercantile houses. 
Always active in everything that tends to the advancement of the 
commerce of our city, whether by aid or direct personal advocacy, 
they are respected by their associates in trade, as well as by the 
large number of customers they have secured by their intelligent 
efl'oi-ts. sterling integrity, honorable dealing and liberal senti- 
ments, thus adding additional lustre to the high commercial stand- 
ing of the city of Evansvijje. 

Salt, Lime Cement and Plaster. 

We can nor congratulate ourself that we have properly class- 
ified the articles under the above heading, but. inasmuch as the 
houses engaged in the trade, have combined them, we find it otir 
duty to follow out their arrangement. 

The sale of .Salt is usually conducted also, in connection with 
the Grain and Fiour and general Commission business. and taken 
altogether, will amount to the disposal of 75.000 bbls per annum, 
which averaging, both large and small, at $2 each, foots up fl.50.- 
000. The principal kinds dealt in are those of Ohio River. Ka- 
nawha and ilason City Companies manufacture, and Lake Salt, 
from Saginaw Michigan, all of which have Agencies in this city. 
L. M. Baird. Xo. 220 Upper Water street, has the principal 
Agency. 

The sale of Lime in the city will go beyond 30,000 bbls. per 
annum, of which 12.000 bbls. were Putnam, and Spencer White 
Lime, manufactured by Lockhart & Co., of this city. About 
15.000 bbls. of Hydraulic Cement and Plaster, are also disposed 
of annually, the whole trade in this particular amounting to 
S50,000. The principal houses in the trade are J. Bunce. 2^0- 



246 EVAN.SVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

10 Main street; W. Keegan, No. 414 Main street; Lockhart & 
Co., 721 Locust street; Charles McJoluison & Co.. 412 Main 
street, and Eeiily & Co., 1, 3. 5 and 7 T^ower "Water street. 

The Hog and Provision Trade. 

Tlie plural term Provisions, so tar as we have been able 
to ascertain, is entirely a modern coinage lor the products of the 
Hog, and while we care less for its exact significance than we do 
for the amount of " business " it means with ?^s, Ave shall ^^voceed 
immediately to the proper consideration of Evansville's Pork in- 
terests. In the statistical and descriptive sketches that we have 
given, relative to the various departments of ti-ade carried on in 
our city, marking out for Evansville a lea<ling position in the 
commerce of the great Western country, we liave simplj' recited 
facts — facts which are greatly the result of natural causes, and 
which must continue to operate, further eniai'ging and consoli- 
dating these and other branches of trade here, our city being the 
focus towards which they unavoidabl}^ tend, and from which 
nothing, at present in sight, can divert them. Let us see. then, 
if our theory will hold water. 

It is a proverbialism that Corn-fed Hogs 2)roduce meat supe- 
rior in soundness, taste and preservative qualities, to those fat- 
tened on swill, and even admitting a fair number of distilleries, in 
this section, the great abundance of Corn, and the ability to buy 
at all seasons, for a mere song, renders Corn -feeding if not abso- 
lutely necessary, at least, just as cheap and much more desirable. 
In most other Pork-packing markets the case is quite the reverse. 
Distilleries are " tliicker than leaves in Valambrosa,'' and swill 
undersells Corn, consequently that obnoxious liquid, reputed ca- 
pable of making " hogs of men," but which fails to make good 
meat of Hogs, is lavishly fed, and in a swollen and bloated state, 
the Porcine inebriate is sent to the block to die the ignoble death 
of a drunkard. And, again, the climate of Southern Indiana is 
better adapted to Pork-packing than one more northerl}', for all 
faii'-spoken Packers are consentient in the tact, that Meat cures 
more thoroughly and more rapidly, in a latitude characteristically 
moderate in its early Winter, than in one more .severe, and whose 
storms and " cold snaps " freeze slaughtered and uncured Meats, 
and often render them unfit for use. Until recently, the farmers 



THE HOG AND PROVISION TRADE. 247 

of our iiuniediate section, have paid but comparatively little at- 
tention to Porlc raising. But we find now an agreeable revolu- 
tion, and the profits to be be made have directed their eft'orts to 
the iuLroduction of blooded breeds, and instead ot the "runt" of 
former days, uu.v Kog-raisers are bringing out, almost entirely, 
the Very best stock of '"Berkshire," " Sutfoik " and other equally 
well-known species. These recited circumstances then, fully ex- 
plain the gratifying increase in the Provision Trade of late, and 
yet, to these favorable considerations, may be added our conti- 
guity to the consuming points of the South, the reasonable freight 
rates and quick transportation, and the fact that our current 
prices are equally as favorable and equitable as those to be ob- 
tained in any ot the Western markets. 

It is not exactly our commission to chronicle the fluctuations of 
trade during this or that season, but the past year has been one of so 
much diversity of fortune, such a "sweet interchange of hill and val- 
ley," so to speak, that a retrospective glance might not be entireh' out 
of place. The year opened under the most inauspicious circumstances. 
The financial panic bursted with appalling and unexpected fury upon 
the country just as the business of last season was being cl^sedj cloud- 
ing all interests with distrust and want of confidence in the future — 
disastrous alike to all classes and conditions of society, whether mer- 
chant, farmer, or manufacturer. The shrinkage in values on all articles 
of traffic was fearful, and many of those who carried large stocks and 
a scattered credit were compelled to succumb to the storm. Our own 
community withstood the shock nobly, while the mercantile standing 
of most of the cities of the East and Northwest was shaken to the very 
center. The hog product was, however, generally out of the hands of 
legitimate dealers, and chiefly held by speculators, who were the prin- 
cipal sufferers by the diniunition in values between the months of Sep- 
tember and December, 1873, between which dates the lowest point was 
reached. When the season opened, it was well understood that the hog 
crop was unusually large, and consequently extremely low prices were 
looked for, but in this, our dealers were much at error, for prices ad- 
vanced steadily from $o 25 to $5 00, the figures paid at the close of the 
year. The season was, also, a remarkably short one with us, com- 
mencing November 7th or 9th, and virtually closing about December 
29th, in the meantime affording only about twenty days suitable for 
packing, and during which time the total number packed was 19,576. 
Compared with the season of 1872-3, which afforded at least seventy- 



348 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

five days packing, and during which 17,906 hogs were disposed of, we 
are enabled to show a very considerable increase for the trade of this 
year. The hogs slaughtered were also considerably short in weight of 
those of the preceeding year, and the yield of Lard was nearly or quite 
25 per cent, less per hog than last year, while the shrinkage in weight 
and soured meats throughout the West has been enormous, caused, 
doubtless, by the unusually open and soft Winter. 

But the greatly increased packing in all directions for the past 
few seasons demonstrates clearly that any crop our country may pro- 
duce, however immense it may be, will find consumers if furnished at 
reasonable prices. As new sources of supply open in the great West, 
new customers come from the East, until not only our own land, but 
the "old country" is calling for such quantities as to tax our resources 
to their utmost capacity. 

The following table exhibits the number of Hogs packed through- 
out the country for the past twenty-five years : 

Years. No. of Hogs. Years. No. of Hogs. 

18-19-' 50 1,652,220 ]8G2-'ti3. 4,079,520 

1850-'51 1,332,867 1863-'64 3,261.105 

1851-52 1,182,846 1864-'65 2,422,779 

1852-53 2,201,110 1865-'66 1,785,955 

l853-'54 2,534,770 18G6-'67 2,490,791 

lB54-'55 .- 2,124,404 1867-'68 2,781,084 

l855-'66 2,489,502 1868-'69 2,499,873 

1856-'57 1,818,468 1869-'70 2,635,312 

l857-'58 2,210,778 1870-'71 3,623,404 

1858-'59 2,465,552 1871-'72 4,782,403 

1859-'60 2.350,822 1872-'73 5,456,004 

]860-'61 2',155,702 1873-74 5,383,810 

1861-62 2,893,666 

Considering our local trade in a statistical point of view, we 

are enabled to make a very creditable showing. Ten years ago 

there were only 1,500 Hogs packed in the Evaneville market per 

annum, but the business has been gradually growing insomuch 

that we exhibit, with some degree of pride, the following figures: 

Years. No. of Hogs. Years. No. of Hogs. 

1866-'67 9,249 1870-'71 16,333 

1867-'68 10,650 1871-'72 18,470 

l868-'69 14,710 1872-'73 .17,906 

1869-'70 15,654 1 873-' 74 19,576 

The superior quality of the products of our pork houses is 
well established throughout the country, and the excellent care ol 
oar packers of fancy family meats, has met with the greatest favor 
wherever known. The Lard manufactured in this city is also the 
recognized standard in the Southern markets for purity, sweetness 



THE PEODUCE TKADE. 249 

and virgin whiteness, and, we are informed, readily commands 
one-half to one cent per pound more in price than the products of 
either Cincinnati or Chicago. In addition to those leading articles 
in the trade we have spoken of in detail, our dealers also pay some 
attention to Pickled Be^, Beef Tongues, Venison, etc. The entire 
business per annum will amount to one-half million of dollars. The 
houses now in the trade are: Wm. M. Akin, corner of Goodsell 
and Lower Second streets; Alex. H. Foster, No. 221 Lower Water 
street; John Gavisk, 413 Sycamore street, and Wm. Eahm & Son, 
601 and 603 Fulton avenue. 

JNO. GAVISK & SON, PIONEEK POKK PACKERS. 
The post of honor and distinction as the "Pioneer Pork 
Packers " of the cit}' of Evansville, is due to the well-known 
firm of Jno. Gavisk & Son, No. 412 Sycamore street. Organized 
for the season of 1848-9, it now claims more than a quarter of a 
century in experience and reputation. The first firm was com- 
posed of Michael and Jno. Gavisk, under the stjie of Michael 
Gavisk & Bro., continuing for twelve years, or until 1861, 
Michael Gavisk having died during I860. In 1861 Mr. Jno. Gavisk 
admitted his son, Timothy J. Gavisk, to copartnership, and the 
firm style was then changed to Jno. Gavisk & Son, and so contin- 
uing until the death of Mr. Timothy Gavisk, in April, 1874, which 
sad event was lamented by all who knew him, for he was promi- 
nent among our young men for many noble qualities of head and 
heart. Since his death, a younger bi'other, Jas. A. Gavisk, fills 
his place, and the business will be conducted under its former 
style. Mr. Jno. Gavisk, Senior, of the firm, is one of our most 
popular citizens. Frank, sincere, generous and enterprising— a 
fine old Irish gentleman withal. The " P. P. P." brand of Sugar- 
cured hams, put up by Messrs. Gavisk & Son, are first-class in 
quality, and readily sell in all quarters from Evansville to At- 
lanta, Georgia. 

WM. RAHM & SON, POPvK PACKERS. 
The Jdrm of Wm. Eahm & Son, Nos. 601 and 6U3 Fulton 
Avenue, is of long established reputation and experience. Their 
Corn and Pork trade includes customers in nearl}- all of the 
towns along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, from Evansville to 
New Orleans, and some shipments made by them were the 
largest ever known from the city. They have the confidence and 
32 



250 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

support of many of the best farmers and producers of this sec- 
tion, and have built up a large and flourishing trade, simply on 
merit and accommodation. 

The Produce Trade. > 

One of the very best evidences of the wonderful commercial 
growth of the the city of Evansville, is forcibly presented in 
the volume and importance of that branch, or sub-division of 
trade, known as Country Produce. Five years ago, we may say, 
tbe business had no significance, that is, the transportation did 
not go beyond a few thousand dollars per annum, and was con- 
ducted, for the most part by Gfrocers, or that class of Merchants 
who " barter and exchange," known as general store-keepers. 
To-duy, the business involves considerations sufficiently impor- 
tant to entitle it to rank among the wholesale departments of com- 
merce, while the commendable zeal and energy, put forth by the 
leading dealers, will, in a few years, bring its proportions to a 
station unsurpassed by any rival city in the West. In specifying 
the trade in Produce, we do not intend our remarks to apply to 
the dealings of Hucksters, Peddlers and Market-men, but simply, 
in the present instance, to confine our comments to that important 
branch of trade, known and recognized as the Wholesale Produce 
Business of the city. This trade comprises strictly the purchase 
and sale of Hides, Wool, Feathers, Pelts, Eags, Furs, Ginseng, 
Beeswax, Tallow, and Dried Fruits; old Iron, Copper, Brass etc. 
The increase in this branch of business is largely, if not solely, 
attributable to the very satisfactory prices realized by the pro- 
ducers, and the prompt manner in which proceeds are paid — 
cash being the basis of the business. It is almost an inevitable 
rule, that produce is converted into currency on the day of its 
receipt; an example presented, perhaps, by no other Western city. 

The houses engaged exclusively in the Produce Trade are: 
G. I. Bliss & Co., No. 205 Lower First street; A. Lo&wenthal, Jr., 
No. 220 Upper Fourth street, and Jo. Kosenfeld, No. 410 Main 
street, whose aggregated business amounts to very near S300,000. 
We are quite satisfied with this exhibit, and judge from the 
enterprise and attention given the business by these firms, that 
a few seasons more will place it on a footing formidable, and quite 
in keeping with the varied advancing interests of the city of 
Evansville. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



251 



E. 0. Babcock. 



Walter S. Viele. 



BABCOCK &VIELE 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 




A IV D 







''^liwi 



@, ili® Wpp©f B'Isit itr©©tj 



EVANSVILLE, IND, 



252 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



Coach Trimmings and Fancy Horse Goods. 

One of the most interesting subjects to study in connection with 
the growth of our city, is that ever increasing tendency to separate 
trade and to establish departments devoted to one or more certain lines 
of goods. B}^ this means retail dealers visiting the city not only econ- 
omize time in' their purchases, but it may be reasonably supposed that 
merchants who thus have specialties can offer to sell cheaper, purchas- 
ing as they do in larger quantities and paying more attention to the 
stocks they keep, in variety, quality and points of excellence. One of 
our leading branch or branches of business in the city, is the Leather 
trade — including Saddlery and concomitants, but it is more entitled to 
consideration under the head of local manufactures than in this place. 
However, we have, also, a department devoted alone to the importa- 
tion and sale of Fine Coach Trimmings and Fancy Horse Goods — the 
sales amounting to, probably, $100,000 per annum. 

BABCOCK & VIELE, DEALERS IN HORSE AND CARRIAGE GOODS. 
Strictly speaking, the only house in the city devoted exclusively 
to this trade, is that of Babcock & Viele, No. 210 Upper First street. 
Inaugurated October 1st, 1873, they have completed the first year of 
their mercantile venture quite successfully and quite promisingly for 
the future. Their house is well ordered, and they have displayed very 
great and good taste in the arrangement of their goods. It would, in- 
deed, be a difficult task to describe the vast variety of goods they sell. 
The following memoranda of articles, however, may refresh the mem- 
ory or inform those in search of such articles where they may be pur- 
chased : Springs, Axles, Bolts, Bands, Couplings, Fifth Wheels, Clips, 
Wa«hers, Malleables, Coach Lamps, Tacks, Buckram, Burlaps, En- 
ameled and Rubber Cloths, Broad Cloths, Damasks, Corduroys, 
Plushes, Enameled and Patent Leathers, Oil Carpets, Curled Hair, 
Moss, Excelsior Seaming Cord, Thread, Tufting Twine, Sponges, 
Buggy Mats, Glue, Varnishes, Rubber Goods, Transfer Ornaments, 
Buggy Bodies, Patent and Common Wheels, Bent Stock of everv de- 
scription. Whips, Horse Brushes, Curry Combs, Lap Robes, Blankets, 
etc., etc. Among their specialties may be mentioned: Axles and 
Springs of the Bridgeport and Anchor Brand qualities ; H. D. Smith's 
fine Hardware, and Skelley's Bolts ; Sarven's Patented Combination and 
Columbus Wheels, etc. In Buggy Bodies, they have almost every 



BOOKS AND THE BOOK TRAi)fi. 253 

conceivable style and shape; Phaetons, Piano-box, Yacht, Concord, 
Coal-box, New York-box, Monitor, Drop-front, Park Phneton, Cabriolet, 
etc., besides a full line of light Express Bodies. They have, also, 
numerous glass cases filled with Gold-plated Carriage Lamps, Whiffle- 
tree Tips and Gold and Silver Door Handles, Cross-strap Centers and 
Bauds. Their line of Buggy Rugs, Lap Robes, Horse Blankets, 
Circingles, Halters, Ankle Boots and Rollers, is not only very fine, but 
arranged in attractive style. Li truth, take the entire house in its in- 
ternal considerations, and we know of no business house in the city more 
beautifully fitted up. The firm is composed of Messrs. Ed. O. Babcock 
and Walter S. Viele, both young, enterprising and attentive gentle- 
men, and we bespeak for them a liberal patronage. 

Books and the Book Trade. 

"A sound mind in a sound body," is the classic description given 
us by Horace of a perfect man. We have, in preceding chapters, 
considered departments of trade and commerce whose grand improve- 
ments and excellencies afford sustenance for the body in all its appetites, 
internal and external — the present we will devote to " food for the 
mind. ' The pen of Solomon must have been dipped in prophetic fire 
when he wrote, "Of making many books there is no end" — for the 
statement is fully verified in our own day. Thousands of weak brains 
and strong brains are gathering thoughts ; thousands of slow fingers 
and swift fingers are penning lines that are destined to run out into 
lengthy manuscripts ; thousands of printers are setting type ; thousands 
of books are issuing from thousands of presses, and being borne by 
rapid posts to all parts ot civilization ; books aglow with poetic fire ; 
books of abstruse ethics, passionless as an Arctic iceberg. Books of 
sober truth ; books of ideal fancy ; books that tell of earth around and 
earth beneath ; books that describe sublime journeys of mind through 
the fields of space, portraying the lovely flowers that bloom forever in 
the paradise of God. Books of immortal wisdom and books of loath- 
some stupidity ; books made to sell, and books that never will sell. 
"Yellow covered" stuff", trashy fiction, poisonous literature, pregnant 
with fierce loves and fierce hates. Books wherein delineations of crime 
are often drawn with masterly skill; and falsehood, intrigue, theft, and 
murder robbed of their blackness when committed by some fascinating 
heroine or killingly-handsome bandit. It is said that two-thirds of all 
the books published at the present day are novels. These find pur- 



254 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

chasers in every tamily and readers at every fireside. Universally read, 
they contribute very materially to the mental elevation or degradation 
of the race. Does it not, then, behoove every writer, great or small, 
to contribute his opinion in favor of worth, and to the condemnation 
of that which tends to weaken the Avill to all purposes of good, that 
which vitiates the taste, perverts the judgment, arouses evil passions 
and destroys all just views of life ? Indeed, a little good, strong English 
used in calling sin Sin, would frequently remove the glamour from de- 
luded eyes, and purify and ennoble. But food should not be despised 
because some men are gluttons, nor wine because some get drunk. It 
is most true that novels have done much towards impairing the mental 
and moral strength of our people, but many, very many, of them, by 
adhering to elegance of style, by inculcating noble lessons of truth, and 
by showing triumphs of virtue over vice, have done much towards ad- 
vancing our race in mind and morals — have accomplished a work 
scarcely inferior to the ministry itself. 

Fictitious narratives are not evil in themselves. There is fullest 
authority for their use in the word of God. The beautiful fiction of 
the talking trees occurs in the Book of Judges, and the inimitable 
parable of the man of Uz and his friends, in the Book of Job; while 
the Prophets, in their transcendental descriptions of the hereafter, em- 
ploy ideal scenes to represent coming events; and, turning to the New 
Testament, it is recorded of Him who " spake as never man spoke be- 
fore," that " without a parable spake He not unto them." "A parable 
is a moral lesson inculcated by the invention of characters which never 
existed ; or, if they ever existed, are made to converge in forms of 
speech suggested entirely by the imagination." Without an invented 
story, Jesus seldom taught the people. The stories of Dives and Laza- 
rus, the Pharisee and the Publican, and the fifty-one other parables of 
Jesus are just as much works of fiction as are the romances of Cooper 
and Bulwer. He discarded the dogmas of the Rabbis at Jerusalem, 
and talked to the people in their own vernacular. Inventing stories 
that bore upon their every-day life, the Master brought His truths into 
the homes, into the business, into the habits, into the religion of His 
countrymen. When we go to the Bible for advice as to Christian con- 
duct, we invariably seek one of these parables. Jesus, then, impressed 
by practice the sacredness of employing the unreal to represent the 
real. "The servant is not above his master." That which Jesus did 
others may surely imitate. Those who teach morals would do well to 
sit at His feet and learn of Him the best way to reach the liearts of 
their hearers. 



BOOKS AND THE BOOK TKADE 265 

But we must stop this train of thought, fearing our reader will say 
we have wandered very far away from our legitimate duty. And yet, 
"what is writ is writ — would it were worthier." Our first prop- 
osition in this book, was, to exclude nothing, come from what source 
it should, that could leastways advance or elucidate the subjects under 
discussion, and while we fully intend that "no pent up Utica shall con- 
tract our powers," we shall indulge a vein of excusable vanity or con- 
ceited obstinacy, "as you like it," and publish this chapter, more for 
the information of readers than to fulfill Lord Byron's couplet — 
" 'Tis pleasant, sure, to see one's name in Drint." 
A book's a book, although there's nothing in't; — 

Taste and judgment, then, being no longer confined to mere profes- 
sional critics, but characterizing at least one-half of the reading public, 
we think the history of letters, the peculiarities of authors, and the 
modus operandi of book-making must prove interesting to a large class 
of persons. We present, then, some facts independent of the local 
trade gathered together, by very considerable labor, but following 
Freedley's style in most of our notes : 

History of Letters. — It is a strange and yet a well-authenti- 
cated fact, that there is no continuous narrative extant of the rise and 
advancement of writing, learning and authorship, and yet these have 
moulded thought and delighted and refined man for centuries. Writing 
was an art of exceedingly slow growth. At first it Avas pictorial, then 
modified according to necessity, for as records became voluminous, the 
scribes were obliged to abridge the representations. The transition 
from pictures to signs of sounds was very gradual. This is confirmed 
by travelers of all ages, and we find that pictorial writing, or hiero- 
glyphics, is peculiar to all tribes in a savage or semi-civilized state. 
The Egyptians carried this art to great perfection, and reduced it to a 
comjDlete system, and hence they are generally, but erroneously, sup- 
posed to have been the inventors of letters. So obscure is the history 
of this noble science, that many learned men have recorded their be- 
lief in its Divine origin, asserting that God communicated it to Moses; 
and Plato, Diodorus, Siculus, and even the great Cicero, were of 
opinion that letters emanated from the gods. We can smile at these 
conjectures, and yet not be surprised at their existence. Aristotle 
was in advance of his contemporaries in more than one of his views, 
and he shrewdly tells us that the alphabet was invented. to record sounds. 
"Letters," says he, "are marks of words, and as words are sounds, 
significant letters are marks of such sounds." He was correct, and the 



256 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

originators of the system were of his opinion. But to carry this no 
further, it may be said with confidence that the Plicenicians are entitled 
to the honor of inventing letters, and to them we owe the imperishable 
and invaluable art. 

Books were known to the ancients, but in their form and charac- 
ter they bore no resemblance to ours. Authorship appears to have 
been as slow' in its growth as the develo2)nient of letters ; and the dif- 
ficulties that beset writers were such as we never can realize. Several 
kinds of materials have been used to make books at different times, 
not known in the trade now. Plates of lead and copper, the bark of 
trees, bricks, stone and wood, were the substances formerly employed 
to engrave such things upon as men were willing to have transmitted 
to posterity. Josephus speaks of two columns, one of wood, the other 
of stone, on which the children of Seth wrote their inventions and astro- 
nomical discoveries. Hesiod's works Avere originally written on tablets 
of lead — the ten commandments delivered to Moses were on stone, and 
the laws of Solon were inscribed on planks of wood. Tables of wood, 
box and ivory were common among the ancients, but when of wood 
they were latterly covered with wax, and the letters traced in the soft 
of the coating so as to be easily obliterated. The leaves of the Palm 
were afterwards used instead of planks, and also the finest and thinest 
parts of the barks of such trees as the Lime, the Ash, the Maple, and 
the Elm ; whence comes liber, which literally signifies the bark of a 
tree. These were rolled up in order to be removed with ease, and 
hence called volumen — a volume — a name now used to designate a booV, 
The tilia or phillyrea, was also used, and Egyptian jiapyrus, out of 
which a paper was made. By degrees wax was used, then leather, 
especially the skins of goats and sheep, of which at length parchment 
was produced. The first books were in the form of blocks and tablets; 
but when flexible matter came into use it was found convenient to make 
books into rolls, which were composed of several sheets fastened to each 
other and rolled on a stick, the whole forming a cylindrical column, 
with a handle at one end. The title was stuck on the outside, and 
the volume, when extended, might be a yard in width and fifty in 
length. The square form, so common now, was known to the ancients 
but not much used. Notwithstanding the immense labor required to 
produce a book in those early days, we are told that the library at 
Alexandria supplied the four thousand baths of that city with fuel for 
six months, the volumes having been thus destroyed by order of Caliph 
Omar, A. D. 642. 



BOOKS AND THE BOOK TRADE. 257 

Having thus traced the history of letters to a time when lit- 
erature was established upon an endurable basis, our object shall 
now be to sketch the history and condition of the book trade as at 
present conducted. The trade comprises three important classes 
of persons, all of whom are essential to its successful prosecution. 
These are Authoks, Book Manufacturers and Booksellers. 

1. Authors. — The Author is properly placed at the head of 
the list, as he is first in importance, first in fame, and first "in the 
hearts of his countrymen." What a host of undying names throng 
the memory at the sound of the word ! In ancient times we re- 
call Homer, the sun-bright intellect; Plutarch, the unrivaled 
biographer; Tacitus, the prince of historians; and in laiter days, 
Shakespeare, the monarch of all, and in his train follows a retinue 
whose names and words are as deathless as the stars. 

Authorship, as a profession, cannot be said to have taken root 
in England until the days of "Good Queen Bess." Astern, healthy 
system of thought characterizes the writers of her day, and prob- 
ably no age produced so many talented men or gave birth to so 
many books that are truly valuable. But, alas! if we examine the 
private lives of those whose works we venerate, how little happi- 
ness — how much misery. Irritability, extreme sensitiveness, in- 
difference to money, and unfitness for business, have been the bane 
and characteristics of nearly all. Disraeli has written a volume 
on the peculiarities and calamities of celebrated authors, and the 
record is a sad one. There is Dr. Johnson, the literary giant, 
walking many a night with Savage, the poet, around St. James' 
Square, for want of the means to obtain abed; or dining at his 
publisher's, separated from the rest of the company by a screen, 
to hide his shabby appearance. There is Goldsmith, pawning his 
coat for bread. There are Spenser, Butler and Boyce, starving to 
death ; and Chatterton committing suicide at an early age, after 
being four days without food. If we go back to an earlier period, 
we find that Sophocles, the poet, was brought to trial by his chil- 
dren as a lunatic ; Socrates, the sage, was put to death as a cor- 
rupter of youth ; Plato, accused of lying, avarice, robber}^, incon- 
tinence and impiet}^; Bacon, the Oxford Monk, inventor of the 
telescope, etc., abhorred as a magician ; Yirgilius, the Bishop of 
Saltzburg, burned for having written that Antipodes existed ; 
Galileo, imprisoned and compelled to disavow his sentiments ; 
Cornelius Agrippa, obliged to fly his country for having displayed 
33 



258 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMEKOE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

a few philosophical instruments ; Petrarch, continually in danger 
of his life from the priests ; and Descartes horribly persecuted in 
Holland, and threatened with the stake by Voetius, the bigot. In 
short, authorship, it seems, in all ages, has appeared a sort of 
martyrdom, and the gloating bigots of ignorance can boast as 
many victims as the fires of persecution ever sacrificed Christians. 

Fortune has rarely consented to become the companion of 
genius. Modern literature furnishes some sad examples of this 
fact, and the past is not destitute of instances. Xylander sold his 
notes on Don Cassius for a dinner; Cervantes, the author of Don 
Quixote, wanted bread ; Cameons,the great epic poet of Portugal, 
perished in the streets ; Tasso was so poor that he was obliged to 
borrow a crown to subsist on for a week ; Ariosto was in extreme 
poverty ; Du Eyer, a French poet of celebrity, wrote for 100 sous 
the hundred lines; Corneilledied wanting a little sustaining broth; 
Dryden sold ten thousand verses to Towson for less that $500; 
Stowe, the entertaining chronicler of London, quitted the tailor's 
board to devote himself to letters, but was glad to go back to the 
shears; Eushworth, the author of Historical Collections, died in 
jail ; Banyan wrote his great work in prison, while supporting 
himself and family by making stay-laces ; Savage sold his Wan- 
derer for £10, and Milton disposed of his immortal poem for the 
same sum, being too poor to undertake the printing himself. De 
Foe, the author of Eobinson Crusoe, was often in prison, and wrote 
his Jure Divino in Newgate. Paulo Burghese, an Italian poet, 
almost as good as Tasso, knew fourteen different trades, and yet 
died because he could not get employment in any of them ; Bacon, 
the "wisest, greatest, meanest of mankind," lived a life of poverty 
and distress ; Sir Walter Ealeigh died on the scaffold; and Spen- 
ser, " charming Spenser," died forsaken and in want ; and to the 
long list of the gaunt victims of starvation and neglect may be 
added Otway, Collins, Fielding, and last, tho' not least, the blind 
old poet of "Scio's rocky isle" — the immortal author of the Iliad. 

We are happy, however, to be able to turn to a brighter page. 
Within the last century the profits of successful authorship have 
certainly improved, and in some instances the pay has been mu- 
nificent. But, unfortunately, saving habits do not appear to be- 
long to literary men. They, as a class, seem to be reckless in ex- 
penditure and regardless of consequences. Improvidence is their 
besetting sin, and when fortune favors them, they too often 



BOOKS AND THE BOOK TKADE. 259 

squander her gems most lavishly and die in poverty. Sir "Walter 
Scott, at one time, was in receipt of $60,000 per annum for the sale 
of his works, and yet he died a bankrupt. Dickens' annual in- 
come just previous to his death was estimated at $100,000, but few 
of us remember that, only a few years before, he was compelled 
to fly to the continent to escape the too urgent demands of his 
wine merchant. 

In the infancy of English authorship it was the custom of 
writers to publish by subscription, but this begging plan rarely 
afforded much return. The system of dedicating works to great 
people was also much in use, being a polite way of handing a man 
down to posterity for the sake of a little present aid; and many 
of the "favored gentilitie" figured nowhere else than on dedica- 
tory leaves, and are entitled to their authors for what little renown 
they may have. This habit, however, has been long discontinued, 
as a rule, and works come forth under different and, perhaps, less 
groveling auspices. 

To illustrate the increased profits of authorship within the 
last century, we give a few instances. Gay received $2,000 for the 
"Beggar's Opera," and $5,000 tor his poems. Broome, the trans- 
lator of the Odyssey, got $3,000 for that work. Fenton was paid 
$1,500 for four books of the same poem. Pope received $1,000 for 
editing- an edition of Shakespeare. Thomas Halcroft was paid 
$6,000 for his translation of the King of Prussia's works. Colman, 
the Elder, got $1,500 for the" Poor Gentleman, " and "Who Wants 
a Guinea." Theodore Hook's " Sayings and Doings " yielded him 
$15,000, and $3,000 were paid him for "Births, Marriages and 
Deaths." In addition to these very large sums, he received $2,000 
a year as editor of Colburn's '■'■New Monthly.'' James Smith got 
$5 000 for four plays from C. Mathews for his entertainments, and 
Murray, the publisher, paid Lord Byron, for a part of his works, 
£15 455, or about $77,200. TomMoore was quite as liberally paid, 
having received $15,000 from the Longmans for Lalla Eookh, and 
nearly as much from Murray for his Life and Letters of Lord 
Byron. This publisher is said to have given $10,000 for Washing- 
ton Irving's Columbus, and Cooper's Novels paid him handsomely. 
Prescott, the historian, Longfellow, the Poet, Augusta Evans, and 
some other American authors, have made money by their works, 
but the majority have not. In fact, it will be found, on close in- 
vestigation, that but few authors reap either money or fame. 



260 EVANSVILLE : HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Compared with other professions, the successful ones are astonish- 
ingly scarce. The examples of fortune given above are extreme 
cases, and it must be remembered that, of the millions- — and there 
have been millions — who have made authorship a calling, there 
are some hundreds only, or at best thousands, who are distin- 
guished or widely known. When writers were not numerous and 
readers rare, the successful author fell into oblivion much sooner 
than now. 

With the advance in pecuniary compensation, and the increase 
of intelligence among the people, the profession has, however, propor- 
tionately risen in favor. Authorship is now honored in all lands. The 
fame of her writers is the fame of a nation. The author who leaves 
on record the impress of a powerful mind, never dies. From the grave 
he holds silent converse with his race for good or for evil, often eflEect- 
ing as much by the sentiments he inspires in us as by the ideas he ex- 
presses. 

Among the thousands who have devoted themselves to literaturjB 
within the last few years, there is a class of growing importance called 
compilers. Their calling is to delve among musty folios and obscure 
manuscripts, and, by consulting, transcribing and investigating the 
works of old and sacred authors, thus reveal to light in a new dress, 
forgotten but valuable works. The treasures of knowledge revealed 
to them obtain a wider circulation by this manner of publication, and 
those toilers through old volumes are not plagiarists, but belong to a 
race of authors whose books have the charm of originality, while at 
the same time they put in the hands of the people works before known 
only to the wealthy, to vast libraries, or to that class of bibliomanists 
whose enormous heaps of books, collected without intelligent curiosity, 
were properly called the "■ mad-houses of the human mind," or " tombs 
of books." 

II. Prestting. — Printing from the movable types is now generally 
conceded to have been the invention of John Guttenburg, or Guttem- 
burg, as it is sometimes written, a native and citizen of Mayence or 
Mentz. This event took place in 1438; and although there has been 
much controversy on the subject, and the honor has been claimed for 
others, it is now allowed that the credit belongs to John Guttenburg, 
originator, John Faust, patron and encourager, and Peter Schoeffer, 
improver of the art. The Chinese undoubtedly practiced printing from 
solid blocks as early as the 930th year of the Christian Era, and with 
the lights we now possess, we are satisfied that this art was brought to 



BOOKS AND THE BOOK TRADE 261 

Europe by the Venetians, for we find that playing cards were so pro- 
duced from solid blocks at Nuremburg, in 1441 ; and even before that 
period at Venice. The mystery of movable types was a secret until 
1462, when, at the sacking of Mentz by Archbishop Adolphus, the 
workmen were dispersed and the art publicly divulged. When once 
revealed the invention spread rapidly, not only in Central and North- 
ern Europe, but throughout the world. The original printers had 
brought their art to wonderful perfection, and many of the books printed 
by Guttenburg, Faust and Schceifer, in respect to beauty, style and 
accuracy, greatly surpass many works in our day. The great variety 
and symmetry of the types are matters of astonishment to modern 
printers, some of the fonts being equal to our latest designs. 

Types are pieces of metal, as almost every reader knows, each 
containing a separate letter, which, by being arranged into words can 
be subjected to pressure, and, by the aid of ink, leave on paper a fac 
simile of their surface. They are, in fact, letters, and the printer uses 
them in what is called composition, or type setting, just as the writer, 
when he spells, uses the letters of the alphabet with which his memory 
is stored. This arrangement was a masterly scheme, and the first 
printers stand forth as intellectual giants, when we reflect that they 
almost perfected the system of cutting, moulding, casting and setting 
types in a very few years — at farthest not more than six. 

William Caxton was the first to introduce the art in England, his 
first efibrt being in 1471, during the reign of Edward IV. Caxton 
learned the secret while on a visit to Cologne the year previous, where 
he printed a book entitled " The Recule of the History of Troy." His 
first English production was entitled the "Game and Play of Chess," 
interspersed with wood cuts, which would appear uncouth enough to us, 
but were at the time considered as admirable specimens of printing. 
So rapid was the knowledge of printing— as practiced by Europeans, 
spread, that presses were established in China, the Phillipine Islands, 
the Azores, Ceylon, Armenia, Macedonia, Iceland, North America 
and even Japan, more than two and a half centuries ago. The art of 
typography was exercised in Mexico before it was in Ireland, and in 
Peru as early as 1570. It had been carried to Mexico in 1566, about 
three-quarters of a century before it was practiced in " these Ameri- 
can Colonies." The first book printed in the United States was the 
"Bay Psalter Book," published at Cambridge, Mass., 1640. It en- 
joyed a wider and more lasting reputation abroad, than any American 
work since, having gone through seventy editions, the last appearing 



262 EVAKSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES, 

in 1759. The first Bible printed in America was the famous Indian 
Bible of Eliot, the Apostle. Fifteen hundred copies were printed, but 
they are quite rare and valuable, the Indians who spoke the language 
being extinct, and the language unknown. The work was executed, 
in 1663. In 1686 or 1687, William Bradford, a native of Leicester, 
England, set up a press near Philadelphia, his being the second in the 
British North American Colonies. Benj. Franklin was a rival of one 
Bradford — probably a son of the above — and finally superseded him in 
the business of the city. 

There are still many more facts of interest connected with the 
progress of printing in the United States, that we would make use of, 
but for fear of being considered too voluminous, or rather through fear 
of being charged with touching upon subjects that are not strictly local. 
The progress of improvement in the mechanical construction of the 
printing press, history proves us to have been almost as tardy as that 
of the "art preservative of all arts" itself, and printing machines years 
ago were of the rudest description. The earliest were something on 
the order of the cheese press, with a contrivance for running the form 
of types under the screw after the ink was applied. This mode was 
extremely slow, and yet the press was not much improved on until the 
middle of the last century. A Dutch mechanic named Blsew, was the 
first to introduce any marked improvement, and after him came Cly- 
mer, the American, with his highly ornamented "Columbian," a press 
at this day more generally used in England than any other worked by 
hand, whereas it is almost unknown to the rising generation of printers 
in the United States. The earliest presses were made of wood and 
worked by hand. The latest are grand inventions and bear but little 
if any resemblance to their predecessors. Ten tokens or about twenty- 
five hundred impressions were a good day's work on a hand-press for 
two men twenty-five years ago ; now a single Adams power-press, the 
most beautiful printing machine known, turns off that number in an 
hour, the sheets oftentimes being four times as large as those printed 
on the old hand-press. And for rapidity. Hoe's grand eight-cylinder, 
a ponderous machine for newspaper printing, capable of executing six- 
teen thousand impressions in an hour, and almost endowed with intel- 
ligence, stands before all competitors suited to the purpose for which it 
was expressly designed. 

The general processes of printing are nearly the same in all the 
offices ; and the art of composition or " type-setting," as it is tamiliarly 
yclept by members of the craft, needs no supererogating description at 



BOOKS AND THE BOOK TEADE. 263 

our hands. The typography of different printers, however, is almost 
marked as their countenances, and seems to be distinguished as readily 
by close observers familiar with the style. We may say, then, in gen- 
eral, that the printing houses of Evansville are well stocked with plain 
and ornamental type^and an abundance of other facilities known only 
to modern printing offices of the most complete description. These are 
well capable of executing all orders in Book and Magazine Printing, 
while their Job work embraces all kinds of Plain and Fancy Typog- 
raphy, etc. In another portion of our work we shall speak more 
definitely and more locally of the manufacture of Paper, manufacture 
of Blank Books, Binding, Newspapers, etc. 

III. Booksellers. — Our task will be completed with some brief 
mention of the Bookselling establishments of the city. We may say, 
then, in their favor, that the character and standing of these houses is 
well and favorably known throughout this section ; and their enterprise 
and liberality to the trade has kept abreast of our great advancement. 
The shelves of our dealers are at all times replete with the latest and 
best published works, from the most ephemeral to the most substantial, 
and embracing an almost inconceivable collection of differently-priced 
and differently-bound and executed styles, from the finest workman- 
ship to the commonest, or from the plainest and cheapest Paper-back 
Primer to the costliest Bible, done in antique Morocco, illustrated, and 
with gilt edges. Full assortments of Law, Medical, Theological, 
School, Statistical and Miscellaneous works, printed in English, Ger- 
man, French, Italian and Spanish, as well as complete edition s-bf the 
works of ancient Greek, Latin and Hebrew writers, both in the origi- 
nal and translated print ; in fact, everything that can be obtained in 
Eastern cities, is kept constantly on hand, or is soon procured on order. 
They have also accumulated a vast stock of Office, Counting-room, 
School-room and Fancy Stationery, together with all classes and styles 
of School-room Furniture, Blank Books and articles of kindred char- 
acter. In addition they also deal largely in Pictures — Chromos, Steel 
Engravings, Stereoscopic Views, etc. 

Evansville dealers are giving strictly Eastern prices, so that it is 
evident that retail purchasers, as well as teachers of schools, seminaries 
and colleges, will find it to their remunerative advantage to at least 
call and examine the stocks and prices offered in Evansville, before 
purchasing elsewhere. The trade is fairly on the increase, and before 
many seasons the fortunes as well as the fame of our Booksellers will be 
of most enviable standard. The principal Booksellers of the city are : 



264 EVANSVILLE: HEE OOMMBKCE AND MANUFACTUEES. ' 

Brandis & Meadows, 29 Main street ; Healy, Isaacs & Co. , 32 Main 
street ; Geo. C. Smith, 129 Main street ; John A. Boeller, 504 Main 
street. The principal dealers in Stationery aud Blank Books are : 
Evansville Journal Company, 14 Locust street; Meyer &Rahm, 311^ 
Upper First street, and Evansville Courier Company, 308 and 310 
Upper Second street. 

Music and Musical Instruments. 

Music, in all ages and in all countries, has exercised over the 
human soul a power deplored by a few as weakness, and inexpli- 
cable to all. Alike in remote antiquity and the sunlight of mod- 
ern civilization — among children of nature and refined society, 
on the battlefield amid the smoke and carnage of deadly strife, 
and in the velvet-tufted drawing-room, from the time when 

" Songs, garlands, flowers, 

And charming symphonies attached the heart 
Of Adam, soon inclined to admit delight — 
The bent of nature." 

To the present hour — men of every rank, condition and adverse 
character, have fraternized in paying homage to music; but whence 
the secret of its inlluence, neither the anatomist nor metaphy- 
sician have been able to answer, save that it is an instinct of na- 
ture — an outward expression of inward emotion. Jean Paul must 
have felt the inmost soul-sj'mpathy, the deathless beauty of the 
divinest rhapsody— the spirit of sounds, when he wrote, in jew- 
eled words of wonder: "O, music! Thou who bringest the re- 
ceding waves of eternitj'^ nearer to the weary heart of man as he 
stands upon the shore and longs to cross over! Art thou the 
evening breeze of this life, or the morning air of the future one?" 

The imaginaiy music of the spheres is a doctrine of great an- 
tiquity, since we find allusion to it in Holy Scriptures. Job, 
chapter 38, speaks of the anthem that broke upon chaotic stillness 
" when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God 
shouted for joy." Among the ancient writers, this was a favorite 
subject of philosophical enquiry, even in lands unblessed with the 
divine word. Pjnhagoras and Plato were of the opinion that the 
muses constituted the soul of the planets in our system; and the 
disciples of both of these celebrated philosophers supposed the 
universe to be formed on the principles of harmony. The Pytha- 



MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 265 

goreans maintained an opinion which many of the poets have 
adopted, that music is produced by the motion of the spheres 
in their several orbits; that the names of sounds in all prob- 
ability were derived from the Seven Stars. Pythagoras says 
that the whole world is made according to musical proportion. 
Plato asserts that the soul of the world is conjoined with musi- 
cal proportion. Sir Isaac Newton was of opinion that the principles 
of harmony pervade the universe, and gives a proof of the general 
principle from the analogy between colors and sounds. From a num- 
ber of experiments made on a ray of light with the prism, he found 
that the primary colors occupied spaces exactly corresponding with 
those intervals which constitute the octave in the division of a musical 
chord ; and hence he has obviously shown the affinity between the 
harmony of colors and musical sounds. Shakspeare, Milton, Dryden, 
Mason, and other eminent poets, all seem to favor the Pythagorean 
system. The first of these, whose vast mind seemed to grasp the whole 
creation, with its internal mechanism at once, happily alludes to the 
subject in his play of the "Merchant of Venice," wherein he causes 
the love-smitten Lorenzo to discourse more like a philosopher to fair 
Jessica, the wealthy Jew's daughter, than one fired with the sudden 
start and change and hot ambition of youth, with throbbing heart of 
ecstatic love and usual rash and giddy tongue : 

" How sweet the moon-light sleeps upon this bank ! 
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music 
Creep in our ears; soft stillness, and the night, 
Become the touches of sweet harmony. — 
Sit, Jessica; look, how the floor of heaven 
Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold ; 
There's not the smallest orb which thou beholdest, 
But in his motion like an angel sings, 
Still quiring to the young-ey'd cherubims : 
Such harmony is in immortal souls; 
But, whilst this muddy vesture of decay 
Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it." — 

As a moral agent, music has been the handmaiden of civiliza- 
tion, and its grandeur as well as most enduring tones have been 
poured forth in unison with the spirit of Christianity. In Bibli- 
cal ages the sweet singers of Israel sang their triumphant songs 
on the overthrow of Egypt, or bewailed in dirges the desolation 
of Judea. From the song of Miriam over the avenging waters 
that swallowed up the hosts of Pharaoh — 

"Sound the loud timbrel o'er Egypt's dark sea, 
Jehovah has triumphed. His people are free," — 

To those days when the Koyal Minstrel swept the chords in grand 
34 



266 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 

and matchless Te Deums, as if an angel guided his hand, and at- 
tuned his voice, to redeem, to reconcile, to immortalize mankind 
— music has been a part of God's worship, ordained and author- 
ized. In heathen ages, in early G-reece — " where burning Sappho 
loved and sung" — music was worshipped for a time as a divinity, 
but soon suffered to sink into obscurity. According to old Latin 
and Gi-reek faith, Apollo was the G-od of Eloquence and Music, and 
at the Olympian banquets, the Nine Muses accompanied his 
matchless lyre with song. The muse Calliope (i^ai'r-yojce), bore 
him a sou named Orpheus, who became so skillful a musician that 
the very trees and rocks are said to have moved to the tones of 
his lyre, and when he descended to the under-world in search of 
his lost Burydice, he struck the chords of his instrument, and 
drew forth tones which softened the heart of the stern monarch of 
Erebus. 

When the darkness of the middle ages overspread Europe, music 
retired with the devotees to the cloisters, but reappeared again under 
the powerful protection of the church. It would be, indeed, an inter- 
esting and instructive task, then, to trace the history and peculiarities 
of music from the time of Jubal, " the father of all such as handle the 
harp and the organ," to the advent of Jullien, the same who handles 
the baton, and to note how faithfully the spirit of each age is repre- 
sented in its popular music ; how the ruling principle of chivalry may 
be seen in the songs of the Troubadours — the earnestness of the Re- 
formers in the stern hymns of Luther, who said " those who love 
music, are gentle and honest in their tempers " — or to observe the sup- 
pressed bitterness caused by the religious persecution, in the nasal 
twanging of the early Puritans — and how truly the times of the "mer- 
ry monarch " of England, are portrayed in the life of his celebrated fid- 
dler, Baltzer, whom Anthony A.Wood, Esq., examined "to see whether 
he had a huff on " — while the growth and refinement of modern times 
are written in the rise and progress of the Italian Opera, aided by those 
great meestros of song, Hadyn, Mozart and Beethoven, of whom it has 
been said, "Hadyn built himself a lovely villa, Mozart erected a stately 
palace over it, but Beethoven raised a tower on the top of that ; and 
whoever should venture to build higher would break his neck." But 
of all ages, the present appears more properly the age of song, for 
throughout the realms of cultured civilization to-day, the crescendos 
and diminuendos, the 'fantasies, the exquisite songs and learned sym- 
phonies of those grand old tuneful hearts are heard familiar airs, alike 



MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 267 

in the poor man's cot and the nabob's palace. So, too, does revelation 
point to the grandest possibilities of a blessed immortality as intimately 
associated with music, for do we not read of harps of gold and choruses 
of angels — seraphs and cherubim from countless spheres, who gather 
around the Throne of the God of Eternal Patience in that endless clime 
of harmony, of joyous praise, and love and delight forever ? And, if 
this be the destiny of the righteous, may we not say that the divinest 
of earth's emotions is the divine sensibility of song. But we must not 
'become too desultory. Ours is a different theme — less enticing, but 
more practical, or if the reader permits, our hete noir, more local. We 
really design no more than to say something of those wonderful instru- 
ments of the present age which emulate the powers of the human voice, 
and have made music a science as well as an art. Indeed, we desire 
to occupy no wider field than the business in Musical Instruments as 
conducted in the city of Evansville, but have considered some facts, 
both historical and descriptive, as quite necessary to form an intelligent 
paper on the same. 

Musical Instruments may be divided into two general classes — 
Wind and Stringed Instruments. There are other divisions as instru- 
ments of percussion, to which Drums, Tamborines, Cymbals, etc., be- 
long, and automatic instruments, as barrel-organs, etc., but these offer 
nothing worthy of special remark. Among wind instruments, the first 
place, on account of the grandeur of its tones and costliness of its 
mechanism, is due to the Organ. The history of the Organ is obscure. 
The term occurs several times in the Old Testament, but it is supposed 
the instrument alluded to was simply the mouth-organ — very unlike 
anything of the kind known at the present day. The only notice that 
can be relied on at all of the introduction of the Organ into the 
churches of Western Europe is, that about the year 757, the Emperor 
Constantino V. presented one to Pepin, King of France. Louis le 
Debonnaire caused one to be built at Aix-la-Chapelle, on a Greek 
model, and this is supposed to have been the first that was used with a 
bellows without the use of water. The Organs of those days, how- 
ever, were rude in construction, and even so late as the Twelfth Cen- 
tury, they did not exceed twelve or fifteen notes. Pedals or foot-keys 
were added in 1470 by a German named Bernhard, living at Venice, 
The description of an Organ at Breslau in 1596, shows that at that 
time all the principal stops in use were known, and that the present 
general arrangement and detail of a great Organ were then adopted. 
Reed Organs, Melodeons, Seraphines, Concertinas and Accordeons com- 



268 EVANSVILLE : HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

prise another class ot wind instruments. The Reed Organ is the most 
prominent and is rapidly becoming a favorite parlor ornament in all 
sections of the country. A third class of Wind Instruments are those 
used for orchestral and military purposes, and are made of brass or 
German silver. M. Adolph Sax, of Paris, has made the greatest im- 
provements in these instruments, and his name has been prefixed to 
the almost universally known — Sax-horns. 

The Violin is the most important stringed instrument. It 
approaches nearer the gift of the human voice, than any other 
musical instrument, and has long been the people's favorite. We 
have no historical notes at hand to draw upon, but are strongly 
opinioned that the Violin is quite ancient, inasmuch as the most 
cheerfully, detestable tyrant in the annals of time, "Rosined the 
Bow," while Rome was burning, and drawing the hair of the 
equine across the intestines of the feline brought out, perhaps, a 
Latinized version of '• Old Dan Tucker," and we maintain this 
belief too, because Daniel, as is supposed — " fell in the fire and kick- 
ed up a chunk." Nero, was also, a striking instance that music has 
not always that humanizing efi'ect, which is generally ascribed to 
it, and there is less truth than poetry in the oft-quoted ojjinion : 
" Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast." But a truce to 
that, for the Violin has occupied the post of honor for many cen- 
turies in all lands, and going back beyond the beginning of the 
Christian Era, it might be traced down to the present time, when 
its wondrous power is wielded by such virtuosos as Vieuxtemps, 
Wieniawski and Ole Bull. The finest Violins in the world are 
those made at Cremona, in Italy, and some of them have been 
valued at from $500 to $2,000 each, and even more, and only three 
or four of which are known to be in the United States. The Viola 
or Tenor is a large kind of Violin ; the Violoncello is the next 
largest, and the Double-bass or Contrabasso is the largest instru- 
ment of an orchestra. Violin strings are made of cat-gut, a name 
applied to the peritoneal covering of the intestines of sheep, and 
not, as is popularly supposed, of the cat. The best strings are 
s'aid to be made at Naples, because the sheep, from their leanness, 
afford the best raw material, it being a well ascertained fact that 
the membranes of lean animals are much tougher than of those 
animals in high condition. Base or lower strings are generally 
covered with silver wire. The modern Spanish Guitar, and the 
Anglo-Africanized Banjo, are also, well known stringed instru- 



MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. ' 269 

ments, bat require no description at our hands. The advantage 
in all stringed instruments, it is said, lies in their age — it requir- 
ing time to develope a good body of sound. They are constructed 
too, on accurate mathematical and acoustic principles. The qual- 
ifications of a violinist we do not propose to set forth. They are 
sundry and decidedly varied, and it was A. Ward, who used to 
tell us, how he found a man, "Yes, a man, who hadn't a solitary 
tooth in his head, and yet that same man was the finest Fiddler 
I ever knew." 

But within the last half century, the Violin has been compelled 
to share its monopoly of popular favor with the Piano. At the 
present time, the latter is unquestionably the most valuable of all 
musical instruments, whether we regard it from a commercial or 
a social point of view. The commercial value of the Pianos, made 
in the United States alone, is estimated at one-fourth the value of 
the cotton crop, and in standing it is fourth in manufacturing im- 
portance, taking rank immediately after Cotton, Woolen, and 
Iron manufactures. "In all great cities of the world," Thalberg 
remarks, " There are numerous manufacturers of this instru- 
ment, employing immense numbers of workmen ; while the in- 
crease of Pianos, compared with the population, is every year 
more rapid — a circumstance which is not observed in regard to 
other musical instrument^." This is corroborated by the fact, 
that some years ago. Piano-forte music constituted only a very 
modest portion of a music-seller's stock ; whereas now, it fills 
more than three-quarters of his shelves, and makes his chief busi- 
ness. The number of teachers, too, is something wonderful ; 
many are reduced ladies, who find in this exercise of their ac- 
quirements, the most available means of support. Especially is 
this so, as regards the South, many of whose most affluent and 
accomplished ladies, by the rude devastation of war and the vicis- 
situdes of fortune, having been deprived of all else in their de- 
votion to the "Sunny Land," save their brilliant accomplish- 
ments and fortitude in misfortune. The social importance of the 
Piano is, beyond all question, far greater than that of any other 
instrument of music. 

One of the most marked changes in the habits of society, as civil- 
ization advances, is with respect to the character of its amusements. 
Formerly, nearly all such amusements were away from home and in 
public ; now, with the more educated classes of society the greater 



2lO EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANTTFACTURES. 

portion is at home, and within the family circle — music on the piano 
contributing the principal part thereof, and frequently operatic arias 
fresh from Ital)"^ are sung with much of the grace, and sometimes with 
more soul-felt fervor than by accomplished prima donnas who hold 
forth to please the listening ear of the public. In the more fashionable 
circles of cities, private concerts, musical soirees, to use the popular 
lingo, increase year by year, and in them the Piano is the principal 
feature. Many a man engaged in commercial and other active pur- 
suits, finds the chief charm of his drawing-room in the intellectual en- 
joyment afforded by the Piano. God bless our music-loving women ! 

The honor of the invention of the Piano is involved in some ob- 
scurity ; but Thalberg, who seems to have studied the subject well, 
says that more than three centuries back there were in use two kinds 
of instruments with key -boards; the Clavitherium, of a square shape, 
and the Clavecin, of nearly the same form as the present grand Piano, 
with others of kindred form, as Virginals, Spinets and Harpsichords, 
But these inventions had great difficulties to contend with, and were 
two and a half centuries in fighting their way into any considerable 
favor. For its subsequent popularity the Piano is mainly indebted to 
the composers ot music who used it as an aid in their orchestral and 
concertal pieces. This use led to the peculiar capabilities of the in- 
strument being thoroughly studied and appreciated, and the composers 
repaid the obligation to the instrument by writing for it many of the 
very finest productions in music and by practicing the execution of 
these productions to such an extent as to be able to bring them before 
the public with the greatest eclat, until it is now beyond question first 
of musical instruments, both to the profession and to the cultivated 
classes of society. The names of the most meritorious European im- 
provers of the Piano are : Broadwood, Collard and Evard. In the 
United States the principal manufacturers are Steinway & Sons, 
Chickering & Son, and Weber, New York ; Boardnmn, Gray & Co., 
Albany ; T. Gilbert & Co., Woodward & Brown, Liscom & Dearborn, 
Boston, and Wm. Knabe & Co., Baltimore. Pianos are made gener- 
ally in three forms — the grand, square and upright, but there are 
other divisions, as the bichord and semi-grand, the boudoir and cottage 
grand^ and the piccolo, a small upright Piano, not more than three 
and a half feet high. 

There are, in addition, some interesting facts concerning the busi- 
ness as conducted in Evansville, but we shall only allude to them briefly. 
From a mere liandful of Sheet Music, within a few years, this trade 



ADVERTISEMENTS.- 271 



G.W. WARREN & CO., 

(Successors to Warren & Conyugton.) 
Dealers in 





AND 





^ M 




^ W' WM WML I ^ WJL ]t ji^ ^ 



ttiiliiilii 

Corner Main and First Sis., 



® 



J8@"Orders by Mail Pronptly Attended to. 

DI TTOE'S TEMPLE OF MUS IC. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN 

PIANOSi ORGANSi SHEET MUSIG| 



^- "" -m m 

And every Description of Musical Merchandise. 

^Iso, ^iolins, §uitars, (Accordeons, (Repaired. 

204 Main Street, above Second ^ 

And Satisfaction Guaranteed. ( E^MMStii^^Oj iM®e 

THE VERY BEST VIOLINA ND GUITA R STRINGS. 
A.gents tor Mason & Hamlin and Silver Tongue Organs. 



272 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

has grown to its present extensive proportions ; and we but repeat what 
music dealers from Eastern cities have frequently acknowledged, that 
both for variety and extent the stocks of Evan«ville Dealers surpass 
those of any city of like size in the West. The citizens of Evansville, 
as a class, are a musical people, with a large predominance of music- 
loving Germans and other cultivated foreigners, hence they fully ap- 
preciate first-class Instruments, and will have none other than the 
latest improved. In consequence of this, our dealers, who are at all 
times up with the trade, wherever and whenever an Instrument of un- 
surpassed excellence makes its appearance, are not in the least back- 
ward in introducing it here. During 1874, there were no less than 
75 to 100 Piano Fortes sold in Evansville, and the trade m toto will 
reach the neighborhood of $100,000. Few people know that custom- 
ers from so great a distance as Texas often make their purchases in 
this line in the Evansville market ; yet such is the fact, while sales to 
Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas are of frequent occurrence. In 
glancing through our attractive Music Emporiums, we find not only 
rare collections of Sheet Music, adapted to all manner of Instruments, 
but extensive collections of Pianos, ^Organs, Melodeons, Violins, Flutes, 
Guitars, Banjos, Accordeons ; German Silver, Brass and Field Band 
Instruments ; Strings, Musical Goods of, in short, every variety, every- 
thing that will produce a "sweet concord of sounds," from a Reed Fife 
to the most elaborately-finished and finely-cased Rosewood Piano, and 
representing all of the most popular and celebrated manufactories in the 
United States and Europe. The two leading houses are G. W. War- 
ren & Co., corner Main and First streets, and P. J. Dittoe, No. 204 
Main street. 

GEO. W. WARREN & CO., WHOLESALE MUSIC DEALERS. 
The name of this firm has been thoroughly identified, and 
may be used almost synoymously with the progress of the Music 
Trade in this city, from its inception as a separate pursuit. Mr. 
Warren, himself, has been a musician almost from his infancy, 
his father before him was a musician of acknowledged talent, and 
therefore, he may be said to have come by his knowledge of the 
science and art of sounds as an honest heritage. He began the 
study of music at twelve years of age, and proved such a profi- 
cient, that at the age of fourteen he became the leader of the New 
Harmony, Ind., Band, which numbered seventeen members. His 
natural bent and talent in this direction, by the time he had 
reached the age of seventeen, enabled him to master almost every 



MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTEUMENTS. 273 

instrument known in this country, and this too, without profes- 
sional instruction, and having also become a composer and trans- 
scriber, he set forth in the world as a Professor of Band Music, 
About this time he needed an instrument to perfect himself in 
harmony and thorough bass, and so built alone and unaided, the 
fii'st melodeon ever constructed in Indiana. He not only made 
the cabinet framing, but tanned the leather for the bellows, fash- 
ioned the reeds, keys, etc. This Melodeon he afterwards sold to 
Judge Hall, of Princeton, and it was considered by musicians of 
experience, to have been a wonderfully perfect instrument. From 
1842, until just prior to the war, he led the New Harmony Band, 
and in 1861 organized the Fifteenth Indiana Band, which proved 
one of the best in the United States service. Since the close of 
the war, he has had the leadership of the now famous Crescent 
City Silver Band, the finest amateur organization in the State, 
and indeed, unrivaled in the West. But to no one is their celeb- 
rity more attributable than to their leader, Professor, Geo. W. 
Warren. 

In 1860 Mr. Warren commenced the Music business in this 
city, with Mr. Jno. Healey, under the firm nameofHealy & War- 
ren. In 1861, when the war broke out, he disposed of his interest 
to Mr. Healey, and went South, as before stated. November 11, 
1862, having returned, he entered into partnership with Thomas 
Conyngton, the firm name being Warren & Conyngton, and their 
business including also, the sale of Fancy Goods and Notions. 
Mr. Conyngton retired on account of bad health, in May, 1868, 
but came back again in February, 1869, and remained in the 
trade until March, 1873, when he retired for the second time since 
which period the firm has existed under its present style, but 
dealing exclusively in Musical Goods. January Ist, 1874, Mr. 
Warren moved to more eligible and spacious quarters, No. 101 
Main street, corner of First. The third story of his building he 
has recently converted into an elegant hall for select club dances, 
musical soirees, etc. On the first and second floors he carries one 
of the most extensive and elegant stocks to be found in his line 
anywhere. He is Agent for Steinway, Knabe and other Pianos 
of the best make, and has been running the Burdett, Schonenger, 
Prince and other popular organs. With regard to personal char- 
acter — an element always deserving consideration in forming an 
estimate of merchants, in whom some trust may be placed, we 
35 



274 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

have only to submit, that from his long establishment and good 
reports, based on the opinion of gentlemen who have been con- 
stant customers for years, testifying to his uniform liberality and 
fairness in dealing, in addition to the fact that he warrants every 
instrument sold by him, to give entire satisfaction, purchasers will 
not probably have occasion to fall back on their warrants. 

P. J. DITTOE'S TEMPLE OF MUSIC. 
Mr. P. J. Dittoe, proprietor of the Temple of Music, No. 204 
Main street, has had twelve years active experience in the Music busi- 
ness over his own name. He began first at Covington, Ky., remov- 
ing thence to Baltimore, Md. , and finally came to Evansville, Septem- 
ber, 1872. He had, prior to his coming to this city, been quite un- 
successful, but, we are happy to say, has not only regained a sure foot- 
ing, but has prospered well. He began business on First street, in the 
Chandler Block, but removed, during the early part of 1874, to his 
present establishment, an old and well-known music stand. He is the 
authorized agent of the celebrated Weber Piano, which is coming into 
such popularity with concert troupes everywhere, and ranges in price 
from $625 to $1,600. He, also, has the agency for the Parlor Gem 
Piano, and, also, for the splendid Organs of Mason & Hamlin, Geo. 
Woods & Co., Marshall & Wendell, and others of first-class make. 
The high favor in which the instruments he sells is regarded by distin- 
guished musical artists, is sufiicient recommendation of their valuable 
qualities. Mr. Dittoe himself presents the comparatively rare union 
of fine musical taste and musical knowledge, with enterprise, integrity 
and perseverance. He is the Leader of Dittoe's Silver Band, and also 
proprietor of Dittoe's Concert Boom and Dancing Hall. 



Jewelry, Watches, Silverware, etc. 

Art, it has been said, has two missions to fulfill ; the one to 
be useful and the other ornamental. Art, at the present day, 
however, has but one mission to fulfill ; the application of beauty 
to things intended for use. A work of simple utility without 
ornament, cannot properly be classed among works of art; and a 
work of pure ornament for the sake of ornament, is " an absurd- 
ity and against nature," as Locke says of labor for the sake of 
labor. In no department of human industry, paradoxical as it 
may seem, has the true mission of Art been so faithfully adhered 



JEWELRY, WATCHES, SILVERWARE, ETC. 275 

to, and the combination of beauty and utility so perfectly at- 
tained, as in tlie manufacture of those articles which form the 
staple stock of a modern dealer in Jewelry. In olden times, it is 
true, immense genius was wasted in constructing out of the pre- 
cious metals — monstrosities, heathen mythological chimeras, un- 
couth figures of men with leafy legs and hoofs, horses with men's 
heads, goats with wings, fishes with snakes' tails, thrones, idols, 
etc. — but now the same genius, improved by experience, is turned 
to ornamenting articles of domestic use, and practically manifest- 
ing the truth of the poet's declaration : 

" A thing of beauty is a joy forever-" 

The craft of the " cunning workman " in the precious metals dates 
far back in antiquity ; but about two hundred years ago it may be said 
to have attained the zenith of its influence and respectability. In the 
civil war of 1640, Charles I. seized upon the money and valuables de- 
posited at the Royal mint, in order to supply his own necessities ; and 
from that period the Jewelers or Goldsmiths became the depositaries 
of this kind of property and discharged the duties of bankers. Men 
departing for the wars, or to travel abroad, deposited with them their 
cash and jewels, and needy kings as well as needy subjects became sup- 
plicants for their favor. The Goldsmiths of England are yet, to a cer- 
tain extent, quasi bankers ; but in the United States Jewelers are not 
bankers, though they are the recipients of a large portion of the sur- 
plus funds of our people, especially of the fair sex. It is an astonish- 
ing thing, too, what infatuation jewelry finds in the eyes of women, 
and many of them are inspired with a foolish and extravagant passion 
to bedeck themselves in glittering treasures. From the female Fee-jee 
Islander, who wears her ring in her nose, to our most modern and ac- 
complished belle who craves'a tiara of diamonds for her dear, giddy 
little "knowledge box," the rule holds good, with exceptions, oasis- 
like, here and there. It was so in Shakespeare's time, and from his 
extensive acquaintance with women, he is entitled to some credence 
for this advice : 

" Win her with gifts, if she respect not words ; 
Dumb jewels often, in their silent kind, 
More than quick words, do move a woman's mind." — 

[Two Gentlemen ov Verona, Act III., Sc. I. 

And yet we mean no ungallantry to the sex, for Heaven knows our 
besetting sin is due and proper regard for their wishes and charity for 



276 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

all their faulty nothings. We are sustained in this point, also, by our 
same poet on the same page quoted above : 

" That man that hath a tongue, I say, is no man, 
If with his tongue he cannot win a woman." 

There are very many curious historical facts concerning 
Jewelry, that might be collated if we had time and space, but shall 
only mention a few at hand. Julius Caesar, in his youth, set the 
fashion of wearing Ear Rings, which had before that time been 
confined to females and slaves, who were chiefly distinguished in 
that manner from freemen. The custom once introduced, con- 
tinued to be general among young men of family, until the time of 
Alexander Severus, who, adhering closely to a manly simplicity of 
dress, abolished this effeminate foppery. Ear Eings have, at vari- 
ous periods, been fashionable in France, even so late as the revo- 
lution, when the wearing of golden rings was prohibited. We 
have no data concerning Bracelets and Breastpins, but Finger 
Rings are of great antiquity and were used as tokens of trust, in- 
signia of command, pledges of faith and alliance, and equally 
strange as marks of servitude. They were known among the 
ancient Persians, Hindoos and other Eastern nations ; an<l were 
used in the religious system of Zoroaster, indicative of omnipo- 
tence and power. The most ancient Ring known to be in exist- 
ence is that formerly worn by Cheops, one of the famous Kings 
of Egypt. When Pharaoh confided the charge of all Egypt to 
Joseph, he took the ring from his finger and committed it to him, 
as a symbol of command. Ahasuerus did in like manner to his 
favorite Haman, and subsequently to Mordecai, the Jew. There 
are also, many pretty romances of mythical rings. For instance, 
the story of Aladdin's Magic Ring, was the '' open sesame " in the 
gorgeous fiction from the times of old Haroun al Raschid. And 
then too, how dull and unmusical would have been the old woman 
from Bambury Cross, without 

"Rings on her iingers and bells on her toes?" 

— M. Goose's Melodirs. 

But of all modern Rings, the ne plus ultra and sine qua noti 
is the Engagement Ring. It explains itself. "Everybody takes 
it," and no young woman of proper age and discretion should be 
without it — and having said as much, we leave them to their own 
reflections. 



JEWELKY, WAT'CHES, SILVERWAKE, ETC. 277 

Gold is one of the gi-eat natural products of the American 
Continent. The mines of America, it is said, have sent into Eu- 
rope three and a half times more Gold, and twelve times more 
Silver than thoae of the Old World. Previous to the year 1847, 
the total annual product of the Gold Mines of the world was esti- 
mated at about $30,000,000. At the present time, California and 
contiguous States, supply more than twice this amount, and, in- 
cluding Australia, the whole annual product must exceed $100,- 
000,000. But Gold has occupied a dazzling conspicuousness from 
time immemorial and unrecorded. Milton speaks of " the wealth 
of Ormus and of Ind ;" and when the Queen of Sheba went to 
visit Solomon she presented him with a large sum of Gold from 
Ophir, but was surprised to find Solomon far richer than she. 

" And she said to the King: 'It was a true report that I heard in mine 
own land of thy acts and of thy wisdom. Howbeit I believed not the words, 
until I came, and mine eyes had seen it, and behold the half was not told me ; 
thy wisdom and prosperity exceedeth the fame which I heard.' " 

Jewelry derives its name from the jewels or precious stones which 
were formerly regarded as the only admissible articles of personal de- 
coration. With the extension of democratic ideas, however, the term 
has been made to include a large number of small articles in which 
gold is not always the principal material. The Diamond — the ac- 
knowledged chief of precious stones — gives its name to that class of 
Jewelry of which precious stones are the prominent feature ; while the 
other classes are distinguished as all gold Jewelry, gilt and plated Jew- 
elry, etc. Jewels are divided into two classes : G-ems, embracing Dia- 
monds, Sapphires, Pearls (which are also classified here), Emeralds, 
Rubies, the "Noble Opal," Topazes, etc., and Precious Stones, which 
embrace in their class the Amethyst, the different varieties of Agate, 
Jasper, Turquoise, Malachite, Onyx, Sardonyx, Garnet, and a number 
of other stones that generally occur under a more considerable volume 
than fine stones ever do. And still another class of Sets may be found 
in Corals, Jets, etc. In Diamonds, the good taste and talents of the 
manufacturers are displayed principally in the setting. In former 
years, Gems were mostly placed in silver settings ; but they are now 
set in gold of a fine quality, which is found to be much the most de- 
sirable. Diamonds are found in Brazil, New Grenada and other South 
American States, and those of Golconda are of world-wide fame. 
Africa, however, produces the largest Diamonds, and the recent dis- 
coveries in the African Diamond fields have developed, in a manner, 



278 EVANSVILLE : HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

almost inexhaustible supplies. Consequently large stones have depre- 
ciated greatly in value, and Gems which, three or four years since, 
readily commanded from $500 to $600 each, are now dull sale at the 
unprecedentedly low prices of from $350 to $400 each. On the other 
hand, strange as it may seem, small Diamonds have greatly enhanced 
and are now held at higher value than ever before known. The small 
stones of the Brazilian mines are whiter and purer than any known — 
but the supply here is, also, rapidly diminishing, so that dishonesty is 
reaping a rich harvest from credulity in all lands by manufacturing false 
Diamonds. These diamonds are made of a peculiar glass called strass. This 
glass has a property of refracting light in the same way as the diamond, 
and its manufacture is carried to such perfection that an ordinary observ- 
er cannot distinguish gems made of it from real diamonds. After 
a few years these diamonds tend to crystalize, so that in ten years they 
become turbid and lose all their luster. These stones, however, can 
always be distinguished by a practical lapidary by various tests, such 
as hardness and peculiarities in the cutting. Diamonds are also imi- 
tated by a system called " plockage," in which a very thin slab of dia- 
mond is cemented to some stone, such as quartz or white topaz. Other 
real stones, such as zircon and topaz, when they are colorless, or only 
slightly colored, are passed off as diamonds. It is generally supposed 
that diamonds are white, but they are of all colors. False diamonds 
are made almost entirely in Paris. Alaska and California diamonds 
are only quartz or rock quartz. 

Grold Jewelry forms a decidely large and comprehensive 
branch of the Jewelry business, embracing, in detail, a great 
variety of articles, both ornamental and useful — Finger Eings, 
Watch Eings, Clasps, Chains, Bracelets, Sleeve Buttons, Bosom 
Studs, Cuff Pins, etc., of every diversity of patterns and prices. 
The two general divisions of this class are, the All-Go\& Jewelry 
and the Cilt, or the Jewelry plated with Gold. The relaxation 
of the Puritanical and Calvanistic notions in respect to the pro- 
priety of wearing Jewelry on the person, and the increase and 
supply of the precious metals, have caused an immense augmen- 
tation in the quality of the various articles known as Gold Jew- 
elry. The cheaper varieties — adapted in style and prices to the 
million — are almost infinitessimal in number, and of such artistic 
taste and finish, as to often defy the investigations of acute ob- 
servers and knowing ones. 

For many inventions which do honor to the human race, we 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



279 



FELII DeLANIi, 




OEXIEa.TlM£- 



CLOCKS 




No. 204 MAIM ST., 



BETW. SECOND AND THIRD, 



Evansville, Ind. 

WATCHES BUPAIBJED AJVD WABBANTED, 




380 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

are indebted to the monks of the middle ages, who, in their seclu- 
sion, free from the necessity of providing for their support, em- 
ployed the time during which they were not engaged in their de- 
votions, in the practice of various arts, both useful and useless. 
Among the inventions which we owe to them are Clocks, or Time- 
keepers. The word horologium was in use, even among the 
ancients; and it might be inferred, from many expressions, that 
they possessed instruments similarto our Pocket-watches or 
Chamber-clocks. And yet some authorities point to the Saracens 
as the real inventors, and that the monks of European monasteries 
obtained the secret from the East, by means of the Crusades. 
It is, however, quite certain, that the earliest time-keepers were 
Sun-dials, Hour-glasses, or a contrivance called Clepsydra, a ves- 
sel containing water, which slowly escaped through a small 
orifice, equal quantities at equal times. In an old chronicle, it is 
related that Charlemagne received a Water-clock from Haroun 
al Raschid, in 809, A. D., which contained twelve doors in the 
dial, these opened respectively at the hour which they repre- 
sented ; they continued open until noon, when twelve automatic 
Knights issued out on horseback, paraded round the dial, and 
then returning, shut themselves in again. But we can not under- 
take to follow their history accurately, and have only made ran- 
dom mention. The celebrated Clock in the great Cathedral at 
Strasbourg, is perhaps the most wonderful Clock now in existence. 
It is a master-piece of mechanism, for, besides the hour of the 
day, it describes the motions of the planets. Watches are a much 
later invention than Clocks, although they have likewise been 
said to have been invented as early as the Fourteenth Century. It 
is known that Henry VIII., who died in 1547, and his cotempo- 
rary, Charles V., both possessed Watches. In Shakspeare's time 
they were used by private individuals. Malvolio in "Twelfth 
Night," says : 

" I frown the while, and perchance wind up my "Watch, or play with some 
rich Jewel." 

Some of these watches, it is stated, were as small as those of the 
present day, and were often of oval form. Others were as large as 
dessert plates. All of them, however, were extremely rude measurers 
of time, and quite insignificant, if exhibited alongside of the elegant 
gold-cased, stem-winding stop-watches of the present day. The most 
celebrated manufacturers of watches are those of Geneva, Switzerland, 



JEWELRY, WATCHES, SILVERWARE, ETC. 281 

but England has produced some very fine watches, particularly those 
made by Jos. Johnston, 25 Church street, Liverpool; M. J. Tobias, 
and others. Of late years, however, America is taking a bold step in 
this direction. Watches are now manufactured at the following places : 
Elgin, Illinois ; New York Watch Company, Springfield, Mass.; Spring- 
field Watch Comjiany, Springfield, Ills.; Cornell Watch Company, 
Chicago, and Howard & Co., Boston, originators of the Waltham 
Watch Company, the first organization of the kind in this country. 
The watches made by these companies are fast becoming popular, 
widely-known and excellent. In addition, there are several other 
manufactories located in various States. 

Silver-ware is another important branch of the business. Silver 
ranks next to gold in value, scarcity and the properties of malleability 
ductility, and is superior to it in hardness, lustre and beauty. Silver 
is better adapted than any other metal for Services of Plate and for 
Tableware, as it is not attacked in the slightest degree by any sub- 
stance used for food. In its polished state it excels all other metals in 
its power of reflecting light and heat. In the manufacture of the 
smaller articles of Silverware, as Spoons, Ladles, Knives, Forks, etc., 
machinery is employed. But articles hammered up by hand from the 
solid sheet as it leaves the roller, has decidedly more durability, though 
on account of the laborious process of hand labor, the workmanship is 
the chief value of Vases, Salvers, Pitchers, etc. 

Since, then, the purchase of such goods in which there is so much 
room for deception, depends as much upon the purchaser as upon the 
dealer — it is highly essential that people whose knowledge and whose 
strict integrity raise them above the pernicious vice of swindling and 
false representation — should be consulted and patronized. To such 
houses we would direct the attention of our readers as most prominent 
in the trade : G. A. Bittrolff* & Co., 122 Main street ; Felix DeLang, 
204 Main street; B. Enneking, 229 Main street; P. L. Geissler, 225 

Main street ; John W. Messick, 101 Main street; Harry Smith, 

Main street ; Gust. H. Jageraan, 218 Second street. Dealers"^; and H. 
Bruckner, 401^ Main street; Chas. H. Otto, 314 Sycamore street, and 

*Since our work has been in the hands of the printer, a new Jewelry firm 
has opened out in the city — Bitterman Bros., No. 128 Main street. The 
Messrs. Bitterman were formerly of Vincennes, and come highly recommended. 
They have an elegant and splendidly selected stock, and being aflFable and ac- 
commodating gentlemen, we welcome their presence, and predict for them a 
thriving trade. 

36 



283 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMEKCE AND MANUEACTUliES. 

F. Suess, corner of Second and Locust streets, who manufacture Jew- 
elry. 

Before leaving this subject, we may draw a moral from the 
sale of Jewelry, and the investments made in such fascinating 
and attractive goods, as it certainly evidences the prosj)erity of 
the city and its healthy commercial condition. People, as a rule, 
seldom indulge in what is set down as extravagance, when their 
cash is diminishing and "hard times" are at hand. Therefore,when 
the estimated amount of sales reaches $200,000 annually, it points 
to stability and better days. Visitors to Bvansville will find a 
deal of pleasure in examining the stocks to be seen here — and in- 
cluding everything we have mentioned, from Clocks down to 
Watch-keys. In addition, some houses display Masonic and Odd 
Fellow's Jewels, and the most beautiful specimens of Etruscan 
work, Eoman, Saracenic, Moorish and Egyptian, and the newest 
and most exquisite styles of Moss Agate Work, besides a count- 
less and indescribable collection of little articles of bijouterie 
that glitter in their natural wealth and fairly dazzle by the aid 
of scientific polish and workmanship. 

FELIX DeLANG, jeweler AND WATCHMAKER. 
The name of DeLang is one intimately associated with the 
Jewelry business in the city of Evansville for the past seventeen 
years, and several members of the DeLang family — all practical 
men at the bench, have contributed no little towards bringing the 
trade up to its present enviable standing. Mr. Felix DeLang, of 
whom we now write, was, for many years, an attache of the old 
and well-known house of Bittrolft' & DeLang. But about three 
years since he embarked on the uncertain sea of commercial life, 
for himself, and has had the satisfaction of seeing his business in- 
crease largely from year to year. On the 1st of May, 1874, he 
removed his ample stock of Jewelry, Watches, Clocks and goods 
appertaining to the trade, to his present stand, No. 204 Main 
street, where they are handsomely disjolayed and quite attractive. 
We can endorse Mr. DeLang most heartily as an enterjirising, 
liberal gentleman, worthy of confidence and an extensive patron- 
age from this and neighboring cities. 



TOYS, FANCY GOODS AND FIKE-WOKKS. 283 



Wall Paper, Window Shades, Etc 

Here is another department of trade that has, of late, grown with 
remarkable rapidity in our city, and is fast assuming proportions that 
cannot be overlooked or omitted. Indeed, almost within remembrance 
of new-comers, has it increased from mere obscure corners on the 
shelves of bookstores to large transactions, and is now carried on by 
firms, making it and kindred branches their sole business. This in- 
crease is almost a clear gain for the commerce of the city of Evansville ; 
and when we place the business in this line at fully $100,000 per annum, 
the difference in our favor will be much more readily apparent. 

The firms dealing in Paper Hangings, etc., are W. E. French & 
Co., 205 Main street; F. Hopkins & Co., 214 and 216 Upper Second 
street, and John Wymond, 317 Upper First street. All classes, quali- 
ties and designs for the interior decoration of buildings, public and pri- 
vate, are kept by them, from the finer grades of Velvet, Velvet and Gold, 
Satin-surfaced, and French Papers, elegant, costly and beautiful, ob- 
tained from the largest American, English, French and German manu- 
factories, down to the lowest-priced articles in use, and to suit all shades, 
colors, complexions and conditions. 



Toys, Fancy Goods and Fire- Works. 

There is still another branch of Wholesale Business in the city 
whose sales annually will add at least fifty thousand dollars 
more to our already extended columns. We allude to the trade 
coming under the caption of Toys, Fancy Goods and Fire- Works. 
Two or three houses engage exclusively in this business, while 
nearly all of the leading Contectioneries have more or less capital 
invested in the same. The principal Toy Store is that of A. C. 
Pushee, No. 9 Main street, while the Confectioners who deal in 
this line are A. & W. Christ, 825 Main street, Henry Hermann 
123 Main street, and Louis Kollenberg, 119 Main street' — the lat- 
ter carrying a larger stock, probably, than any of them. As a 
representative branch it is worthy of mention, and the more so 
from the fact that it attained its present standard only a short 
while since. All kinds and descriptions of articles made for 
presents, or for the amusement of children are sold, including 



284 EVANSVlLiiE: HEK OOMMllRCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Dolls, Toy-guns, Steamboats, Wagons, Wheel-barrows, and in- 
deed, a heterogeneous accumulation so indescribable and multi- 
fiirious, it would be a tedious job even calling them over, yet some 
of them in their construction evidently showing that genius of a 
high order has been called in, both for the invention and the 
manufacture. In addition, there are great varieties of Fancy 
Work Boxes, Writing Desks, Childi-en's Cabs, Willow-ware, etc. 

But the most interesting feature of this trade, is the dealings 
in Fire-works. Fire is an element which has ever possessed a 
a power of impressing the imagination with awe and grandeur, 
and Fire-works for many centuries, have been the concomitants of 
fetes, feu de joies, and public ceremonies. The idea of fire as a 
a means of giving effect to ceremonies, seems to have been bor- 
rowed, either from the heavens, whence storms of fire often flash, 
or from the example of the Almighty who, on various occasions, 
used it to inspire awe, as in the burning bush which appeared be- 
fore Moses, the pillar of fire which conducted the Israelites 
through the desert and wilderness, the tongues of fire given to 
the apostles ; and hence among the ancients formed a prominent 
feature in their religious ceremonies. The Greeks and Eomans 
believed that the Titan, Prometheus — who was rejDuted to be the 
creator of man — filched fire from heaven in a reed, and gave it 
to the new-formed race, whose life might have passed away in 
misery if left destitute of that element. Jupiter, to punish him 
for this offense, chained him to a rock, on Mount Caucasus, where 
a vulture eternally preyed on his liver. 

But the art of Pyrotechny, as an art, and the extensive use 
of Fire-works in commemoration of public events, may be said to 
date subsequently to the discovery of gunj)owder ; which added 
variety to the material producing fire and to the gorgeousness of 
its effects. The art pf making Fire-works is essentially a chemi- 
cal one. It takes advantage of the chemical affinity between 
substances — of the power of ready ignition and of the rapid and 
slow combination produced by different proportions of the ingre- 
dients, and of the production of exquisite colors by the substance 
while burning. The Chinese have, for a long period, had the re- 
putation of excelling in the art of Pyrotechny; but there is no 
evidence that they have produced any arrangement of Fire- 
works, which can not be equalled or excelled in Europe. The 
French and English have most excellent and skillful workers in 



TOYS, FANCY GOODS AND FIRE-WORKS. 285 

the art; but the Italian, whose numerous gala-days afford their 
artists constant practice, take precedence over all other European 
nations. Within comparatively a few years, the art has extended 
to the United State, where it has found a few votaries — more 
especially in New Orleans — where it was first tried, New York and 
Boston. But we have already extended our remarks beyond 
original intentions, and may dismiss the subject by saying that, 
in Evansville, may be found stocks of Fire-works embracing all 
kinds of Fire Crackers, Sky Eockets, Eoman Candles, Bengal 
Lights, Chinese Lanterns, Wheel-cases, Sun-fires, etc., in purple, 
crimson, green, yellow, blue, silver, violet and other colors. 



The foregoing departments, we believe, include all that may 
be classified as Wholesale Commercial Branches of Business, in our 
midst. We shall next pass to the consideration of Evansville as 
a Manufacturing Point. In these latter investigations the same 
difficulty, encountered before, has beset our labors — that is, to 
separate Manufactures from Commerce, and even after all our 
tribulation, the arrangement has not been thoroughly accom- 
plished ; yet we flatter ourself we can at least, present them as 
clearly as circumstances will admit. 



286 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



The Manufactures of Evansville. 



fHE patient reader who has followed us thus far, will not need 
to be informed that this division of our labors refei's only to 
Manufactures j^Toper, or Manufactures conducted exclusively as 
such. In preceding pages we have invaded a portion of the 
ground rightfully belonging here, and hence numerous branches 
hereof, such as the manufacture of Clothing, Hats, Boots and Shoes, 
Chemicals, Liquors, Confectioneries', and Pork-packing and Mill- 
ing establishments, have been detailed elsewhere. But this was 
unavoidable and therefore excusable. We have no prefatory re- 
marks to offer here relative to Evansville's advantages for Manu- 
factures, that question has been definitely and triumphantly set- 
tled. We merely point to the adjoining exhibit as proof positive 
of her brilliant achievements in this line. 

Iron and Its Manufactures. 

Foremost among the leading pursuits of the middle of the 
Nineteenth Century, are the Manufacture and Commerce of Iron. 
Everyone can call to mind important and familiar applications of 
this material, but few realize how numerous and diversified are 
its entire uses. Iron-ships, Buildings, Pavements and Eailings — 
Ii'on Bridges, Aqueducts, Cars and Statues — Machinery of a 
thousand kinds. Tools, domestic and mechanical, Hairdware, 
Stoves, G-ratings and Columns — and the noblest offspring of the 
Iron Manufacture — the Railway and Steam Engine — all involving 
the employment of millions of capital and tens of thousands of 
strong and skillful laborers — serve to show how truly is the Iron 
Manufacture the great patron of modern art and industry. For, 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 287 

by furnishing a material and indicating means of construction, it 
has developed inventions of the greatest social value, and has 
thus exceeded, in its indirect results, even the great and pervad- 
ing aggregates of enterprise and improvement which it has im- 
mediately accomplished. Think of Spinning Machines without 
Elast Furnaces, and Machine-shops — Power-Presses and modern 
Paper-Mills, with all their solidity and nicety of construction, 
but without Kolling Mills and Engine Lathes ! Analyze in the 
lump, a dozen other manufactures, and judge how far, but for 
Cupola Furnaces and Forge-hammers, they would have been now 
in being ! But such reflections would have no end, as all these 
great branches of art act reciprocally on each other. For the 
material which would answer for the Shaft in the Water-wheel 
would, of course, serve for the Spindles of the Spinning-frame ; 
he who had learned to shape the Iron into the Crank, the Pulley, 
the Gear, the Screw, and the Clutch, could of course, reproduce 
them in the Flour Mill and Printing Press, the Loom and the 
Sewing Machine. And as new wants have arisen, and new fields 
of invention and industry have presented themselves, the Iron 
manufacture has been adapted in direction and detail, to supply 
the requisite fixtures and machinery. 

Few general readers have a comprehensive idea of the entire 
process of the manufacture and application of Iron; and few, who 
are engaged in any one branch of the Iron business, have any clear 
idea of other contingent and consecutive processes in the same general 
trade. Few Iron Masters and Founders, for instance, occupy them- 
selves to any extent with the details of the Machine Shops — and from 
acquaintance, we must say that machinists generally give very little 
attention to the earlier stages of the Iron manufacture. It would, then, 
be our highest aim, if we ourself felt sufficiently posted, to present in 
popular form some account of the conversion of iron ore, of iron roll- 
ing, founding and forging, and of the manufacture of machinery — 
itself the most important division ot the whole subject. We shall 
neither be guilty of professional strictness nor of conversational care- 
lessness — being sufficiently technical, we think, for precision, but 
bringing in no strange names without a civil introduction and a suffi- 
cient explanation of their meaning. We shall take for granted that 
our readers are not insensible of the importance and magnitude of our 
subject ; and if the common custom of authorship is thereby violated 
the compliment intended, and the space saved must atone for the omis- 



288 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

sion. So, too, we cannot promise much of the history of the Iron 
Manufacture ; it has been very imperfectly recorded. 

True, one might go l)ack and attempt to follow its most prom- 
inent foot-prints from those promordial days of old Tubal-cain, the 
" instructor of every artificer in Brass and Iron," down to its 
present grand achievements. Or we might draw a stable moral 
from old Eoman mythology, and speak of Yulcan and his won- 
drous triumphs at the Forge, and find that the faith of the Eo- 
mans was, after all, a very ingenious affair, and if not strictly 
true, was, to say the least, very philosophical. Their plan ap- 
pears to have been to give a name and shrine to every specific 
moral, as well as, immoral influence, and being a kind of induc- 
tive faith ; a species of phrenological religion, which abandoning 
the theoretic unity of spirit, sought analytically to recognize and 
identify each independent manifestation of spirit. Thcrelbre, 
we find that they had their gods and goddesses of wisdom and of 
war; of eloquence, love and beauty; of commerce and agricul- 
ture; of ribald revelry, and unblemished chastity — gods of 
the sea, earth, air and under-world. But of all these Di- 
vinities, that " shaped their ends," the student of to-day, 
if he be of j)roper moral mind, can not fail to most admire the 
lame smith, Vulcan, the god of Industry — he who forged the 
thunderbolts of Jove, and is reputed to have fashioned man with 
a window in his breast, so that his thoughts might be read. For 
according to this Eoman faith, he was the conjugal partner of 
Venusj the goddess of love and beaut}^ which, if she was not 
honest to him, was no fault of the brawny-armed and horny- 
handed master of toil, but demonstrates that the ancients did not 
recognize, strictly, that ^^ none but the brave deserve the fair" — 
for with them, labor was worthy love, and honest muscle quite fit 
to mate with beauty. 

These are, however, merely speculative opinions. The Iron work- 
ers of to-day need to be reminded of some historic example more "of 
the earth, earthy ;" and to this end one might search the annals from 
the beginning of creation and find none more justly entitled to be so 
held up than Peter the Great, of Eussia — "Immortal Peter! first of 
Monarchs." It was his custom to visit the workshops and manufac- 
tories, not only to encourage them, but also to judge what other use- 
ful establishments might be formed in his dominions. But while learn- 
ing the business of the blacksmith, and employing the noblemen of his 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 289 

suite in blowing the bellows, stirring the fire, carrying coals and per- 
forming other duties of a blacksmith's assistant, he never neglected the 
grand and weighty affairs of State, but was a just, humane and kind- 
hearted father to all his people. The poet, Thomson, in speaking of 
Peter, makes the following beautiful comparison between him and those 
ancient heroes who imagined that greatness was only to be acquired by 
deeds of war, or schemes of subtle policy, and which, indeed, apply 
with great precision to our own times and country : 

"Ye shades of ancient heroes, ye who toil'd 
Thro' long successive ages to build up 
A lab'ring plan of State, behold at once 
The wonder done ! behold the matchless prince! 
Who left his native throne, where reign 'd till then 
A mighty shadow of unreal power; 
Who greatly spurn'd the slothful pomp of courts 
And roaming every land, in every port. 
His sceptre laid aside, with glorious hand 
Unwearied plying the mechanic tool. 
Gathered the seeds of trade, of useful arts, 
Of civil wisdom, and of martial skill. 
Charg'd with the stores of Europe, home he goes, 
Then cities rise amid th' illumin'd waste; 
O'er joyless deserts smiles the rural reign ; 
Far distant flood to flood is social join'd, 
Th' astonish'd Euxine hears the Baltic roar, 
Proud navies ride on seas that never foam'd 
With daring keel before. * * ♦ 

* * * * His country glows around, 
Taught by the royal hand that rous'd the whole, 
One scene of arts, of arms, of rising trade 
For what his wisdom plann'd and power enforc'd. 
More potent still his great example show'd. 

In 80 far then, as the history of Iron Manufacture is con- 
cerned, we know that Iron Ore has been converted and wrought, 
for ages, into agricultural and domestic implements, and into 
weapons of war. But not until the modern era of Steam Ma- 
chinery, and especially of the Kailroad, has it attained its pres- 
ent acknowledged pre-eminence. The statistics of the Iron Man- 
ufacture, we fear, would have little popular interest. They would 
only serve as a matter of politico-economical information, and for 
that purpose, would require a detail and accuracy of statement 
not likely to prove generally acceptable. Yet we have not evaded 
presentation of considerable historical and statistical matter in 
37 



290 EVANSVILLE: HEU COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKEB. 

the course of our paper, but do not wish to promise that these 
shall form prominent features. We shall have much to say of 
the Iron Manufacture in a business point of view, and shall intro- 
duce the reader to many scenes of life and enterprise, in which 
the interest and value of the subject in hand will be more clearly 
recognized and appreciated, but trust they will put some confi- 
dence in the same, inasmuch as the language, in a measure, is ours; 
but the opinions were gathered from practical men of life-long ex- 
perience. 

Iron is rarely found in a pure or native state. In Canaan, Con- 
necticut, Iron has been found pure, in a vein or plate two inches thick, 
and sufficiently ductile to be wrought into nails by a blacksmith. This, 
however, is a distinction enjoyed by but few other places, and should 
make the New England village the rightful "Happy Land of Canaan." 
In France and Germany there are also some few deposits of native Iron. 
Iron exists naturally as an ore — in the form of a rusty, metallic stone. 
The most common kind of ore used — the hematites — may be described, 
in common words, as iron rust solidified or concreted by water. Chem- 
ists call it hydrated oxide of iron, or red or brown oxide of iron — and, 
chemically, it is composed of iron, oxygen and water. There are a 
great many names, both popular and chemical, for different varieties 
of iron ore. But, generally, there is not much mechanical or practical 
difference in the products. Hence these names last no further than 
the blast furnace, and when the products of all these hydrates and 
hematites — primatives and oxides — reach the furnace-floor, they are 
simply and unmistakably Iron, 

The excellence or goodness of an ore is known by the strength 
and durability of the iron made from it. The purity of an ore depends 
only on the per centage of iron which it contains. The ores most 
commonly worked contain from 40 to 60 per cent, of iron — that is, it 
requires from one and two-thirds to two and one-half tons of ore to 
make one ton of pure iron. Ores are found both on the sui'face of the 
earth and in deep under-ground veins. In the first case, the deposits 
are called simply "ore beds;" in the second, they are called " veins," 
and are worked from mines. When found on the surface, iron ore is 
dug as we would dig clay or gravel, except that the iron is somewhat 
the most obstinate material for excavation. When obtained under 
ground, we say, the ore is mined. Both modes of getting out ore are 
common enough in our country. 

In the United States, the earliest iron-works (and they made iron 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 291 

in Massachusetts previous to the year 1700,) were supplied with " bog 
ore," dug in neighboring swamps. Perhaps the oldest iron mine is the 
Warick mine, near Phcenixville, Pa. This was opened a few years 
before the Revolution, and is yet worked with much success. It is 
150 feet deep, and has been mined over 16 acres of surface. 

The extent and abundance of the Iron deposits in this country 
are remarkable. We have the common reputation of existing 
Furnaces in nearly every State in the Union; while in others 
explorations or geological analogy prove the existence of vast 
bodies of Iron. The subject then, is too voluminous for us to lay 
hold of. In every State adjacent to Indiana, and anyways near 
at hand — Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois and Missouri, it ex- 
ists in.prodigal abundance. We have already referred to the lavish 
deposits that old Nature, in grandest profusion has planted in al- 
most every county of our own State, and since we can apply no 
figures to the extent of the supply of Iron now opened or in store 
for the future generations of mankind, the subject is dismissed by 
saying that, for the present, the supply is simply exhaustless. 

The great primary process — the first step in the long course 
of the Iron Manufacture — is "smelting." This is the expulsion 
of the water and oxygen of the ore — the driving off, by heat of 
the natural impurities which enclose and are mixed with the pure 
Iron. For this purpose a "Blast Furnace" comes into requisi- 
tion. The various kinds of Iron produced from the Blast Fur- 
nace are Charcoal Bloom or "Loop," Scrap Bloom, Hot-blast 
Stone Coal, Cold-blast Stone Coal, and after being taken from the 
Furnace and moulded into bars is called Pig Iron, and so on to 
Wrought Puddled. Pig Iron is then taken to the foundries, where 
the second melting is a continuation of the process of smelting, 
and by which remaining impurities are removed. Every one is 
familiar with the fact that there is a difference between Cast and 
Wrought Iron. Yet it is difficult to describe, strictly, in what the 
difference consists. It is hardly a chemical difterence. It may 
be called, perhaps, a mechanical difference in the arrangement 
of the atoms of the Iron. In Pig Iron or Cast Iron, the atoms 
are united in homogeneous masses, with no intervening bond ex- 
cept the natural cohesion of the particles themselves. In Wrought 
Iron, the atoms are disposed in distinct fibres, united each with 
the other by a cementing principle contained in the cinder of the 
Iron. Wrought Iron includes — Flat Bar Iron, Round Bar, 



292 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



Boiler, Sheet, Band, Scroll, Angle, Tee, Eailroad, Shafting and 
Wire. Cast Iron includes, Hollow-ware, Stoves and Furnaces, 
Machinery, Castings, Gratings, Fences, Statues, Architectural 
Ornaments, Girders, Bridges, Coffins, Pavements, etc., etc. 

We have now briefly narrated the history of Iron, from the period 
of its extraction from the earth in the form of ore down to its intro- 
duction to the market, and in order to illustrate the various branches 
of the pursuit as conducted in Evansville, we introduce them below. 
But before terminating this introductory, we will take occasion to say 
that one great reason for the universal employment of Iron in the 
mechanic arts, beyond its acknowledged adaptability, is its marvelous 
cheapness. The cost of Iron, as compared with other metals, may be 
realized by inspecting the following estimated figures presented for the 
benefit of the curious : 

PRICES PER POUND OF METALS IN QUANTITY. 



Crude Iron (pigs) 1^ cts. 

Wrought Iron 4| cts. 

Cast Steel 15 cts. 

Lead 6 cts. 

Spelter 6 cts. 

Zinc 7 cts. 



Copper 25 cts. 

Tin 26 cts. 

Mercury 44 cts. 

Silver $ 17 00 

Platinum 128 00 

Gold 270 00 



Rolling Mills. 

There are few places that present a more picturesque appearance 
than a large Rolling Mill, especially at night. The continual rumbling 
of long trains of massive rolls, the steady whirling of the immense fly- 
wheel, weighing an indefinite number of tons ; the intense brightness 
of the furnace fires, contrasted with the darkness above and around, 
and seeming " to burn a hole in the night" — the troups of begrimed 
and coarsely-apparelled but skillful men and boys superintending the 
operations, and the indifierence of the human salamander, clad in thick 
leather and a wire-gauze veil, presiding over the "shingling hammer," 
defying the indignant jets of liquid fire which belch from its bosom, all 
combine to render picturesque and practical what, in itself, is simply 
transferring a rough, shapeless mass of metal, into a flat, round, or 
railroad bar, a sheet of boiler iron, or a dull-red nail-plate. But if we 
were to venture a description beyond the'sobriety of dry, unvarnished de- 
tail, there be men, aye, and women, too, so uncharitable as to charge the 
writer with "gushiness" and extravagant verbal floridity, whereas the 
scene combines much of the grandeur of an ocean storm, or a ship on 
fire at sea, and is the sublimest artificial eflfect on earth, for here the 
imagination can almost picture the immeasurable dread and terror if 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTUKES. 29S 

hell itself should suddenly throw open its doors and reveal the unquench 
able fires forever raging in its realms. 

THE EVANSVILLE ROLLING MILL. 

During the year 1872, a company of gentlemen composed of 
some of our most enterprising, energetic and wealthy citizens, 
who, recognizing fully the advantages ; the numerous demands to 
be supplied, and the proximity of Iron and Coal to the city, or- 
ganized themselves into a corporate body, to be known as the 
Evansville Eolling Mill Company, Having full faith in the 
grand movement, they began their operations with a capital stock 
of $300,000. This confidence in their scheme to direct a new 
branch of business to our doors, and thereby effect the general 
good of the entire community, led to unusual activity in the com- 
pletion of their buildings, which was reached June 2, 1873, and 
the Eolling Mill was started under full headway. Immediately 
thereafter the memorable and regretful financial revulsion fell 
upon the noble enterprise just in its budding infancy, like the 
untimely frost upon the fairest flower of all the field. As a mat- 
ter of course, then, its affairs became stagnant — and business, for 
a time, arrived at that condition of listlessness sometimes called 
a " dead-lock." Dissatisfaction ensued among the stockholders 
and operations were thus greivously hampered. But we have no 
disposition to harp upon its misfortunes, or to pile up its disad- 
vantages. For ourself, we fully predict that the dawn of its use- 
fulness is rapidly approaching, and its owners will yet come to real- 
ize all, and possibly even more, than the most sanguine could have 
wished for. Therefore, with these candid admissions, by way of 
explanation, we shall only attempt a description of the Mill and 
its admirable facilities for the purposes intended. 

The Eolling Mill is situated about one mile below the city, 
the Ohio Eiver at its base, within a stone's throw of the Ingle- 
side Company's Coal Mines, and with two branch tracks running 
into its premises, from the St. Louis and Southeastern Eailroad. 
It was a happy hit that, this site was picked upon, giving admira- 
ble advantages, both in transportation and fuel charges. 

The main buildings consist of a Eolling Mill, 220x130 feet large, 
and a Muck Mill, 150x140 feet large. These buildings are very sub- 
stantially constructed. A strong framing of timber posts was first 
erected, and heavy corrugated sheet iron put on in sections and fastened 



294 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

with bolts to jack rafters made of iron. The main rafters, however, 
are of wood, supported each by two sheets and an iron chain, forming 
an enduring, substantial and fire-proof building. Both the iron and 
wood work have been tastefully painted and sanded ; for, while seek- 
ing utility as the first desideratum, the constructors have not abnegated 
ornamental appearance. 

As, in the course of manufacture, the Muck Mill is first brought 
into requisition, we shall direct our steps and note-gathering there. In 
this department the iron ore and pig iron and old rails is only made 
the preparatory material for the Rolling Mill. It is supplied with 
motive power by a splendid engine, built by Reitz & Haney, of this 
city. This engine is of 300-horse power, and has a battery of four 
boilers, double flue, 24 feet long. The fly wheel is very strong, is 12 
feet in diameter, and weighs 15 tons. This immense engine furnishes 
power for two trains of rolls, 21 inches each ; one for breaking down 
the old rails, and the other for driving the rolls and squeezers, and is 
driven by a counter shaft and two cogwheels. There are sixteen pud- 
dling furnaces, of various sizes, in this department. These furnaces 
are constructed of corrugated iron plates one inch thick, and each has 
a capacity for one and a half tons of ore on each turn, or per diem. A 
fire is built in the iron fire-box, the ore and other material is thrown 
into the furnace, and an intense stream of heat passes through the fur- 
nace to the heavy iron chimneys which are lined with a superior qual- 
ity of fire-proof brick, and regulated by a damper at the top. When 
sufliciently heated, the prepared metal is taken out of the furnace by 
the operatives, who use long iron tongs for that purpose, and then by 
means of a peculiarly constructed railroad is conveyed to the squeezers. 
From the squeezers it goes to the rolls where it is taken through a 
routine until they make a flat bar. Next it goes to the shears, where 
it is cut into proper lengths. From there it is conveyed by another 
railroad to the cooling beds, where it is rolled down into rails seven 
inches wide and one and a half inches thick. When sufficiently cooled 
it is piled up on cars and taken to the heating furnaces. This is the 
first series of processes. 

Retracing our footsteps, we again enter the Rolling Mill de- 
partment. We find here another magnificent and excellent en- 
gine, from the establishment of Messrs. Reitz & Haney, three 
hundred horse power, thirty-six inches in diameter and forty 
inches stroke. It has a battery of five double flue boilers, twenty- 
four inches in diameter and twenty-four feet long. The immense 



IKON AND ITS MANUFACTUKES. 296 

fly-wheel attached is twenty-four feet in diameter and weighs 
thirty-five and a half tons, or more than 70,000 pounds. The 
rim is fourteen inches square, with a bead. It has ten cast iron 
arms, nine by twelve inches large, and ten of wrought iron two 
inches. It is admitted on all hands as a credit to the builders, 
and is the largest piece of casting ever gotten out west of Pitts- 
burg. The immense momentum, supplied by this stupendous 
piece of machinery, runs a train of splendid 21-inch rail mills, 
three trains high. There are one pair of top and bottom rolls, 
one set of roughing and one of finishing rolls. This train is 
about 140 tons in weight, and is simply ponderous, massive, im- 
mense. The iron rails which have been brought in from the 
muck mill, pass thirteen times through these rolls. After the 
rail passes out of the last groove, it is conveyed by machinery to 
the saws, and there sawed off thirty feet in length, that being the 
length of the rails the Company manufactures. Next, the rails 
are sent to the hot bed, where they are straightened, both hot and 
cold. This hot bed is thirty feet long, and the rails remain there 
until cooled suflSciently to admit of their transportation to 
skids, where they are chipped and filed by manual labor. From 
the skids they go next to the men at the punch, where, by means 
of heavy machinery, holes are made for fish-bars, split-bars, and 
a '' slat " in the flange of the rails for the spikes. 

In this building they also have a large lathe for turning and dress- 
ing rails. In the center of the building is a massive wood-framed crane 
for elevating the rails, and which reaches over every portion of the en- 
gine, fly wheel and train of rolls. It has a capacity for raising ten 
tons. In this building, also, may be found an engine which runs the 
large saws used in cutting the rails. Also, another engine, which fur- 
nishes power for turning the lathes. They have also a railroad to con- 
vey piles from the piling-house to the heating furnace. Indeed, all 
the machinery necessary for the work that can be done by machinery, 
is so accomplished. Adjoining the Muck Mill is a building, 20x30 feet 
large, used for crushing and pulverizing the iron ore. There are two 
rollers, each of two tons weight, built by Totten & Co. , of Pittsburgh, 
and known as the Blake crusher. Immediately on the bank of the 
Ohio river, are built the water-works for the mills. They are erected 
on a strong frame tressle, coated with a composition to render it fire- 
proof. There are two tanks here, each 18 feet in diameter and S^f^^t 
high, and holding 450 barrels each. The capacity of the Mills is alDout 



296 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

80 to 100 tons ot finished railroad iron per diem, and when under full 
headway, employ not less than 300 men. 

We give it not only as our own opinion, but as that of expe- 
rienced and distinguished Iron men in this and other cities, who 
have visited and examined the concern, that as to the general 
arrangement, correct and comprehensive appointment, it is the 
best Eolling Mill extant. There are larger concerns, it is very 
true, but none approach perfection so nearly in their symmetry 
and order in this country, and perhaps none in the world. Eoll- 
ing Mills, as a general thing, start on a " five-cent" scale, adding 
a little here and a little there, but this one inaugurated its opera- 
tions with everything necessary to do a first-class business. 

The Rolling Mill Company, as before stated, is composed of 
gentlemen taken from many different trades, professions and call- 
ings. For commercial probity they stanti at the tip-top. In 
wealth they control millions. In enterprise they have exhibited 
commendable spirit. Their undertaking may be a new field of 
labor to them, and the risk somewhat hazardous, but we can, 
with a prophetic vision, see a brilliant and enriching future just 
ahead. The officers of the company are as follows : Board of 
Directors — Willard Carpenter, Esq., President, and Messrs. W.F. 
Nisbet, John A. Reitz, John Laval, S. E. Gilbert, Peter Semonin 
and John S. Hopkins. Secretary — John McDonagh. 

EngineSf Boilers and Machinery. 

Having in the preceding chapter treated of other departments 
of the Iron Trade, we come now to consider some of its final uses, 
more particularly in the manufacture of machinery and tools. In 
the construction of machinery , the peculiar and well-known qualities 
of iron have so perfectly established fitness, that in every machine 
of any pretentions to size or importance, this metal is now employed 
for the framing, as well as, for the puUies, shafting, gear-wheels and 
smaller parts. In considering the subject of Machinery, however, we 
'are embarassed by the endless and heterogeneous variety of subjects 
embraced within the term. Lyon Playfair solved the same difficulty 
for the Commissioners of the London World's Fair, by placing every- 
thing in the department of machinery that he did not see proper to 
place in his other three divisions of Raw Materials, Manufactures and 
Fine Arts. Agricultural Implements, Clocks, Guns, Philosophical 
and Surgical instruments, as well as Steam Engines and Ships, were 



IKON AND ITS MANUFACTUKES. 297 

classed under the general head of Machinery ; and if men and 
women had been on exhibition, he would, no doubt, have placed 
them in this department — and properly, for they are the most 
wonderful of all machines. All machines proper, we think, are 
susceptible of classification in two divisions : Machines for direct 
use, or prime movers, employed to develop power rather than ap- 
ply it ; and Manufacturing Machines and Tools, for converting raw 
materials into articles of utility or ornament. To enumerate all 
of these, however, would be a more difficult task. A duodecimo 
would swell into an octavo, with a quarto as a supplement. 
Never, in the history of the world, has mechanical talent com- 
manded such premiums as now. The old objections of injury to 
the working classes, and the like having been effectually exploded 
by the best of all tests — practical experience — the genius of the 
world, unrestrained, and encouraged by liberal rewards, is peering 
into the secrets of nature and mechanism, to invent new ma- 
chinery and new tools that may aid man in extending his domin- 
ion over the physical world. Enlightened reason has shown that 
the progress of our race, from the lowest and most abject, to the 
highest and most polished state, has been accompanied and 
chiefly promoted by the invention and improvement of tools and 
machinery, and that civilized man is indebted to them, not for an 
increase of power only, but for almost everything that he pos- 
sesses. Experience has demonstrated that the two great effects of 
all improvements in machinery are cheap production and in- 
creased employment. Whatever cheapens the cost diminishes 
the price; a cheap price stimulates demand; an increased de- 
mand for a manufactured article calls for the labor of an increased 
number of persons to aid in producing it. This is the general 
law, deduced from repeated experiments ; and with the way thus 
cleared, we may look forward to results still more astonishing 
than those already achieved. 

It is a fact worthy of consideration, that evefy successive im- 
provement in Machinery renders possible the introduction of 
others. Thousands of ingenious ideas are yet unrealized in prac- 
tice, for no other reason than that, in the present condition of me- 
chanical skill, the proposed machine will be too difficult to con- 
struct and keep in order ; in other words, it will be too expensive 
and complicated. But every successive improvement in the em- 
ployment of tools and materials, every new invention which 
38 



298 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

tends to facilitate and increase the inefficiency of labox', tends to 
diminish the expense, decrease, the wear and liability to derange' 
ment, and consequently to render more and more practicable, 
what are now justly considered as utterly destitute of immediate 
value. The introduction of the Steam Engine, by Watt, for example, 
has established a new era in human progress ; butthe invention of 
the Slide, Rest and Boring Machine necessarily preceded it, or it 
could not have been constructed with sufficieni accuracy, and th& 
existence of the Lathe seems to have been necessary to develop 
the latter devices. Improvement proceeds by steps, the magni- 
tude of which, in the future, it is certainly chimerical to fore- 
shadow, and the rapid progress of which, even in the immediate 
present, it is difficult to realize. 

The machines and tools which are employed, both to develop 
power and in manufacturing, are the results of the labors of the in- 
ventor, the draughtsman, and the machinist. With the first two — 
the triumphs and disappointments, the neglect and rewards of inventors, 
or the importance of draughtsmen — we have nothing to do ; our sub- 
ject leads to the work-shop where the ideas of the inventor are em- 
bodied in living realities and adapted to practical results. With their 
permission we design to spend some time with those skillful workers in 
Iron, known as Machinists. There are quite a number of those in our 
city who have the capital, facilities and inclination, to make almost 
all kinds of machinery, and these are properly general machinists. The 
majority, however, have deemed a subdivision of the general business 
most conducive to general prosperity ; some selecting as their branch 
the manufacture of particular kinds of machines, as Steam Engines, 
Stationary and Portable and Heavy Mill Work, and others confining 
their operations mainly to the production of Tools, Implements, and 
Light or Special Machinery. This subdivision is not, however, rigidly 
adhered to, and we can only properly explain the subject by practical 
illustrations. 

At this day the steam engine is regarded simply as a fact, like 
sugar and coffee, exciting neither wonder or applause, and needing 
neither energy nor elucidation. Philosophers, having exhausted them- 
selves in its praise, have long since handed the theme to school boys, 
who have worn it threadbare. It is equally futile at this day to at- 
tempt a detailed explanation of a steam engine, therefore, we skip over 
the laborious minutise and deal more in "general principles." Steam 
engine building, as a prominent pursuit in this country, we might say 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 299 



ESTjA-BIjISHEID 1847. 



CITY FOUNDRY 




WILLIAM HEILMAN, Proprietor, 



MANUFACTUREE OF 



PORTABLE and STATIONARY 

STEAM ENGINES, 



BOILERS, SAW AND GRIST MILLS, THRESHERS, HORSE 

POWERS, CORN SHELLERS, TOBACCO SCREWS, 

STAVE AND SHINGLE MACHINERY, 

COPPER AND SHEET IRON 

WORK, ETC., ETC. 

Office and Works, Corner of First and Pine Streets. 



300 EVANSVILLE : HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

in the United States, is the result of the material progress of the last 
thirty years. Thirty-five years ago, or at the beginning of the out-going 
generation, there were not more than a dozen shops in the whole coun- 
try engaged in building large, stationary engines, while portable engines 
were scarcely thought of. The machinist who was employed on such 
work was looked up to as a superior and mysterious mechanician, while 
he who had orders for two or three at one time, considered the times 
extraordinarily good, as he was provided with at least a six months' 
job. The purchase of an engine, too, in those days, required a small 
fortune ; while the mechanism, compared with the improvements of 
the present day, was ludicrously inferior. It may be set down as a 
plausible belief, possibly a fact, that the engine built last is the best ; 
for all good makers are constantly devising improvements, and it is 
the aim of all such to make, for the least amount of money, an engine 
substantial, powerful, well-finished, and one that will consume the least 
fuel. The present condition of engine building in the city of Evans- 
ville, may, however, be best considered by stating the facilities and im- 
provements employed by the best makers, and desiring to review first 
a concern with facilities for making all kinds of machinery, both heavy 
and light, we are sure of making a proper selection in choosing, as a 
first illustration, the establishment of 

WILLIAM HEILMAN— CITY FOUNDRY AND MACHINE WORKS. 
Among the many Manufacturing establishments that Evans- 
ville can boast of, there are few so important, or interesting to a 
stranger, and conducted on a scale of such magnitude as those of 
William Heilman. The Works, themselves, comprising a Foundry, 
Engine and Machine Shop, Pattern Shop, Ware-rooms and appur- 
tenances, occupy more than the half of one of our largest blocks, 
and extend from First to Second street along Pine, having three 
fronts and being three-stories high-. The extensive building is 
certainly one of the most imposing of its character, in the Western 
country, and the tasteful castings along its exterior give the con- 
cern architectural ornamentation at once striking. A graphic 
description of such a building, however, would make a good 
pamphlet alone. Entering from First street, spacious Ware-rooms 
are passed through, when the visitor next comes to the Offices and 
Cashier's departments, fitted up as elegantly as a banking estab- 
ment and presenting a handsome appearance, finished in Ash and 
Walnut. The second-story of this building is used as a storage- 
room for finished goods, and in the third is an extensive and val- 



Iron and its manufactures. soi 

liable collection of Patterns, which the house has accumulated, 
and which, although in a manner is dormant capital, yet can not 
be dispensed with, and has involved an outlay of at least $60,000. 

The adjoining department, in the rear, is the Finishing Shop, 
three-stories liigh and fronting 165 feet on Pine street. About sev- 
enty-five men are employed in this building. The Engine is of Heil- 
man's own make, is 40-hor8e power, 20-inch stroke and 12-inch 
bore. Four hundred feet of Line Shafting alone is required to 
turn the ponderous machinery, including Lathes, Planing Ma- 
chines and Boring Mills. From this department we passintothe 
Moulding Shop, one hundred feet square, supplied with two large 
Cupolas and having all the appurtenances requisite for the em- 
ployment of thirty men. Near by is the Threshing-machine 
Shop, where thirty-five men are kept at work. Horse-powers are 
set up in this department and Threshers made. Concerning the 
Superior Machines known as Heilman's Improved Pitts' Patent 
Thresher, we utter only previously known facts, when we say that 
their reputation for excellence is as wide-spread as the Ohio and 
Mississippi Valleys. The remaining departments of the concern 
fronting on Pine and Second streets, comprise complete and well- 
arranged Copper and Sheet-iron Works, and the Boiler and 
Blacksmith Shops, employing twenty-five men. Altogether Mr. 
Heilmau employs from 175 to 200 men. 

It is needless for us to add that Mr. Heilman is thus prepared to 
do all kinds of machine, engine and mill wor'f ; but we will say that 
he is especially noted for the style and ability with which he executes 
orders for all articles turned out. His Portable Steam Engines, highly 
finished, substantial and eminently desirable, already sold and now in 
use, number nearly 500 and are scattered throughout the South and 
West. The reputation of Heilman's Stationary Engines is co-extensive 
with his wide-spread name. While the other work done by him, in- 
cluding Boilers, Saw and Grist Mills, Threshers', Horse Powers, Corn 
Shellers, Tobacco Screws, Stave and Shingle Machinery, Copper and 
Sheet Iron Work, is of superior and satisfactory workmanship. His 
business began in this city in 1847, and it has been before told that he 
commenced with one small shed for a foundry, two blind horses for 
power, and a capital of scarcely $2,000. To-day the capital of the 
concern is more than a half-million of dollars, while the annual busi- 
ness is fully $350,000, giving employment the year round to his hands, 
building engines and doing general machine work when agricultural 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 



303 



JOHN A, REITZ. JOHN A. HANEY. F. J. REITZ. 



KSTABJLiISHED IN 1857. 



REIT2 & HANEY, 



GRE 





A. IS jy 



:achinb 



EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 



Office and Works, Corner Ingle and Canal Streets. 



304 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

machinery is not in demand, and vice versa. Such an establishment, 
then, is a power in the community, and productive of a world of good, 
A recent writer in the St. Louis Journal of Commerce speaks justly in 
this way of the establishment : " If there is any class more than an- 
other to which our growing cities owe their prosperity, it is to such 
men as Mr. Heilman, who, instead of speculating in city lots, stocks 
and bonds, invest their capital and devote their energies to building up 
those great manufacturing industries which so develop their resources 
and scatter broadcast so many blessings. Mr. Heilman has full faith 
in the future of Evansville, and is one of her most public-spirited, liberal 
and popular citizens." 

CRESCENT CITY FOUNDRY AND MACHINE SHOPS. 

Messers. Eeitz & Haney's Crescent City Foundry and Ma- 
chine Works, is an extensive establishment, that may be referred 
to as representative of the excellent Machine Shopsin which Ev- 
ansville abounds. The entire space occupies a full block, being 
160 feet front on [ngle street, and running back 170 feet from 
First Avenue to Fifth street — the Boiler Works, on the opposite 
side of Ingle, occupying 190x170 feet. The main building is a 
brick structure two-stories high, and is a model for appearance, 
adaptability and convenience of location. The Machine Shop 
proper, is constructed in the form of an "L," 35x115 feet in one 
wing and 35x100 feet in the other. This department is equipped 
with nine Lathes, three Planers, one Boring Mill, three Drill 
Presses, Screw Cutters and all other appliances usually found in 
first-class establishments, and necessary for a thorough and well- 
conducted business. Inasmuch as Messrs. Eeitz & Haney confine 
their operations almost exclusively to the building of heavy Sta- 
tionary Machinery and Engines the tools and appurtenances 
applied are, consequently, of the most powerful and ponderous 
description. Adjoining this department is the Engine-room, 
where a superb Engine, of their own make, furnishes momentum 
necessary to drive its arduous requirements. It is of 45-hor8e 
power, 10-inch bore and 30-inch stroke — and having been in con- 
stant use for eleven years, furnishes first-class evidence as to dura- 
bility and reliability of their own work. The Foundry depart- 
ment comes next, and is 40x70 feet large, and is supplied with 
two splendid Cupolas and all other desiderata for moulding heavy 
Castings for Railroad, Mining and Mill Machinery. Next we 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 306 

come to the Blacksmithing Shops, 50x60 feet, and running four 
Forges. 

The second floor of the establishment is devoted to the 
storage of Patterns, accumulated during the past eighteen yeare, 
forming wonderful variety and great value and utility. Their 
Yard-room is ample, and includes a halt-square, while on the op- 
posite side of Ingle street is located the Boiler Shops, requiring 
another half-square. We have previously remarked, that this 
firm pays more particular attention to " getting out " heavy work, 
than any other branch. All of the ponderous Machinery of the 
Evansville Kolling Mill was manufactured b}- them, excepting the 
Rolls. This contract included some of the largest Machinery west 
of the Alleghanies, and acknowledged by Rolling Mill men, who 
have visited the place, one of the most comjslete jobs in the 
country. They turned out, entire, both ol the immense Engines 
employed, each being 36-inch bore, 40-inch stroke, and between 
400 and 500-horse power, one of which has a Fly-wheel twenty- 
four feet in diameter, and weighing 71,000 pounds. They make 
a specialty of building Flouring Mill Machinery, and are doing 
more work of that class, than all other shops in the city combined, 
having erected some of the largest Flouring Mills in this section 
of country. They also, built the splendid Iron Curb for the Ev- 
ansville City Water Works, which is twenty feet in diameter, 
sixty-three feet deep, and made of Plate Iron one-half inch thick. 

Messrs. Reitz & Haney give employment to about 70 men, 
and have never, since the date of their founding — 1857 — stopped 
work, excepting Sabbaths and National Holidays. Mr. John A. 
Haney, of the firm, is a machinist by profession, calling and choice. 
He served regular apprenticeship in some of the best and most 
noted establishments of Cincinnati, and has had extensive expe- 
rience in putting up Sugar Mills in the Southern States. By care- 
ful and constant personal supervision of all work in the mechan- 
ical world of his concern, his judgement and ability is freely ac- 
knowledged in all quarters. Mr. F. J. Reitz has charge of the 
financial section, and by urbanity of manners and strict integrity 
in dealings, has advanced the standard of his house commensurate 
with any in the West. Mr. John A. Reitz is the senior member 
of the firm, but takes no active part in its conduct, beyond lend- 
ing his ample means and profound business experience, extending 
over a period of many years, to its affairs. He is ever foremost in 

39 



306 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

public enterprises calculated to advance the city's weal, and both 
by his money, intelligence and generosity, has helped incalcula- 
bly to build up the city of his adoption. In their business, then, 
Messi-s. Keitz & Haney rely on their well-established reputation 
for character of work done, material emploj^ed and satisfaction 
already attested wherever known. In addition, they believe that 
great advantage is given them from the nearness of the manufac- 
turing point which where instances of breakage or damage to ma" 
chinery occurs, the fault can be repaired and the machine ready 
for use in less time than would require for a trip to a more distant 
market, thereby saving cost in transportation and obviating loss 
by delaj^ and stoppage. 

MECHANICS' FOUNDRY— SCHULTZE, THUMAN & CO. 
The Mechanics' Foundry and Machine Works, corner Third 
avenue and First street, Messrs. Schultze, Thuman & Co., proprie- 
tors, is an establishment that may be referred to as eminently re- 
presentative of the excellent industrial concerns, devoted to the 
manufacture of Engines and Machinery, in which Evansville 
abounds. The firm was organized in 1865, and is composed of the 
following members, all of whom are thorough-going, practical 
mechanics : August Schultze, Charles H. Thuman, Fred. W. 
Hoppe, Alex. Jack, Ferdinand Holtz, John Thuman and Michael 
Becker. These Works are equipped with all the tools usually 
found in a first-class establishment of a similar character, and use 
an Engine of their own make, 8-inch bore by 18-inch stroke, to 
furnish motive power for the numerous heavy Drills, Planers, 
etc., with which the establishment is fitted up. The premises take 
in a quarter block, included within which are the Machine Works, 
the Moulding Eooms, Blacksmith Shop, Boiler Yard and Pattern 
Eooms. This latter building is a two-story brick, the first floor 
being used to display finished Machines, and the second filled 
with a valuable collection of Patterns. As many as forty men are 
regularly employed, and a yearly business of $80,000 is reported. 
Their products comprise all the varieties of work ordinarily 
made in Machine Shops ; but especial attention is given to the 
building of heavy Stationary Engines and Boilers, and the man- 
ufacture of all kinds of Shafting, Pulleys, Hangers, Circular Saw 
and Grist Mill Machinery. In heavy Steamboat work they en- 
joy a larger patronage than any house in the city. The Cylin- 
inders for the Florence Lee, Ada Heilman, Transit and quite a 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



307 



MECHANICS' FOUNDRY. 



8CHULTZE,THUMAN&C0, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



STEAM ENGINES 




All Kinds of Machinery, 



il 






"^asaBS' 



Si 



Corner First Street and Third Avenue, 



A^' Repairing Done at the Shortest Notice. 



308 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

number of Ohio river packets, were turned out by them. Some 
very heavy work was also done by them for the steamers Idle- 
wild, Arkansas Belle, Pat. Cleburne, Quickstep, and others that 
ply our waters. A large number of heavy Stationary Engines, 
and a vast amount of Machinery turned out at these works, may 
be seen now in use, not only among our factories, but in various 
portions of the South ; and to judge from the general approba- 
tion of their qualities, as expressed by parties who have patron- 
ized the Mechanics' Foundry, there certainly can be little short 
of perfection attained. The magnificent Upright or Beam En- 
gine now in use by the Evansville Hydraulic Press Brick Com- 
pany was built by this firm. It is 16x24 inches large or TS-horse pow- 
er, and is used to run their heavy Hydraulic Pumps. They, also, 
built the monster Engine used at the Ingleside Coal Mines, near 
the city. This Engine is 15x48 inches, or lOO-horse power, and is 
pronounced one of the most superb machines of the link motion 
pattern ever built in this section. Indeed, this firm has been for- 
tunate, not only in the selection of material, but in the fineness of 
their products, and being gentlemen of much personal popularity, 
based on integrity of dealing and dispatch in business, as well as 
superior practical workmanship, we anticipate their trade, large 
as it is, will be found annually increasing. 

C. KRATZ— SOUTHERN MACHINE WORKS. 

In 1847, two young men, who had scarcely any capital beyond 
"poverty and parts," began business in Iron manufacturing in this city. 
The one, William Heilman, a man of undoubted business capacity and 
willingness to work ; the other. Christian Kratz, an industrious and at- 
tentive mechanic. These two young men, then almost entirely un- 
known in the city, have grown even faster than the city itself, and we 
shall not undertake to give a detailed account of their success, but 
mention these convincing facts as to the manufacturing advantages and 
favorable aspect of the city of Evansville as a point of industrial pro- 
duction. 

In 1864, however, Mr. Kratz sold out his interest in the firm to 
Mr. Heilman, receiving therefor one hundred thousand dollars cash, 
and one-half of the real estate owned by the firm, amounting to sixty 
thousand dollars more. Immediately after severing this partnership, 
Mr. Kratz made preparations to start in the machine business by him- 
self, and built a small shop at the corner of Ingle and Second streets. 
For three years he devoted his attention to the manufacture of Sugar 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 309 

Cane Mills, but at the end of that time he built a large establishment, 
No. 120 Lower First street, which, out of compliment to his extensive 
Southern trade, he christened the "Southern Machine Works." The 
First street Shop is three stories high and 75x100 feet in dimensions. 
The Boiler Shop, Foundry, etc., at the corner of Second and Ingle 
streets, occupies one-fourth of a block, and is 50x200 feet large. His 
Boiler Shop is the only one in the city employing steam tools, and 
these include Punching, Cutting and Bending Machines, all of which 
are of immense value for rapid and first-class workmanship. He, also, 
employs an engine to drive the blast for the cupola furnace in his 
foundry. Indeed, Mr. Kratz evidently believes in " practicing what 
he preaches," and, therefore, applies steam wherever it is applicable in 
his own work. 

By dint of sheer industry, Mr. Kratz has been enabled to enlarge 
his business until it now amounts to more than $150,000 annually, and 
gives employment to some 50 or 60 men. His specialties are Portable 
Steam Engines, Saw Mills and Corn Shellers, and many a forest 
throughout the vast stretch of Southern territory is musical with Kratz's 
Machinery, while the amount of timber that his unsurpassed Saws have 
rendered serviceable to man can only be enumerated by millions upon 
millions of feet. Recently he has directed attention to Stationary 
Engines, and only a few days prior to our visit shipped to Texas a 
splendid Engine, 14-inch bore, 24-inch stroke, equivalent to 50-horse 
power. Mr. Kratz believes, also, in inculcating his industry and stern 
practical habits in his sons, and has, therefore, assigned each one a place 
in the establishment. Geo. Kratz is Foreman, and John W. Kratz 
and Wm. Kratz have charge ot the business office. 

But with all this said in favor of Mr. Kratz, we desire to add some- 
thing gratuitously. He is an unlettered man, rugged and stern, is thor- 
oughly honest, and yet presents one of those rare instances where indus- 
try has accumulatedand most rigid economy holds on to, without educa- 
tion. His idea of mathematics is about the same as that of Mr. Boffin — 
" two long uns is ekal to four short uns." He does not believe in adver- 
vertising, and, indeed, hardly treats with common courtesy the man 
who attempts to write him up. Intelligent manufacturers, therefore, 
can discei-n at a glance that the soil of Evansville is emminently 
adapted to successful manufacturing, and that if Mr. Kratz has thus 
succeeded, others might succeed. 

JAMES C. COATES, BOILER MAKER. 

The Boiler Works of James C. Coates are located on Third 



310 EVANSVILLE: flEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

avenue, between Water and First streets, and adjoining the prem- 
ises of Schultze, Thuman & Co.'s Mechanics' Foundry. The estab- 
ment is small, but the proprietor industrious and deserving. He 
also manufactures Lard Tanks, but most of his work is for the 
Mechanics' Foundry. His business will amount to |5,000 per 
annum. 

HENRY SEIBERT, BOILER MAKER. 

The Boiler Yard and Works of Henry Seibert. are at No. 101 
Lower Water street, an old and well-known stand for the busi- 
ness. Mr. Seibert is well prepared to execute all jobs for Steam- 
boat and Stationary Engine Boilers, and has turned out many 
jobs creditable to his reputation as a skilled and conscientious 
mechanic. His business will amount to about $6,000 per annum. 

EVANSVILLE AND CRAWFORDSVILLE R. R. MACHINE SHOPS. 

The Steam Engine may be called a civilizer, but the Locomotive 
is entitled to the dignify of an enlightener ; or, in other words, while 
the missionary, the printing press, and the steam engine have been the 
ostensible instruments chosen by Providence for extending the sway of 
civilization in the realms of barbai'ism, it seems to have been reserved 
for the Locomotive to open the eyes of the masses, professedly civilized, 
to the great fact of the brotherhood of mankind. " Mountains inter- 
posed," says Cowper, "make enemies of nations," but the Locomotive, 
by annihilating mountains — or, as some modern philosopher says, by 
"annihilating time and space," to which a wag, while referring to 
railroad disasters, adds, "and also humanity" — beats down the preju- 
dice of caste, and language and creed ; and the ii'on which it walks like 
a thing of life, pawing in the valley or clambering with startling snort 
and scream, the mountain-side, unites in bonds of interest and affec- 
tion the inhabitants of Cities, States, Capitals or Empires, Avhich they 
connect. 

The term "locomotive" signifies self-moving or power to move 
from place to place, and the Locomotive seemingly takes to itself 
Hamlet's injunction to the players, and suits the "action to the word 
and the word to the action." The first locomotive machines were au- 
tomatic imitations of animals, impelled by springs and machinery con- 
cealed within, but we shall not attempt to chronicle in the limited 
space allowed us, its successive improvements and triumphs. The first 
Locomotive Steam Engine was built by Oliver Evans, an American 
engineer, who constructed a dredging machine, and placed it within an 



IKON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 311 

old mud-scow, at some distance from the water. In order to move it 
with ease, or perhaps with a design merely to show off his skill in de- 
signing and executing novelties, he connected his engine with wheels, 
and drove over the pavements of Philadelphia by the aid of steam 
alone, but, ah! little did he dream what wonderful influence his ex- 
periment was destined to have on the "universal brotherhood." The 
first Locomotive on a railroad was invented and patented by Richard 
Trevithick, an Englishman, in 1804. His engine drew, on a railroad 
in the mining districts of South Wales, " ten tons of bar iron at a rate 
of five miles per hour, for nine miles, without stopping for fuel or 
water." And again we are lead to contrasting reflections when we 
think of the ten-wheel engines of the present day thundering steadily 
up grades of twenty-five feet per mile, with loads in coal alone of 500 
tons each, and the seven-feet drivers whirling passengers 160 miles in 
260 minutes, including stoppages. The fastest time ever proved to 
have been made by a Locomotive for any considerable distance, whether 
loaded or otherwise, is 93 miles per hour. This was done with a single en- 
gine and tender on an English railway some years since ; and the speed 
of express trains on the superior tracks of that country has fre- 
quently risen as high as seventy miles per hour. The increased 
wear and tear have been the chief objections to the more general 
adoption of such speed, and the average velocities of the express 
trains on most American roads, while in motion, is now about 
thirty -five miles an hour, but depends greatly on the smooth- 
ness of the country traversed, very many roads scarcely exceed- 
ing twenty miles per hour. The cost of a Locomotive, complete, 
varies between $6,000 and $12,000. The weight of a first-class 
Locomotive, whether for Freight or Passengers, reaches as 
high as from twenty to thirty tons, exclusive of the tender. In 
power, they are from 100 to 350 horse. The expense of repairing 
a large Locomotive, has been estimated at about $10 for each day 
of service. So that the construction, adaptation and repairs of 
Locomotives, therefore, is one of the most important departments 
in Railroad management. 

Assuming the intelligent reader to be familiar with thegeneral 
features of the Locomotive, it will be desirable, in this connection, 
to present only a few salient points, with such information con- 
cerning the present condition of the business in Evansville,' as 
seems most interesting. Let us go then, into the Locomot'ive 
Shops, and witness the varied workings from the simplest m'anip- 



312 EVANSVILLE: HER OOMMERUE AND MANUFACTURES. 

ulations or hand-workings, to the revolutions of those Planers, 
which plow off the surface of rigid Castings like earth from a 
mellow field, those massive Lathes revolving so noislessly as 
hardly to betray the existence of any motion, but working with 
a degree of skill impossible to approximate by handicraft opera- 
tions; the elegant Dividing Engines and Gear Cutters for the 
finishing of Wheels, the Slotting and Shaping Machines, and the 
almost infinite various labors of the Machine Shop, which are now 
deemed indispensable. 

The Machine Shops and Car Works of the Evansville and 
Crawfordsville Railroad Company are located in the Eastern part 
of the city, and cover a territory ol twentj'' acres. They were built 
in 1864, and with the additions since made, now rank among the 
most complete and extensive in the West. The buildings are con- 
structed in the most substantial and convenient manner possible 
for the business, and include Machine Shops 60x125 feet, Black- 
smith Shop 50x80 feet. Car Shop 150x60 feet. Paint Shop 30x120 
feet, and Brass Foundry 16x 36 feet. In addition, there is a Eound 
House with sixteen Stalls, and a building used as Store Rooms 
and Offices, two-stories high and 116x24 feet large. The Engine 
employed in the Machine Shop is 20-horse power, built by Reitz 
& Haney, Evansville, and its power is applied to the running of a 
full complement of Planers, Lathes, Drilling and Boring Machines 
and other appurtenances necessary for full equipment. These 
Shops are occupied, the greater while, in repairing their own work, 
but rebuild Engines, and build and rebuild Cars for their own use, 
and for other Companies. Their Cars — Passenger, Freight, Box, 
Stock and Coal — are esteemed among the best in the country, 
north or South, both with regard to design, materials and work- 
manship, and they possess every facility of convenience, efficiency, 
and consequent cheapening of work. 

These shops employ from 80 to 100 men constantly, exclusive of 
the men employed on trains and engines. Their annual pay roll will 
reach more that $50,000, while the value of work turned out will ex- 
ceed $200,000. J. L. White is Master Mechanic, A. C. Ancona, Fore- 
man of Machine Shop ; Jos. Stiker, Master Car Builder ; John How- 
den, Foreman of Blacksmith Shop, and Jas. Thomson, Foreman of 
Paint Shop. Taken as an entirety, the buildings and machinery are 
well adapted to the purposes of their use ; and few establishments seem 
better calculated to sustain and elevate the high character of American • 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 3J8 

Locomotive Engineering. They are the pride and glory of the city 
and State, and, employing none but intelligent and energetic mechanics 
and manufacturers, are leaving their impress upon the community and 
the age in which they live. 

Stove and Hollow- Ware Manufactories. 

It is highly probable, that in no branch of Manufactures, is 
the city of Evansville more widely and favorably known, than in 
that one heading this department ot our report. Indeed, we may 
go farther, and assert that no city of the West enjoys a more 
flattering reputation in this respect, either in the extent of busi- 
ness controlled, or the character of manufactured goods attained. 
Goods from our establishments find ready sale, not only in the 
adjacent sections, but have penetrated far into the South, limited 
only by the Gulf of Mexico, making Evansville eminent and cel- 
ebrated for the extent and number of her Foundries. Within the 
consolidated limits of the city, there are six very large Foun- 
dries, devoted exclusively to the manufacturing of Stoves and 
Castings. The capital invested in the business is heavy, and the 
annual product will run up into thousands of tons. The designs, 
in many instances, are remarkable for their elegance, and the 
establishments are not surpassed in facilities or extent, by any 
others west of the Alleghanies. The proximity and cheapness of 
the raw material and mildness of the Winters, enabling the man- 
ufacturers to continue operations, without cessation, throughout 
the year, are marked advantages; and ihe fineness of the Castings 
induces professed manufactures in other places, to obtain their 
supplies from this city. Many of the largest establishments in 
St. Louis, Memphis, Nashville and New Orleans, procure their 
stocks in this market, and the largely augmented trade, evidences 
their supreme satisfaction with Evansville goods, now rivaling in 
beauty and excellence the famous Castings, known as "Berlin 
Jewelry." Industrious and enterprising, and by happy combina- 
tions of mercantile tact with mechanical skill, our Stove Foun- 
ders have established a flourishing trade, and reached a station of 
prominence that would, indeed, be an onerous undertaking to de- 
prive them of. The varieties of Stoves turned out, we may say, 
embrace almost every conceivable description, both Heating and 
Cooking Stoves, from the old Franklin Stove ajid the Ten-plate 
Wood Stove, dowp tp the mppt modern Btylep ajid patterne, in - 
40 



314 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

eluding Gas Cooking Stoves. However, each of our manufac- 
turers have originated patterns and beautiful styles, to which they 
pay especial attention, and we are proud to know that they have 
been remarkably successful in arriving at durability, utility, 
beauty of design, excellent workmanship and decided cheapness 
of articles, thus throwing them, with great advantage, in compe- 
tition with the best markets in the world. 

In the department of Hollow Ware and Castings, as in that 
of Stoves, the Evansville establishments have few equals and cer- 
tainly no superiors in any of the Western cities, and the same 
strict attention to details and faithfulness of labor may be reiter- 
ated. The manufacture of Castings as usually conducted in 
Foundries is a very interesting mode of work, the melting being 
accomplished in " cupola furnaces," by a process somewhat similar 
to that employed in the reduction of the ore in the blast furnace. 
The metal is mingled with coke in a capacious receptacle lined 
with fire-brick, and subjected to a furious blast of air from tuyere 
pipes beneath. The height of the cupola furnace, however, rarely 
exceeds ten or twelve feet, while that of the blast furnace ap- 
proaches forty or even fifty feet, and the pressure required to 
force the air upward through the sinking mass of materials is, of 
course, proportionably less. No lime or flux is employed in the 
cupola furnace, and the temperature required is presumed to be 
considerably less than in the blast furnace, the heat required to 
melt iron being generally assumed at from 2,300° to 2,800° of 
Fahrenheit's scale, or some fifteen times hotter than boiling water, 
while the temperature in the hottest portion of the blast furnace 
is supposed to reach 5,000°. A judicious mixing of the different 
kinds of pig, so as to obtain sufficient fluidity with smoothness and 
strength, at a moderate price, is generally the highest aim of the 
thorough, practical iron founder. But the condition of the Foun- 
dry business may be better deduced in its present aspect by closer 
inspection. Therefore, we propose, as heretofore, to step at once 
into a few of the more prominent establishments and briefly sur- 
vey their gradual development and present position. 

BLEMKER, TILLMAN & CO., EXCELSIOR STOVE WORKS. 

The "Excelsior Stove Works," of which Messrs, Blemker, 
Tillman & Co., are the proprietors, is an extensive and very re- 
spectable firm, of whose eminently satisfactory oondjtiop andeuc^ 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 815 



H. E Blemker. Wm. Tillman. E. F. Oslage. M. Gorman. 

BLEMEB, milM i CO., 

EXCELSIOH STOVE WOUKS, 

WHOLESALE MANUFACTURERS OF 

Stoves, Castings, Hollow-ware, Mantels, Grates, Tin-ware, 
Sample Rooms 213 Upper Second St. 

EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 

FOUNDRY, COR. SIXTH AND CANAL STREETS. 



316 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

cessful opei'ations, it gives us much pleasure to speak. Their 
business history is an important link, and thoroughly identified 
with the rise and progress of the Stove and Foundry business in 
Bvansville, while their combined genius, enterprise and high- 
standing, has contributed to the great development of the city's 
business, and is still engaged in extending its triumphs. Their 
Manufacturing concern is at the corner ol Sixth and Canal streets, 
the premises fronting 150 ieet on Canal and 256 feet on Sixth 
street. The Foundry Building is 125x70 feet large. In addi- 
tion there are extensive Pattern Shops, and Mounting, Cleaning 
and Engine-rooms. On the premises, is also situated a spacious 
Warehouse. They employ forty men in the Foundry, and fourteen 
additional in their Tin Department, situated on the second and 
third floors of their Sales-rooms, No. 213 Upper Second street. 
They turn out, annually, about 7,000 Stoves, and transact u yearly 
business of not less than 8125.000. 

All manufacturers of Stoves have their specialties, but it 
would be a difficult task to discover an establishment turning out 
a greater variety of excellent styles than Messrs. Blemker, Till- 
man & Co. In Cooking Stoves their leading products are, the 
"Excelsior," "Stonewall," "Harp," "Armada," " Charm, "Pal- 
metto or Kentucky," and " Kentucky, Tennessee and Palmetto." 
In Hoathig Stoves, the "Sunbeam" and " Blemker's Eadiator" 
take the lead. These are admirably adapted for Store Houses, 
School Houses, Churches, Halls and Steamboats. The first of 
these is made with an "Annular Register" admitting air for 
draft, between each grate bar, and doors on the four sides for 
feeding, with perforated tin pannels, thus taking in the air all 
around, and thereby making a perfect ventilator. It shows a 
beautiful, clear fire on all sides, and is so cheerful and comforta- 
ble. These points, in combination with its recessed Crown or 
Dome, insures a perfect combustion and consumption of gases, and 
the product being thrown against the outside plates, causes a radi- 
ation of heat to all points, while the symmetry of shape and neat 
ornamental design renders it, in every particular, a desirable arti- 
cle. Their other leading brands are, " The Best," Parlor Gem," 
"Beauty." "Economy," "Comfort," " Delta," "Hero," "Monkey," 
" Winter Companion," " Prize," " Trust," " Fire King," "Pleas- 
ant," and lastly the "Laundry Stove," adopted to the wants of 
Tailors, or to the requirements of the Dining Room or Laundry. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. M7 




TH08. SCANTLIN & 

Manufacturers and Dealers in 

STOVES, MANTELS, 

Hollow-ware, Tin-ware, 



AND 



Scantlin's Evaporator 

Hos. 17 & 19 Main St., Marble Hall, 



i wummiMmW Mmm 



w^mm 

Wholesale Manufacturers of 



i STOVES, CASTIHaS, 

Hollow-ware, House Fronts, Grates, 

Tin-ware and Dealefs in Tinners' Stocl(. 



Warerooms : No. 313 main Street, Opposite the Court House. 
Foundry : Pennsylvania Street, bet. Washington and Harriet. 

EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 



318 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

They also manufacture all kinds of Stove Hollow-ware, Stove 
Trimmings, Country Hollow-ware, Mantel Grates and Fronts, 
Jamb Grates, etc. They likewise deal in a full assortment of 
Tinner's stock, viz : Tin Plate, all sizes ; Eussian Iron, (Sheet 
Iron, Boiled and Charcoal ;) Sheet Zinc; Copper Bottoms ; Sheet 
Copper; Wire, plain and coppernized ; Kivets; Block Tin ; Lead 
and Solder; Japanned Ware; Pressed Ware; French Ware: 
Enameled Ware, such as Maslin Kettles and Sauce Pans ; Shovels, 
Pokers, Tongs, Smoothing Irons ; Coffee Mills ; Miscellaneous 
Goods, which are generally used by Tinners — in fact, a full 
assortment for any Tin and Stove Merchant. 

The firm of Blemker, Tillman & Co., was organized in 1866, 
but its foundation was laid in 1863, by Mr. Blemker, who began 
the business alone. However, none of our Stove Merchants can 
boast of more enterprise than this comparatively young, but very 
popular house. And it is no small compliment to the integrity 
of a firm to find some of its customers so infatuated as to contend 
for their superiority in reliability over all other competitors, as 
some of the customers of this house do. 

SCANTLIN'S STOVE AND MANTEL FOUNDRY. 
The foundation for the present increased business conducted 
by Messrs. Thos. Scantlin & Sons, may be said to have been laid 
in 1836, that being the year wherein Mr. Scantlin established him- 
self in business in the city of Evansville. He also is entitled to 
the credit of being the first Stove Founder in the city, and has at 
all times during the intervening years, been prominently con- 
nected with, and his business forming a part of the history of 
this important branch of manufactures. During the year 1873 
the firm erected, for their purposes, a superb Manufactory at the 
head of Water street, just within the city limits. Their building 
is constructed in the form of an "L" and has 140 feet frontage by 
100 feet deep, including the Moulding Room, Mounting Room, 
Cleaning and Engine Rooms. The Foundry proper, is 65x100 
feet large, and is supplied with a Cupola Furnace of five tons 
capacity. Detached and in the rear of this, are two large and 
commodious buildings ; one used as a Carpenter and Sheet Iron 
Shop, and the other as Enameling and Marbelizing Rooms for the 
manufacture of Grates. The first apartment is where they do all 
heavy Sheet Iron work, and make their celebrated Sugar Evapo- 
rators, concerning which we speak more definitely elsewhere. 



! 



IKON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. S19 

These works give employment to fifty men, and also run an en- 
gine of 14-horse power, with all necessary machinery. They manu- 
fecture about 5,000 stoves per annum, and transact an annual business 
of $125,000. However, the manufacture of Stoves is but one of their 
specialties. In Wood Cooking Stoves they pay especial attention to 
the following well-known and highly popular designs: "Welcome," 
"Improved Clipper," "Armada," "Chart," "Alabama," "Palmetto" 
and "Montana." In Coal Heating Stoves, they turn out several supe- 
rior kinds, noted for their excellent finish, cheapness, durability and 
drafting qualities. The most prominent design is the "Torpedo" — 
then follows the "Equator," " Bed Room," "Gas Burner," "Scout," 
"Peace," "Pride" and "Ironsides." Twenty moulders are employed 
on Stoves alone. The cupola is charged with pig for that purpose, 
and alter drawing ofi* all the moulten metal necessary, scrap-iron is 
thrown in for the manufacture of Dog Irons and Hollow-ware. Their 
products of Country Hollow-ware are very light and smooth, and in- 
clude Skillets, Ovens, Stew Pots, Sugar Kettles, Jamb Grates, etc. 
In Tin Trimmings and Stove Hollow-ware, their goods are not excelled 
anywhere. We would call the attention of Builders, in particular, to 
their extensive manufacture of Building Material, including, in part, 
Plain and Enameled Mantel Grates of all styles and designs, and 
Marbleized Iron Mantels, gotten up in exquisite style and rare 
polish. This class of material, we will take occasion to remark, 
is rapidly superceding the old styles of Wood Mantels, and they 
are especially recommended to all for durability, beauty, finish, 
the power of retaining their polish, and for not being so easily 
soiled or broken as the genuine Marble. 

The members of this firm are Thos. Scantlin, Jas. M.Scantlin 
and Thos. E. Scantlin. Their down-town Office and Ware Eooms 
are at Nos. 17 and 19 Main street, in the Marble Hall Block, 
where they occupy a Store Room 144x25 feet large and three- 
stories high, and a Warehouse 80x20 feet large and three-stories 
high, the two being connected by bridgeway. 

EVANSVILLE FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION. 

Another instance of the success attendant upon the efforts of co- 
operative labor, may be pointed to in the career of the Evansville Foun- 
dry Association. Organized in 1873, and having just completed the 
first year of their existence, they have at once entered the competitive 
field and have already proven eucceseful candidates for popular atten* 



820 BVANSVILLE ; HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

tion and the bounties extended only by scrutinizing trade. The Presi- 
dent of the Association is Mr. John Begley ; Secretary, A. J. Teamer. 
Their Warerooms are at 313 Main street, but the Manufactory, a brick 
building with a Moulding Shop 100x65 feet large, and supplied with a 
cupola of four tons capacity, is located on Pennsylvania street, between 
Washington and Harriet. They employ thirty men now, but give 
satisfactory promise of an increase in their force shortly. They have 
all the facilities for Iron founding and for the manufacture of Stoves, 
Hollow-ware, Castings, House Fronts, etc. They pay special atten- 
tion to and make eight sizes of their new and elegant Wood Cooking 
Stove, the "Vanderburgh," patented and introduced by them, which 
added to other advantages, has an extra front oven, making a cheap 
and convenient plate-warmer and cake-baker. The sales of the Asso- 
ciation for the first year of the new experiment foot up to the hand- 
some sum of $15,000 or $20,000, and inasmuch as they combine prac- 
tical knowledge of the business with energy and enterprising dealing, 
we may reasonably anticipate for them a large and paying future busi- 
ness. 

SOUTHERN STOVE WORKS. 

Messrs. Browneller, Gray ville & Co. have designated their manu- 
factory the Southern Stove Works, and are the offspring of the old and 
well-known firm of Brinkmeyer & Co. They are manufacturers of 
Cooking and Heating Stoves, Grates, Hollow-ware, Castings, Tin, 
Copper and Sheet Iron Ware. Their oflice and salesroom is at No. 
214 Main street, the building being four stories high and 175x20 feet 
large. The foundry building is located in the western portion of the 
city, near the mouth of Pigeon Creek, and is a frame structure 125x200 
feet large — the moulding floor being 100x30 feet large. They have 
some forty men at work in the several departments, and enjoy a trade 
of $75,000 or $80,000 annually. In Wood Cooking Stoves their dif- 
ferent styles and sizes show some sixteen patterns — the one known ae 
the ' ' Long Branch " receiving the closest attention. They manufacture 
fifteen sizes and styles of Cooking Stoves for either wood or coal, the 
"Irondale" being the specialty in this line. In Heating Stoves they 
make forty-six different sizes and styles. In Stove Hollow-ware and 
popular Castings, as well as in the manufacture of Mantel Grates— en- 
ameled, square and projecting — they have attained a degree of perfec- 
tion that places their goods on fair ground to compete with the pro- 
ducts of any concern in the country, and yery frequently, ae we hay^ 



™ • • ^ IRON AND ITS MANUFACTUHES. S21 

reason to state, with great advantage and credit to the reputation of the 
Southern Stove Works. 

EAGLE FOUNDRY AND STOVE WORKS. 

The "Eagle Foundry and Stove Works" are especially deserving 
of notice in this connection, as being one of the most extensive and 
best known establishments of the kind in the State. This establish- 
ment is owned and operated by Messrs. John H. Roelker & Co. — the 
firm being John H. Roelker and John W. Roelker, of this city, and 
J, H. Feldwisch, of Cincinnati. The establishment is located at Nos. 
512 and 514 Main street, and occupies a half-block of valuable busi- 
ness property, 300 feet deep and 150 feet wide. An imposing 
^ron front double store-room 100x50 feet in size and four stories and a 
basement high, forms the frontage to the extensive works behind. The 
first floor of this main building is used as a sales department. The 
second story is also used as a sales room and for the storage of Stoves ; 
the third floor contains the Tin Shops and Tinners' Stock, and in the 
fourth are stored the valuable patterns for the numerous varieties of 
Stoves and Architectural Castings manufactured here. 

The works in the rear of this building give evidence, in their sys- 
tematic and convenient arrangement throughout, of the skill and ex- 
perience of their manager. The first apartment is the Finishing Shops, 
75x100 feet large. This is where they fit house work — Architectural 
Castings, etc. It is well supplied with all necessary machinery — Drills, 
Emery-wheels, Planers, Shearing Machines, etc., etc. In the course 
of our investigations we will take occasion to speak more definitely 
of this branch. The floor above this is used for Stove mounting. 
We next enter the spacious Moulding Shop, which is 150 feet 
square, supplied with a Cupola of ten tons capacity at one melt- 
ing. Adjoining is the Engiue Room, supplied with a 40-hor8e 
power Engine of Heilman's make. In this department is also 
placed a Blowing Fan, which furnishes the necessary blast of 
wind for the Cupola ; and a Screw Cutting Machine of great ser- 
vice. A Blacksmith Shop 75x50 feet, and fitted up with three 
Forges, is the next division. In the rear are the Carpenter and 
Pattern Shops, containing Cross-cut Saws, Band Saws, Table Cir- 
cular Saws, Prizes, Lathes and Planers — but which are being aug- 
mented to meet the largely increased trade. Indeed, take the 
establishment in its entirety, and we shall seldom visit one of bet- 
ter arrangement. MesBrs. E<8lker & Co., give employment to 
■ 41 c ■ ■ 



3^2 EVANSVILLl: SIR OOMMlTRCl; AJTD MANtJFACTURES. 

0161*6 than on6 hurldred men in all departments. During the Fall 
months they direct attention to the manufactiire of Heatiiig 
Stoves, and make as high as 150 per week. In the Spring Cook- 
ing Stoves are made, averaging seventy -five per week, giving an 
annual totality of more than 6,000 Stoves. They consume, an- 
nually, 1,000 tons of Pig Iron, procured from Ironton, Ohio, and 
from the newly developed Alabama Furnaces; 400 tons of Scrap 
Iron ; 25.000 bushels of Coke and 10,000 bushels of Green River 
Coal. Their annual sales in Stoves will reach $140,000, to which 
maybe added $10,000 worth of Tinner's Stock. Their products 
may be recited as various descriptions of Wood and Coal Cooking 
and Heating Stoves, Hollow-ware, Dog Irons, Tea Kettles, Jamb 
Grates, Plain Tin Ware, etc., etc. The books of the firm are the 
best evidence of the increasing popularity of their Wares. They 
ship large quantities of their Stoves into St. Louis and west Of 
that city, while the demands from Nashville, Memphis and Kew 
Orleans, show that Evansville manufacturers are not to be left 
behind in the lively race of competition. 

A. HELBLING'S NOVELTY FOTJIsDRY. 
One of the oldest, and at the same time one of the most re- 
spectable of our Iron Foundries is A. Helbling's JNovelty Works, 
corner Fifth avenue and Ohio street. This establishment was for 
a long time conducted under the firm name of Scantlin &, Hebling, 
but of late years the latter gentleman has carried on the business 
alone. His Foundry building is 75x52 feet large, has capacity for 
working twenty-five men, and when in full operation, manufac- 
tures goods to the amount of $40,000 annually. Mr. Selbling turns 
out many different patterns of Stoves, noted for their varied excel- 
lencies, but devotes the greater part of his time and attention towards 
perfecting his celebrated brand of Coal Cooking Stove " Idle- 
wild," and the no less celebrated Wood Cooking Stove '• Quick- 
step." In addition, he manufactures a very superior quality of 
Hollow-ware of all descriptions, and does an immense business in 
the line of repairing. He is an enterprising manufacturer of long 
and favorable standing, and is certainly meritorious and deserv- 
ing of much credit for the excellent workmanship of articles pro- 
duced by him. 

Architeetural Castings. 
The applications of Iron are s<5 varied and so wondefful, th&t 
We must cease to be tautologically surprised, else our readers will 



/J10N ANp 1T9 MAjiyFACTUiiBy. m 

weary of detail. And yet the tlieorists of utilitarianism need 
s^eurch no farther th^n tlie Iron Manufacture to obtain convincing 
a.rgument for their belief. Architectural Castings, another im- 
portant division of the business, therefore, comes in for a share of 
^.ttention ; and as the advantages of Iron for this purpose, con;i- 
bining, as it does, strength and durability, with cheapness and 
facility of elaborate ornamentation, become more manifest, the 
Architectural popularity of the Metal will extend. This class qI 
work is mainly done by one Foundry, which has made it a speci- 
jalty, but other establishments are engaged in it. The entire 
Architectural work done in this city, is manufactured here, andjip 
addition, the firms engaged in producing Building Castings, ar^ 
executing work for all parts of the country tributary to the city. 
They have a most complete and extensive stock of patterns and 
admirable facilities for filling orders, however difficult may be th^ 
design or configuration desired. This branch includes the man- 
ufacture of all kinds of Cast Iron Building work, such as Iron 
Fronts, Stair Cases, Columns, Grird.ers, Lintels, Door and Window 
Heads and Sills, Brackets, Vault Covers, Spout Castings, etc. The 
leading houses in this branch are, the Bvansville Foundry Associ- 
ation, 313 Main street; C. Lindenschmidt & Bro., 16 Ingle street, 
and Jno. H. Rcslker & Co., 512 Main street. Jhe annual busi- 
ness of this line is set down at $40,000. 

Iron Railing aftd Jail Work. 

Ornamental Iron Work, and especially the manufacture of Iron 
Railings, constitutes, to some extent, a distinct business, though gen- 
erally associated with Architectural Iron Works in some of its form^. 
The Iron Railings made in this city are of a very superior character, 
both as regards the construction and decorative arrangements of the 
parts; no expense being spared to obtain beautiful and tasteful designs. 
Many of the cemeteries and gardens throughout this section are adorned 
by work executed in Evansville — and were we to mention the samples, 
numerous and curious as they are, but a partial idea of our capabilities 
in this line could be set forth. 

In connection with this branch may also be classified the manufac- 
ture of many descriptions of Bank Doors, Jail Work, Prison Cella, 
Vaults and Vault Doors and Gratings. The leading house engaged ip 
IAp^ business is that of C. ILiin$len3chmidt & Bro., No. 16 Ingle street. 



324 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFAOTUKEa. 

Iron Safes and Bedsteads. 

Notwithstanding there is a direct and unmistakable Scrip- 
tural injunction against laying up for ourselves "treasures upon 
earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break 
through and steal," and moreover, notwithstanding, money is 
plainly defined as the "root of all evil," people of the present 
day are so very un-Christianlike as to keep up a vigorous pursuit 
and delving after the " root." Therefore, if they will pursue and 
will delve, in spite of warning, they may render their unsafe con- 
dition much safer on earth, at least, by investment in a Safe of 
acknowledged and amply tested merit. This being the state oi 
affairs, we may, with some degree of satisfaction, refer such per- 
sons to the Safe Manufacturers of this city. In their fire-proof 
qualities ; in their anti-damp qualities, and in their general secu- 
rity, the Fire and Burglar-proof Safes; House Safes, for Plate and 
Jewelry, and Bankers' Steel Chests, made in this city, are cer- 
tainly worthy recommendation. 

STEPHEN SCHREIBER— SAFE MANUFACTURER. 

Stephen Schreiber, manufacturer of Fire and Burglar-proof Safes, 
No. 119 Sycamore street, began his business in this city, about nine years 
ago, and notwithstanding he did so in an humble manner he is certain 
to work himself up to a popularity and liberal patronage, if one may 
judge from his industry and admirable workmanship. His Safes are 
built of the best material obtainable, and includes heavy Sheet Iron 
and Hydraulic Cement, with a lining of Steel under the locks. The 
doors are so constructed with a bead and groove fitting so closely and 
perfectly as to render them water-tight, and where other makers use 
only five inches cement filling, Schreiber puts in seven inches. He uses 
Sargent & Greenleaf s Patent Magnetic Lock, one of the simplest and 
at the same time, most reliable combination locks in existence. One 
of his Safes, weighing 5,800 pounds, was thoroughly and satisfactorily 
tested in the burning of S. Meyer & Co.'s Furniture Warerooms, during 
October, 1874. It was placed in the building on Saturday prior to 
the conflagration the following Tuesday. The floor burned through 
and the Safe fell into the cellar where five feet of water stood. When 
taken out and opened its contents were found safe and dry, having 
withstood both fire and water. This fact ought to make Schreiber's 
fortune, and we trust it will. 
GEO. F. BIRKENMAYER— IRON BEDSTEAD MANUFACTURER. 

The establishment of Geo. F. Birkenmayer, No. 512 East , 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 826 

Ohio street, is devoted to the manufacture of Iron Bedsteads and 
Iron Safes, with the former as a specialty. Mr. Birkenmayer is 
a Manufacturer of experience, and although he has only a lim- 
ited business, endeavors to build up his reputation on quality 
rather than quantity. 

Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron Ware. 

The manufacture of articles from Tin, Copper, Zinc a'nd 
Sheet Iron, is suJficiently extensive in the aggregate to be called 
a leading branch, but the subject calls for no particular remark. 
At the same time it is true, that nearly every city, town and vil- 
lage of the country, have what they call "Tin Shops," but when 
■we designate the principal houses engaged in the business in Ev- 
ansville, as both numerous and extensive^ we mean it in its most em- 
phatic sense, for it is a matter of doubt, whether any city of the 
same size in America, can eclipse us in this line. The latest Busi- 
ness Directory furnishes a list of more than twetny-five promi- 
nent Tin and Copper workers in Evansville, and these, indepen- 
dent of an host of smaller ones. By close attention to the offices 
of manufacturing, as well as by industry and enterprise, the 
houses engaged in this business, have established a flourishing 
trade and obtained a prominence that would be difficult to de- 
prive them of. Aided in the prosecution of their labors by the 
decided cheapness of and close proximity of Iron and Coal — two 
all-important constituents in their trade, together with other 
marked advantages, enables them to produce articles whose beauty 
of design, usefulness, wearing qualities, excellent workmanship 
and decided cheapness, has induced many dealers of professed 
knowledge of the trade, in many of the Southern States to order 
their supplies exclusively from this city. 

Within a few years, also, a great revolution has been effected in 
the manufacture of Culinary and Miscellaneous Tin-ware, by the in- 
troduction of machinery. By the aid of Dies, Presses, Lathes and 
other contrivances, the separate parts, or the whole, according to the 
degree of complexity of an article, are at once struck up into the re- 
quired shape, plain or with devices, as may be desired ; and the work 
of the Tinman is reduced to the simple act of soldering or uniting the 
several parts, and some establishments have been carried to such per- 
fection, from their own drawings and moldings, they can manufacture 
Tinned Hollow-ware, after the French pattern, in one entire piecq.and 



323 EVANSVILXJJ: HEB COlMMK.RUJ: ANP MANUFACTURES. 

without solder. After shaping the Sheet Iron into the required utenaid, 
it is then finished and tinned in a most effective and beautiful manner, 
leaving a surface scarcely inferior to that of Silver-plated ware. The 
superiority claimed for this ware consists in the following points : the 
framework of the utensil being of one piece, is of uniform strength 
throughout — the plating of tin is heavier and more perfect — there are 
no joints to secrete fluids and promote rust. It is cheaper, since 
the extra quality of iron used is compensated for by the rapidity with 
which perfect machinery will enable the articles to be made. It i? 
more adaptable than soldered ware, as it can be used either with or 
without heat. Every one is more or less familiar with the articles made 
in such establishments, and to catalogue them would be running out an 
almost interminable list, embracing an inconceivable array of Pans, 
Buckets, Oil Cans, Stove Trimmings, and a thousand and one kinds 
of Stamped, Japanned and Plain Tin-ware and Iron and Copper goods. 
The principal houses employed in this trade are located as 
follows: Blemker, Tillman & Co., 213 Upper Second street; 
Browneller, Grayville & Co., 214 Main street; Wm. F. Carroll, 
310 Main street ; Feldbacker & Sanders, 411 Main street ; G-eo. 
Koch, 1,012 West Pennsylvania street; Henry Koch, 411 Third 
avenue ; Charles Kreipke, 316 Upper Water street ; John B. Mes- 
ker, corner Fourth and Division streets ; Ludlow Pierson, 27 Up- 
per First street ; Philip Puder, 208 Upper Second street ; Isaac 
Eingolsky, 431 Upper Fourth street ; John H. Roelker & Co., 512 
Main street; Thos. Scantlin & Sons, 19 Main street ; William 
Schleter. 616 Fulton avenue ; August Schmitt, 418 Main street ; 
Anton Thiele, 110 Upper Third street. Messrs. Samuel Orr & Co., 
14 Sycamore street, deal in Tinner's Stock and Tools, and Messrs. 
Wm. Heilman, corner First and Pine streets; Schultze, Thuman 
& Co., corner Third avenue and First street, and Louis Wiechel, 8 
Upper Water street, are engaged in Copper-Smithing. The com- 
bined business of this line will amount to $400,000 annually. 

L. PIERSON-. TIN, COPPER AND SHEET IRON DEALER. 

Ludlow Pierson, manufacturer of Tin-ware, Plain, Japanned and 
Stamped Ware, and dealer in all kinds of Stoves, has his establish- 
ment at the corner of First and Vine streets. Mr. Pierson began this 
business in the city of Indianapolis in 1844, and his experience, now 
of thirty years duration, certainly bespeaks for him a thorough knowl- 
«dg!e of his trad^. In 18,65, Mr. Pierson located in this city, and during 



ADVERTISJSMlTNtS. 81T 



L. PIERSON, 

DEALER IN 

T O "V E 

AND MANUFACTUKER OF 

Tter (B@pp©ir andl Sfi©©t liroirii Wair®. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, 
Comei- I<^ir»st a.iid. Vine Stx*eets, 

EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 

All work promptly executed in the best manner. Orders solicitiSid. 



^9 
Manufacturer and Dealer in 



Enameled Gr2?ates, etc.. 
No. 613 Upper Seventh Street, 



328 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



that time has conducted a flourishing business with the merchants in 
this and adjoining States. He deals in a general assortment of Stoves, 
Tin -ware and House Furnishing Goods, and employs a strong force in 
his manufacturing department. He manifests his claims to a position 
among the most prominent houses in the trade, by the energy and tact 
he displays, as well as his personal popularity. 

Galvanized Iron Cornices. 

The use of Iron as a material for building purposes, though 
of quite recent introduction, may also be classed among the pro- 
gressive ideas of the present age. The facility with which Iron 
work may be adapted to anj' style of Architecture, and its supe- 
riority in strength and its comparative cheapness, have established 
its popularity ; and at the present time the preparation of it for 
this purpose, is made an almost distinct branch of business, en- 
gaging the resources of large establishments and consuming, an- 
nually, an immense amount of Iron. Great perfection has been 
attained in this kind of work, and it is coming rapidly into favor 
all over the country — north and south. Nearly every new build- 
ing in the city is graced by some beautiful design made of this 
material, and it is fast taking the place of Wood, Brick, etc. For 
Cornices, Window-hoods, and all kinds of Front Ornaments, it is 
unexcelled. The unfitness of Wood and other materials for this 
purpose, and the principal restriction hitherto to the more ex- 
tended use of Iron, being its tendency to oxydation or rust, has 
been happily mastered by mechanical ingenuity, and it is now 
coated with another metal, forming a combination impervious to 
atmospherical influences, preventative of fire, and known as 
Galvanized Iron. Evansville Manufactures in this article, as well 
as in all others of their trade, are fully able to compete with any 
market in the United States. For this new application of the 
metal, the city owes a debt of gratitude for their zealous and per- 
severing labors in this respect to John B. Mesker & Co., corner 
Fourth and Division streets. Their business in Galvanized Cor- 
nices alone will reach $60,000 per annum. 

Enameled Grates and Mantels. 

The manufacture and sale of Ornamental Grates and Man- 
tels, which as at present conducted, deserves a passing notice in 
connection with the application of Iron to building purposes. 
The Parlor Gratis firfet made in this country, were the " Liver- 



IRON AND ITS MANtTFACTURES. 329 

pool Grate," imported from England, and the "Berlin Grate," 
imported from Germany. The taste, ingenuity and success of 
Bvansville firms, however, have now effectually stopped the im- 
portation, and such articles as are needed are manufactured and 
sold here. 

A. P. BELL— ENAMELED MANTEL & GRATE MANUFACTURER. 

Nearly all of the houses engaged in the Stove and Tin-ware trade 
in the city pay more or less attention to this business, but the only ex- 
clusive establishment of the kind is that of A. P. Bell, No. 613 Upper 
Seventh street. Mr. Bell is a young man, a native of Evansville, ed- 
ucated in the business and the master of his own Shop for three years 
past. His concern is small, but this is no drawback, inasmuch as his 
workmanship is highly recommended for its many good qualities. He 
does all of the enameling and marbelizing for two or three leading 
houses, and, during the year, turns out 400 Mantels and 700 Grates. 

The modus operandi observed in this branch of manufactures is 
quite interesting, and we only wish that space would permit us to give 
an extended notice of the same. A large tank or vat of water is kept 
in the building and certain oils and chemicals thrown in to create the 
colors desired. These ingredients forming the " float" are then divided 
by the hand, and it is very simple, and yet how perfectly marble veins 
are discovered on the surface. The Mantels then, having been pre- 
viously coated with paint, forming the back-ground, are dipped in the 
tank and the variegated oils adhering bring out all of the spots and 
veins to be observed in marbling. Wherever a solid color is 
needed the marbling is wiped away, and the Mantel thus having re- 
ceived its coating, is placed in a Bake-oven and heated to 200° Fahren- 
heit, which perfects the process. Some lovely specimens of Spanish 
Brown, Tennessee Red Motley Marble, California Marble, and other 
colors are attained in great perfection. 

Lightning Hod Manufactories. 

The multiplicity of uses to which Iron is adapted, to some of 
which we have already referred, and its strength, durability and 
facility of elaboration, though suflScient to entitle it to a rank 
2iV!iong precious metals, do not comprehend all its valuable proper- 
ties ; but among the most interesting and remarkable is its power 
of affording protection to buildings from the effects of lightning. 
That entire immunity from injury by lightning, may be attained 
by the use of proper means, has long since been estabJished, but 
42 



3S0 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

there has always been considerable diversity of opinion as to 
what constitutes the best means. Lightning Eods have been a 
prolific subject of investigation and discussion among scientific 
men, as well as rival manufacturers, but we would regard the 
question as purely an experimental one, to be determined by the 
only sure test — practical experience. In this city the house of 
John B. Mesker, corner Fourth and Division streets, is engaged 
in this branch of business, and manufacture probably $5,000 
worth per annum. 

Iron Pumps. 

Archimedes is the " father of all such as " make Pumps, and 
his progeny would of themselves form a very populous and re- 
spectable community. Quite a number of firms in the city deal 
more or less in Pumps of various patterns, but the house making 
it a speciality, and manufacturing a very superior class of Gal- 
vanized Iron Pumps, is that of August Schmitt. 418 Main street. 

Edge Tools and Cutlery. 

For the manufacture of Edge and Hand Tools, there are at least 
six difierent establishments in the city, whose products form an im- 
portant division in our list of manufactures. One of these concerns is 
quite extensive, and the othei's, although small, are by no means insig- 
nificant, presenting, as they do, a fine nucleus for still more extensive 
operations in this line. To develop the full capacity of Steel in cutting 
instruments, requires not only an intimate acquaintance with the metal 
and its manipulations, derived from practical experience, but a peculiar 
and original faculty which very few men possess. But we cannot dwell 
at length on this experience and this genius, and shall close our intro- 
ductory by saying the Edge Tools made in Evansville are of good ma- 
terial, well-finished, and, we believe, in all respects fully equal to any 
made elsewhere in the United States. The combined business in this 
line will probably reach $40,000 per annum. 

J. C. & J. G. SMITH— EDGE TOOL MANUFACTORY. 

This firm has been in existence in this city twenty-three 
years. In July, 1873, they built a capacious manufactory at the 
foot of Bayles street, in the upper portion of the city. They em- 
ploy ten men and an Engine 25-horse power, built by Schultze, 
Thuman & Go. Until recently, this house manufactured Axes, 
bat have abandoned that branch, and now pay especial attention to 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 381 

their celebrated Hoes and Mill Picks. They do an annual businesH 
of $30,000, and turn out 2,400 dozen Hoes, and dress and finish 
Mill Picks for more than 300 Mills. They have Agents at Mem- 
phis, St. Louis and Louisville, and during the present year sold 
over 1,100 dozen of their Hoes to Evansville dealers alone. One 
of the members of this firm, after three years study, succeeded in 
inventing an Eye Machine, which affords invaluable service in 
their work. In manufacturing Hoes, they split the edge and in- 
sert a bar of Cast-Steel 1^ inches wide, 5-16 of an inch thick and of 
the length of the Implement. After being properly welded, plated 
and tempered — nearly all of the work being done by hand, they 
are complete and ready for sale. 

Saw Manufactories. 

Few people, even of our own citizens, are cognizant of the pres- 
ence in the city of two establishments devoted to the manufacture of 
Saws. S. Robinson, 325 Upper Fourth Street, who was for four years 
foreman in the manufactory of J. Flint & Co., Rochester, New York, 
does work on all kinds and sizes of Saws — Cross-cut, Rip, Hand and 
Wood Saws, but his principal work is on Circular Saws, from the 
smallest to those 72 inches in diameter. Fred. Lechner, 305 Bond 
street, also, manufactures Saws generally, but makes a specialty of the 
better class of Scroll Saws. 

File Manufactories. 

The manufacture of Files of various kinds in this city, is be- 
coming of some importance, and as the prejudice against Ameri- 
can Files is fast being obliterated, it will soon become one of the 
leading branches of Manufactures. These articles are now made 
in Evansville of a quality to vie with foreign goods, and it is 
hoped that the mechanics and manufacturers who use this important 
tool, will see the importance of lending their support to those en- 
gaged in producing them, in order that the trade may be fostered, 
and firmly established in our midst. The manner of manufactur- 
ing Files is a very simple but quite interesting bit of workman- 
ship. The File is first hammered from a three-cornered bar, then 
forged, and afterwards ground to a smooth surface, then placed 
on a block of lead with lime or oil to divide the teeth, and by 
means of a fine steel cutter and hammer, teeth are struck with 
wonderful regularity and accuracy. After being cut, they are 
tempered, cleaned, oiled and packed ready for sale. The File 



332 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

manufacturers in the city are Stosberg & Clements, 29 Second 
avenue, and Ed. Leyer & Son, 184 Lower Main street. 
Surgical Instrument Manufactories. 

The successful practice of scientific investigation depends, 
to no small extent, on the character of the instruments used. 
Science upon mere hypothesis partakes of empiricism, and has 
no substantial basis. Accurate experiments, determined by accu- 
rate instruments, are the only means of arriving at correct re- 
sults in physical science. Hence it is that at the present day, 
when the application of scientific principles to practices in the 
arts is deemed to be an indispensable part of the common school 
education, the manufacture of Mathematical, Philosophical and 
Surgical Instruments is regarded with great interest by all 
classes of the people; and hence the maker of these Instruments 
takes a high rank among those engaged in Mechanical pursuits. 

It is then, a matter of sincere gratulation, and an augury of 
good promise, that manufactories of Surgical and Optical Instru- 
ments have been established and duly encouraged in the city of 
Evansville. They are small, it is true, but are the nucleus around 
which larger and more extensive concerns may gather and take 
life. Philip Krug, No. 409 Upper Fourth street, represents the 
manufacture of Surgical Instruments and Fine Cutlery and Tools, 
in our city, while I. Rittenberg, Optician, No. 229 Main street, 
who, believing that '' the light of the body is the eye," seems de- 
termined that " those who have eyes to see," may see and see 
plainly. 

Sugar Cane Machinery. 

The manufacture of Sugar Cane Machinery, especially designed 
for the extreme Southern States, engages a large share of the attention 
of Messrs. Thos. Scantlin & Sons, of this city. Being proprietors of 
an extensive foundry, an account of which may be met elsewhere in 
this work, they have unrivaled facilities tor the successful prosecution 
of this increasing industrial feature, and have found it necessary to 
comport with its demands to establish a separate department. They 
manufacture and turn out complete eight difierent sizes of Scantlin's 
Patent Seamless Evaporators, each with a Pan, two Skimmers, Furnace, 
Grate and Chimney. These Evaporators, besides being fully equal to 
the best for making Molasses, are far more durable, having not a single 
drop of solder or a rivet about them. Other Evaporators have 
seams on the bottom, rivited and soldered, which often melt, and stop 



, IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 38;^ 

the farmer in the midst of his work, causing him to lose much valuable 
time. But these have no seam, and can be heated red-hot without 
causing them to leak. They are made of the best material, either 
Galvanized Iron or Copper, and are four and a half inches deep, which 
obviates all danger of boiling over. The Furnaces are the heaviest 
made, being 18 iron, with wrought-iron braces and legs, and being of 
semi-circular form require less fuel that the old-styled square ones. 
They also manufacture six sizes and patterns of their Southern Pan, 
adapted to the use of larger operators, and made for brick or stone 
arch. They are thirteen inches deep, four and a half feet wide, and 
from ten to thirty feet long. Underneath the flaring sides are troughs 
for carrying off the skimmings, which are a great benefit, and avoid 
the filth which is usually around the Pan. They are made of No. 20 
Galvanized Iron, or of very heavy copper, and are, also, free from 
solder or rivets. They claim for this class of work many superiorities, 
and from the reception it has met with, from both practical and scien- 
tific people, in almost every quarter of the South, we are of the opinion 
it has gained unstinted approval wherever introduced. In addition 
they also furnish several varieties of the Great Western and Hoosier 
Sugar Cane Mills. 

We must now bid adieu to Iron and kindred branches. In 
discharge of our self-imposed task, we may yet visit many work- 
shops, but nowhere will we find more intelligent artisans, or 
more liberal and worthy merchants and manufacturers, than we 
have found among those of this trade. This wonderful metal, 
which is man's patent of sovereignty as the lord of creation, 
seems to impart, by chemical affinity, some of its own sturdiness 
and strength, not only to the fame, but to the character and vir- 
tue of those who have made the adaptation and tlie application 
of it to useful purposes their calling in life. Wherever the pro- 
duction and manufacture of Iron are encouraged to a prosperous 
activity, there, we may be assured, schools will multiply, useful 
and practical books will find purchasers, public enterprises will 
be projected and carried forward, and far-reaching and wisely- 
planned charities will never fail for lack of open-handed contri- 
butors. 



384 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



Brass, Lead and Kindred Branches. 

The uses and applications of Brass are so numerous, that 
while its manufactures are extremely important, it is very diflS- 
cult to trace them in their details. In the production of Orna- 
mental Brass Work, and especially in that department known as 
Gas Fixtures, the Evansville Manufacturers are declared, by the 
best judges, to have no superiors anywhere. In Bell-founding 
also, a flattering degree of excellence has been attained. Al- 
though the processes observed in Bell-founding are, in many 
respects, similar to those in Iron-founding, yet, from the 
nature of the metals employed, and the main object of 
design, the features are sufficiently distinct to bring it 
within a separate class of castings. Bell-metal is formed of an 
alloy of Copper and Tin, in such proportions in the composition 
as to correspond with the size, object and therefore the tones of 
the Bell to be produced. The relative proportions generally ob- 
served for the different classes of Bells are as follows : For Chi- 
nese Grongs and Cymbals, 3^ ounces of Tin to 1 pound of Copper; 
for soft and musical toned Bells, 3 ounces of tin to 1 pound of 
Copper ; for House-bells, 4 ounces ; for large Bells, 4^ ounces, and 
for the largest Bells, 5 ounces ; but, as these proportions of the 
two metals must necessarily vary with the different degrees of 
size and tone of Bells, it is evident that they can only be deter- 
mined by judgment and skill, matured by experience. Bells, like 
all round objects, are cast in a vertical position, and the mould for 
the same is strengthened in every possible manner to withstand 
the pressure of the metal in its fused state, when flowing and set- 
tling, in a compact mass, from the runners and trough of the 
funace in which it is reduced ; and after the metal is once set the 
usual precautions are observed, by the yielding or removal of the 
core, to prevent breakage or fracture, from the shrinkage of the 
metal while cooling. The heaviest Bells are generally cast in 
pits, and when removed from the Moulds the runners are broken 
off, the loose loam removed and the seams smoothed with Chisels 
and Files. These latter operations are expedited by what is 
termed, pickling the work, or sprinkling it with diluted nitric 
acid. 

The casting of Bells in Evansville has reached as high a degree of 



ADVEETISEMENTS. 



886 



BRASS FOUNDERS AND STEAM PIPE FITTERS, 




201 Lower First Street, 



JOHN IVINSON, 



Manufacturer and Dealer in 



m)^ 



liiii 



H 



im6t 



i&iri€i§iliiil 



steam and Water Gauges, Iron Pipe and Fittings, 

Gum Hose, Packing, Belting, Crucibles, Etc. 

MODELS. PATENT AND COMPLETED MACHINERY. 



Nos, 201 and 203 Lower Water Street, 



386 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

perfection as in most of the more Northern cities, as is evidenced by the 
gratifying fact that the Bell Manufactories here have received and now 
supply orders for many descriptions of Bells from nearly all parts of 
the country. But the main attention here is chiefly devoted to finish- 
ing Castings in Brass of every kind of article that may be ordered from 
the largest to the smallest foundry products, for use in connection with 
other manufactures. These articles include Steam, Water, Liquor 
and Gas Cocks, and Gauges of all kinds ; Whistles, Check and Safety 
Valves, Brass Tubing, Eyes, Sockets and Plumbers', Coppersmiths', 
and Steam Engine Builders' Materials of great variety of styles and 
finish. Our manufacturers construct entire, or repair on order, all 
kinds of Brass work for Steam Machinery and Steam-fitting Apparatus, 
and will execute jobs on Railroad Locomotives and Steam Engines, 
never having to pass from under their own roof to do any portion of the 
job save fitting. They are also well prepared to do work applicable to 
Steamboat and Stationary Engines. Another department of the busi- 
ness carried on by our workers in Brass, is that of Steam Pipe Fitting 
and Steam Heating — while some houses pay attention to Plumbing 
and Gas Fitting. The business is flourishing and undoubtedly prog- 
nosticates great increase from year to year, and as our other manufac- 
tories multiply and enlarge. At present the combined value of work 
executed in this line in the city cannot fall short of $125,000 per annum. 

W. C. TURNOCK & CO.— BRASS FOUNDERS. 

This firm was established in 1856, under the name of John E. 
Campbell, but in 1867 came into the possession of W. C. Turnock 
& Co. The Foundry, located at 201 Lower First street, is not 
only a model for neatness and cleanly appearance, but is fitted up 
with a variety of improved machinery for rapid production, not 
ordinarily found in similar establishments. Their Engine is of 
10-horse power, and they are well supplied with all tools and ma- 
chines for carrying on Brass Work, and some of their castings 
are of the finest and rarest description. 

Steam Pipe Fitting for warming buildings, however, is the 
idolized specialty of Messrs. Turnock & Co. In a climate where 
artificial heat, for a considerable portion of each year, is requisite 
for domestic comfort and business convenience, the subject of 
warming buildings in the be^t and most economical manner, has 
necessarily engaged the attention of many of the thinking minds 
of the conntry, iand a greiat l^afriiety of ingenious contrivances 



BRASS, LEAD AND KINDRED BRANCHES. 387 

for the purpose has been presented. But we shall not attempt to 
do more than allude to the peculiar points presented by this firm 
for the apparatus made by them. They claim for their Radiators, 
a saving in fuel, and that from their Furnaces a moist and per- 
fectly natural and healthy atmosphere is obtained before the air 
reaches the rooms to be warmed, as well as other admirable 
points. They have put in quite a number of first-class jobs in 
various town of Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky — but their more 
prominent triumphs in this city, are at the residences of Anthony 
Reis, Esq., Hon. Wm. Heilman and the St. George Hotel. 

JOHN I VINSON— BRASS POUNDER. 

John Ivinsou, Nos. 201 and 203 Lower Water street, has been a 
Master Brass Founder in this city for a period of more than twenty 
years, and what his experience and fidelity to workmanship has gained 
for him is amply attested in the many specimens of his work to be met 
with everywhere. He employs ten men, and runs an engine of 6-horse 
power, and has every facility necessary to finish up and complete the 
products of his Foundry, He is a general manufacturer of Brass Goods, 
and moulds and finishes more than one hundred different articles in 
this line, including Cocks, Faucets, Globe Valves, Hose Nozzles, Oil 
Globes and Cups, Pipe Fittings, Steam and Water Gauges, and, in 
truth, almost every description of Brass Work for Railroad, Steamboat 
and Engine Builders, and Gas and Steam Pipe Fitters, Distillers, 
Water-works, Fire Departments, Rolling Mills, etc. He also makes 
Models of Plain or Complicated Machinery for Patentees. 

Mr. Ivinson, also, pays much attention to mixing Anti-Friction or 
Babbit Metals, so indispensable for railroad and other heavy and fast- 
running machinery. These alloys are carefully compounded from the 
diflferent metals, semi-metals, minerals and chemicals of which they 
are composed, and branded according to the uses for which they are 
intended. 

Steam, Gas and Water Fixtures. 

We have previously referred to the excellence of the work 
done by the Gas Fitters of Evansville; but as we were undecided 
as to the justness of their claims for classification among Manu- 
factures strictly speaking, we have deferred .remarks concerning 
their peculiarfacilities. until the present chapter. We may also 
state, in this connection, that Evansville is becoming the chief 
Beat of purchase for Fittingg for Gas, Steam and Water Pipes, for 
43 



338 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

the large section of country tributary to us. The eminence that 
has been attained in this branch is, no doubt, due largely to three 
circumstances . first, the firms engaged in the business here, are 
not only practical, but skillful workmen ; secondly, the advan- 
tages for executing castings economically, because of the cheap- 
ness and abundance of fuel and raw materials ; and, thirdly, be- 
cause there are establishments in this city better provided with 
patterns, tools, etc., especially adapted for the several appara- 
tuses, than in any other city near to hand. This business en- 
grosses the attention of two houses prominently engaged in the 
pursuit, viz: Konald Fisher, 26 Main street, and Alex. Craw- 
ford, 314 Upper First street. These houses are not only en- 
gaged in Fitting all kinds of Pipe apparatuses, but in addition, 
keep large stocks of Cast and Wrought Iron Pipes for Water, Gas 
and Steam, Gas Meters, Photometers, Minute Clocks, Pressure 
Registers, Indicators, Guages, Steam Cocks and Fittings of every 
description to suit. They also deal in Sheet Lead, Lead Pipe, 
Force Pumps, Cistern and Well Pumps, Ale Pumps, Artesian 
Pumps, Water Closets, Baths, Hydrants, Beer Cocks, Shampooing 
and Basin Cocks, Hose, Hot- water Boilers, Nozzles, Couplings, etc., 
besides Gas Chandeliers, Brackets, Burners, Globes, etc. In truth, 
the business is one of such multifarious variety that simple enumera- 
tion must suffice in place of lengthy detail. We conclude, therefore, 
by asserting that in the houses of Evansville can, at all times, be found 
everything needed by Gas Fitters, Steam Fitters or Plumbers for con- 
ducting their avocations ; and that builders and consumers can obtain 
everything here necessary for comfort, convenience or elegance, at 
prices marvelously low. 

RONALD FISHER, DEALER IN GAS FIXTURES. 

Konald Fisher, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Gas Fixtures 
and Goods applicable to that trade, may be found .at No. 18 Main 
street. In 1852 Mr. Fisher first established himself in business 
in Evansville, and his integrity and enterprise as a merchant is 
too well known for supererogating compliment at our hands. His 
establishment may be called headquarters for the business in this 
city and section, and at all times includes a heavy and varied 
stock — too varied, indeed, for us. to venture on a full description. 
Here may be seen, the celebrated Cafet Iron Gas and Water Fijjes, 
from the celebrated manufactory of Morris Tasker & Co., Philadel- 



BRASS, LEAD AND KINDRED BRANCHES. . 339 

phia ; Gas and Coal Oil Lamp Fixtures ; Chandeliers, in great 
variety of styles — Plain and Ornate, Bronze and Verd-antique, 
with almost any number of Burners. Also Gas Portables, or 
"Drop Lights," with different designs of statuettes; Lamp Shades 
of different colors and kinds. Paper, Mica, Porcelain, Tin and 
Glass. Likewise, may be seen an almost endless variety of 
Globes — Colored and Plain Glass, and especially superb imported 
Opal, which shed a rich and mellow light, illuminating the entire 
Globe, without exposing the garish glare of the jet. We also ob- 
served a fine line of Stock Chandeliers, Brackets, Table Lamps, 
Street Lamps, etc. Mr. Fisher also carries a large stock of Ke- 
flectors, for Show Windows, made of Corrugated Glass and Silver- 
plated, which have a beautiful surface, and always retain their bril- 
liancy despite the corrosions of time and dirt. These are in sundry 
shapes — square, oval and rounded, and with four, six and eight 
lights. 

In this connection we may say that Mr. Fisher has executed the 
Gas Fitting for very many of the more prominent and lately con- 
structed public and private edifices in the city. The elegant Chande- 
lier in the ladies' parlor of the St. George Hotel is from his establish- 
ment. It is a very elegant piece of workmanship, being a succession 
of urns, made from the finest cut glass — pipes, globes and all — and re- 
sembles the brightest and most brilliantly burnished silver. It has six 
lights, with globes of frosted and cut glass in flower designs, and be- 
neath are placed pendants of the rai-est prismatic glass. In addition 
the new Merchants National Bank, the Trinity Catholic Church, and 
the Odd Fellows' Temple, each bear evidence of his skill and taste in 
the business. The Chandeliers in the Lodge Rooms of the Odd Fel- 
lows' Temple cost $2,000, and are undoubtedly the most elegant and 
appropriate Gas Fixtures of that character in the West. The larger 
one contains three galleries of lights, making thirty jets, and the smaller 
one has eighteen jets. They are made of bronze, and jet and are splen- 
didly put together. Indeed, he is literally and truthfully shedding 
light both at home and abroad. '^Sit Lux!'' 
Sharpe Shot Works. 

Evansville can lay claim to an industrial feature of very consid- 
erable prominence unknown to any other city of the country, and one, 
too, which is destined to still further extend our triumphs as a leading 
. manufacturing center. The establishment to which we refer is the 
Works of the Sharpe Shot Company, corner of Harriet and Virginia 



1*6 EVANSVILLE: her OOMlVtERCE AND MANtJf'ACTtJRES. 

streets. We say that this is a distinctive branch peculiar to Evans- 
ville, from the fact that the process of manufacture is one secured by 
letters patent, owned and controlled by this Company, and differs 
widely from the ordinary Tower mode of production. We recently 
made personal visit to the establishment ; and while we design a popu- 
lar description of its manner of conduct, abandoning rigid technicalities, 
we will state in the outset, that of all our manufactories, this one is 
decidedly among the most systematic and best adapted to its purpose. 

The premises include property 175x122 feet large, and the Works 
have been erected solely for its present uses. The first operation ob- 
served in the manufacture of Shot is that of melting. For this a Melt- 
ing Room is provided. It is built with a furnace over which is placed 
a large melting kettle into which the Pig Lead is emptied and reduced 
to a flux. The molten Lead is then run off* into moulds built on a 
miniature railroad, and made into slabs 32 inches long, 5f inches wide 
and weighing 35 pounds — that being the most convenient size for proper 
and rapid handling. The slabs are next taken to the main building 
where the next process is that of Rolling. For this purpose we find 
two large machines of solid iron, each weighing 1,600 pounds, and be- 
ing a species of Rolling Mill, patented by and peculiar to this estab- 
lishment. These machines are of corresponding size, and interchange- 
able, that is, both are provided with solid rolls for flattening bars to 
the proper thickness, and each has an indented roller with steel blades 
which plow a series of grooves or furrows lengthwise the bar of Lead, 
there being separate rollers and cutters for each size of Shot. Next in 
order are the Steam Shears by which the Lead is lopped off in bars of 
the same length and thence passed back to the cutters where, by re- 
versible cutting, the pellets are divided in squares and disjointed. 

From the Cutters the next step is to the Rounding Machines, 
and these perform the chief office on which the Company's pa- 
tent is based. There is a series of these machines, six in number, 
built on strong framing, bedded in heavy timber and bolted 
securely to a very substantial foundation. Each machine con- 
sists of a series of eight or ten small steel-plated boxes, worked 
on a flange crank, and producing reciprocal motion. The crude 
Shot are placed within these boxes, each machine having capacity 
for seventy pounds, and then by rapid action, thrown up and 
down at the rate of 150 revolutions per minute, and by constant 
concussion and abrasion the pellets of Lead are properly rounded. 
This machinery is quite ponderous, and requires the momentum of 



ADVERTISKMENTB. 841 



SHARPESHOTCO., 



Corner Harriet and Virginia Sts., 



EV^I^SVILLE, IND. 



C. p. BACON, Prcst. H. C. WARREN, Treas. 

WM. S. FORD. Sec. and Gen'l Manager. 



Shot Compressed and Hammered from Pure 

Lead, will carry 5 to 10 yards further 

than any other. 



342 BVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

an Engine of 25-hor8e power, and when under full headway, the 
rattle and whirr is quite sonorous and deafening. 

After going through this operation, theShot are nextemptied 
into a vat and carried by an elevator to the third story, where they 
are thrown into a Scourer, which effects thorough cleansing. 
Prom the Scourer they go through sieves, each falling into its own 
compartment. By their own gravity they are then carried to the 
head of a table which they run down, the imperfect Shot falling 
into crevices and only perfect Shot emerging at the other end of 
the table. They are next thrown into a Cylindrical Polisher, 
where, by means of constant revolution, aided by a spoonful of 
plumbago, they are polished brightly and perfectly. After being 
polished, they are next dropped into a Eeservoir, divided into 
compartments suiting different sizes, from the bottom of which 
they are drawn through a faucet into the scales and by means of 
a valve bagged, and are ready for market or for storage in 
closets built expressly for that purpose. 

The Company also manufactures Bar Lead, and use the same 
Rolling Mills as for Shot, The Slabs, however, are only cut one 
way, and are put up in twenty-five pound bags, each bag contain- 
ing seventy -five bars of one-third pound each, and of wonderfully 
accurate weight. 

The process of manufacture observed by the Sharpe Shot Company 
is the result of the inventive genius of an Austrian, named Kcehler; 
but improvements and remodeled machinery have been since added. 
The Company proper was organized September 1st, 1873, the patents 
having been purchased of Mrs. Emily Sharpe and Edgar Sharpe, at 
that time owners of the right. It is now a regular Stock Company 
officered" as follows: C. P. Bacon, President; H. C. Warren, Treas- 
urer, and Wm. S. Ford, Secretary and General Manager. Wm. Teamer, 
Sr. , is the Superintendent of the Works, and to him is credit due for 
some of the most important improvements in the machinery. The 
number of employes is about twelve. About 7,000 pounds of finished 
work are turned out per diem, but the capacity is much greater. 
Twenty-four sizes of Shot are made, ranging from the largest Buck to 
smallest Bird. The products of this concern have entered into full 
competition with Tower Shot throughout the West and Southwest, and 
it only requires time to develop into a magnificent business. In this 
mode of manufacture — which we have described — many advantages 
are claimed over the products of Shot Towers. For instance, the cost 



I 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 348 



RONALD FISHER, 



DEALER IN 






Plumbing and Gas Fitting. 

No. 18 MiAIlV STREET, 

S. SCHREIBEKS 

FIRE AND FURGLAR PROOF 

mMwm 1" ^ © ^ @ m '^^ 

No. 119 SYCAMORE STREET. 
EVA.1VSVILLE, I1VI3IAIVA. 



' New Combination Locks attached to Old Safes, Manufacturer of all 
kinds of Brewery Work. Iron and Copper Brands of all descriptions. All 
kinds of Safes and Locks promptly repaired. 



344 BVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

of production, equipment of Works and general expenses are by no 
means as great as in making Tower Shot, and these latter depending 
in a great measure upon chemical process or action, in the course of 
which the flux is frequently rendered valuless, either by inatten- 
tion or inexperience of the workmen, necessarily increases cost, 
and places them at great disadvantage. The points of advantage 
claimed by the Sharp ShoteCo., is purity, density, precision and 
penetration ; and they invite the most severe tests by sportsmen 
upon the same. In addition, they assert thata trial will showthat 
f ounce charge will target as many as one ounce Tower shot, same 
distance and powder ; and will carry five to ten yards farther 
than any other. 



Wood, Lumber and Relative Branches. 

The Lumber Trade of Evansville is of much greater magni- 
tude than many people suppose, and it occupies, in some of its 
various ramifications, a torce quite formidable as to numbers. 
There are but few, even of our best informed citizens, who have 
watched with sufficient interest, its late developments and en- 
largements, or who have reflected upon the unlimited resources 
about us yet undeveloped, but certainly to be drawn upon in the 
grander conquests of that near and swift approaching future. 
One-half the territory of the United States is destitute of a sur- 
plus of Timber, and depends upon what the other half can sup- 
ply. The location of Evansville, and its favorable situation and 
accessibility to the immense Lumber region of Indiana, Ken- 
tucky and tributary sections, places us on the favored, exceptional 
side of the subject, and renders our facilities, in this respect, un- 
surpassed, if equaled. The abundant supply of Timber in Indiana 
we have alluded to some pages back. It is probably our duty to 
describe the facilities that are in use in the various and numerous 
Wood-working establishments ; but we are reminded that we 
have already consumed much more space than originally intended 
or anticipated, and wo are satisfied that nothing like justice could 
be done within narrowed limits, to a subject so exceedingly com- 
prehensive, and so vastly important. 

When we take our above caption- — Lumber and its B^fttive 
Branches — for consideration, we find ourself involved. in the discuB- 



WOOD, LUMBER AND RELATIVE BRANCHES. 346 

sion of pursuits not only varied but extensive. For instance, we have 
Manufacturers and Sawers of Lumber, Dealers in Lumber, Sash and 
Blind Manufacturers, and Contractors and Builders, as well as Manu- 
facturers of Furniture, Chairs, Wagons, etc. — each department con- 
ducted on a large scale, and each calling for more than general men- 
tion. It has been estimated by gentlemen engaged in the trade, and well 
understanding the extent of the business, that there were from 35,000,000 
to 40,000,000 feet of Lumber disposed of in Evansville, during 1874, 
and that the Lumber trade proper, in all its departments, financially, 
amounts to fully ^^-ree millions of dollars ($3,000,000) per annum, which 
includes the increased value of Dressed Lumber as well as the "rough." 
Nearly, if not quite, all this vast amount was cut in the timbered re- 
gions of this and States lying immediate to us. The best Poplar known 
in this section is obtained in the Upper Ohio and Green River Valleys, 
and transported hither on the most favorable terms, to the very doors 
of our manufacturers and Dealers. Yellow Pine, for flooring purposes, 
and Poplar, of the finest quality, are cut in unlimited quantities in the 
regions bordering on the Tennessee River — one of the great Lumber 
arteries to this section — and brought to this point at reduced rate for 
transportation. Both the Hard and Soft Woods of Indiana are said to be 
unsurpassed in their uses for various Agricultural Implements. We, 
also, might add the large quantities of Oak and Cypress ; the latter 
largely used for Shingles, and the former tor Cooperage, while the 
Walnut, Ash, Gum and Hickory of our section are entering largely into 
various Manufactures,and are well supplied in unlimited quantities from 
native forests. In some counties of our State, there are thousands of 
acres of valuable Timber which the hand of man has not touched ; 
thousands of acres where no churlish plow-share has ever marred 
the velvet of the old mossy green-sward; where no cultivator's 
fire has ever rioted in the wild luxuriant undergrowth that waves 
its graceful plumage in every sheltered dingle; where many a 
populous "family." mute sentinels of Nature, forever guard the 
shadows that lie sleeping at their feet ; where many a stately 
giant stands emblematic of our noble soil and its incalculable 
powers of sustenance. No ax has ever razed the gnarled and 
knotty bark of these huge time-houoi-ed, immemorial Titans, 
which scattered far and near in their mighty grandeur, yet lift 
their white, thunder-splintered beads, " stag-hornedand sere and 
blasted," above their less pretentious neighbors. But Nature 
can not long rest undisturbed and in such tranq«iil .Bceii«8. 

44 



846 BVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUPACTTTRBS. 

Deeper and deeper into the hillsides the emblems of Agriculture 
are fastening their roots, and no more will the startled stag bound 
from his lair, when the crack of the rifle is heard in the valley, for 
some daring hunter has long since looked down upon it from the 
bordering hills, and claimed it as the heritage of his children. 
The foot-prints of the Anglo-Saxon are made in our rich soil, and 
are impressed forever. The age of civilization is at hand. And 
Btationed at a thousand posts, the Steam Saw Mill is cutting its 
way through millions and millions of feet of Lumber; afi'ording 
material for man's shelter and man's comfort : forever destroying 
those temples of Nature — the solemn aisles and grand old altars 
of Druidical faith. No more the woodnymphs. 'decked with 
daisies trim," will gather 

" In secret shades, 

Of woody Ida's inmost grove.'" 

The happy hunting ground soon will wave in golden grain. 
Forever stilled is the Hamadryad's cry and hushed the Poet's 
plaintive strain : — 

"O, woodman spare that tree.'' 

But we return to our text, after this pleasing desultory jaunt, and 
while we have but few more words for the Lumber trade of Evansville 
those are of peculiar gratulation. A major portion of the Lumber be- 
ing cut in all of this section is brought to Evansville for a market, and 
in all the varieties enumerated, our dealers are at all times enabled to 
supply demands, either from home consumers or customers abroad, on 
the most advantageous terms. The market is looking up in every way, 
and the question would naturally come up to us, can any plan be de- 
vised to stop the trade that has been flowing in more northerly direc- 
tions, increase the demand for material that has no superior in its ex- 
cellence, develop its interests, encourage our own " kith and kin," and 
thus transform Evansville into the great Lumber market for the South- 
west. 

Saw Milling Estahliahments. 

It may be considered vainglorious boasting in the writer to express 
in concurrent phrases such glowing accounts of the varied promotions 
and progresses evident on every hand in our thriving, industrial world, 
but where new surprises meet us at almost every turn, and new de- 
partments add their unexpected millions to swell the grand aggregate 
of our city's business, we fully realize our labor as one of increasing iu' 



WOOD, LUMBER AND RELATIVE BRANCHES. 347 

terest, and may be pardoned for speaking ostentatiously of the city of 
Evansville, so little known abroad, so little understood at home. This 
we are justified in saying, when we state that within the consolidated 
area of the city there are no less than eight extensive Saw Mills, each 
one largely engaged in the trade, and having all facilities for conduct- 
ing the same properly, and yet but few peoj)le have ever stopped to 
consider what influential bearing these concerns have upon the city's 
prosperity. With two exceptions, these Mills are located in the west- 
ern purlieus of the city. The banks ot Pigeon Creek are covered with 
rafted logs, and the scene would gladden the heart of a Norwegian and 
enthuse a Lumberman from Maine. The supply reaches us from 
along all the water courses that pay tribute to our doors ; is rafted 
hither during the floods and transferred into Lumber for many and 
varied purposes. The pursuit calls for many laborers and demands the 
presence of large capital, but in both of these requirements Evansville 
has never yet shown any grievous lack. Added to their facilities for 
Sawing Lumber, each establishment is also well arranged with thorough, 
successful and efiicient Kilns for Drying and Seasoning Lumber. The 
principal Saw Mills are located as follows : H & B. Ahlering, 917 
Upper Water street ; Helfrich & Rechtiu, 503 West Franklin street; 
S. W. Little, corner Wabash avenue and Vermont streets ; C. Eeitz 
& Bros., 200 Seventh avenue ; John A. Reitz, mouth of Pigeon Creek; 
Rietman & Schulte, 507 West Ohio street; John Vogel & Co., 719 
Ninth avenue; and Stork, Brinkmeyer & Co., north end of Fulton 
avenue. 

Sash, Blind and Door Mnnnfactui'ers. 
The firms engaged, exclusively or partially in tlie above 
branch of business, are quite numerous, and we are not very cer- 
tain, after all our " note taking," we shall get thc^m correctly 
classified. Yet they are branches of business thai must, in a 
measure, be written up, no matter how much fatiguing circum-am- 
bulation is required of the writer. We bad hoped, in the mean- 
time, nevertheless, to give a more detailed account ot their facili- 
ties for dispatching business, but it must suffice, il' we judge the 
remainder by those we did visit, for we may well say, that the 
machinery emploj'ed in the various Planing Mills, Sash Factories, 
Turning and Scroll Sawing establishments, is trul}' remarkable 
for its efficiency ; and that the firms occupied in preparing the 
different parts of Wood-work required in buildings, can supply 
Builders and Contractors in other cities, at a much cheaper rate 



348 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURED. 

than the hitter can produce them in their own Workshops with- 
out the aid of Machinery, in fact, the Carpenter of the present 
day, who relies on his own muscle to "shove the Jack-plane" 
in all the varied offices of preparation, takes bread from his own 
mouth and from his own children, if he persists in such old-fogy- 
ism- — for the functions of the modern House-builder are nothing 
more than that of Joiner. Moreover, we are living in a period so 
active and bustling, that life is too valuable, complicated and ex- 
acting, for anything that does not produce early practical results. 
Time is no longer measured by successive vibrations of the pen- 
dulum, but by succession of ideas. And in such unproductive 
consumption of power, bread is no longer gained by manual labor 
and the " sweat of the brow," but by strokes of the Engine and 
deep incisive marks of the Steam Planer and the Saw. 

The principal firms in this line of business are located as fol- 
lows: Evansville Building and Manufacturing Co., corner 
Seventh and Ingle streets ; Lehnhard & Earl, corner Sixth and 
Canal street ; McCorkle & Sansom, corner Eighth and Walnut 
streets; Jacob Meyer & Bro., 301 Lower Water street, corner of 
Goodsell street ; Jas. Swanson, Jr, & Co., 332 Lower First street, 
and Swanson & Son, 503 Upper Fifth street. Each of these 
establishments occupy premises of more than a half block. They 
not only manufacture Sash, Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, Brackets, 
etc., but execute Scroll Sawing, and deal in all kinds of Rough 
and Dressed Lumber. They supply nearly all of the prominent 
Builders and Contractors in Southern Indiana, Southern Illinois, 
and Western Kentucky and Tennessee, and have even extended 
their business still more southward. 

Builders and Contractors. 

Some of the firms engaged in the manufacture of Sash, Blinds, 
etc., also take Buildings on contract. The more prominent of this 
class are : The Evansville Building and Manufacturing Co., Lehnhard 
& Earl, McCorkle & Sansom and Jacob Meyer & Bro, But those en- 
gaged especially in filling large contracts, either in Wood or Brick, are : 
Wm. Bedford, Jr., 314 Grant street; G. Bellamy & Sons, 319 Gum 
street; Conrad Farr, 1118 Division street; Jacob Fickas, 204Goodsell 
street ; A. Johann & Bro., 116 Washington street ; Lant & Allen, cor- 
ner Fourth and Powell streets ; Ernst F. Meyer, 312 Goodsell street ; 
Mohr & Dietrich, 716 Sycamore street, and Jos. Schseffer, 11 Lower 



WOOD, LUMBER AJTI) RELATIVE BRANCHES. 349 

Fifth street. There are, besides these, a legion of what might be 
termed " Carpenter Shops" in the city, but the foregoing are the lead- 
ing firms in their line, and are prepared to receive and execute orders 
for building Houses in the most improved and modern styles. To their 
taste and judgment, as well as their experience and good workmanship, 
are the citizens of Evansville, to-day, indebted for many of the neat 
and comfortable, and, in many instances, splendid and elegant struc- 
tures that grace almost every thoroughfare of the city. 

Furniture and Upholstery Manufactories. 

De Quincey, one of the loveliest and most elegant writers of Eng- 
lish, in one of his published works, gives us the following opinion : 
" The inventive powers of man are divine ; and, also, his stupidity is 
divine, as Cowper so playfully illustrates in the slow development of 
the Sofa, through successive generations of immortal dullness. It 
took centuries of block-heads to raise a joint stool into a chair ; and it 
required something like a miracle of genius, in the estimation of elder 
generations, to reveal the possibility of lengthening a chair into a 
chaise-longue, or a Sofa." Which opinion naturally leads us to infer 
that all, or most, of the wonderful improvements in Household Furni- 
ture, whether for utility, comfort, convenience or ornamentation, are 
the results of modern inventive genius and modern trial of skill and 
application of industry. It Avould be both a pleasing and instructive 
pastime, could we delve awhile in the misty inconveniences of the past 
and trace the progress of man's labor in this respect, but such would 
carry us beyond our purpose. Few of us who do not remember the 
ancient Greek and Roman mythological story of Procrustes and his two 
iron bedsteads — one long and the other short. When a stranger came 
to his place of abode, if he happened to be short of stature he was re- 
tired in the long bed and so violently pulled to fit it, that life was soon 
extinct. If the stranger happened to be tall, he was given the short 
bed, and so much of his length lopped oif as to make him conform 
to the uncomfortable furniture. And few of us who will not re- 
joice that the modern Furniture manufacturer is more humanely 
inclined; nay, even studies, with great interest, the happiness he 
is to create in the comfort and the elegance of recumbency — of 
*' tired nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep." 

So much for a preface; and now it becomes us to say, that in 
no branch of her Manufactures, has Evansville given such marked 
evidences of substantial, and we may say, wonderful growth, 



360 EVANSVILLl: HEK COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

during the past few years, as in the manufacture of Furniture 
and Upholstered Goods. In no branch of her leading industries 
is she wider celebrated, not only for the enterprise, and push and 
energy of her Manufacturers, but for that distinguishing probity, 
and reliability and fair dealing, that has made Evansville Furni- 
ture a very synonym for first-class work in nearly every city, 
town and hamlet of the Great Southern and Southwestern country. 
A few years only were required to develop thisflattering improve- 
ment. Fifteen years ago there were but few Furniture Stores 
in the city, small ones at that, who kept only samples of the styles 
of goods, forwarded from Cincinnati and elsewhere, on hand, re- 
lying mainly on orders received before purchasing stock. But 
to-day, mark the change. Not a single house engaged in the 
trade, that does not run its mammoth Factoi'y. Cincinnati 
goods have been driven from the market, and Evansville is now 
the most formidable Western competitor of that city, not onlj- in 
this section, but throughout the Tobacco and Cotton producing 
regions of the Union. It has not been veiy long since a Spring- 
seat Sofa was considered a luxury — almost a novelty ; and so 
far as the legion of highly useful and ornamental pieces that, 
from their cheapness, are now within the reach of almost every 
one, such paraphenalia would have been truly gorgeous in that 
less pretentious and more inconvenient period, known as " our 
grand-fathers' days." The Southern demand, which is proverbially 
fastidious and luxurious, in the choice of Furniture, is very largely 
supplied from this market, and with this increasing inquir3% there 
has been a corresponding improvement, both in taste and design ; 
so that it may be well doubted, whether any cities of the United 
States, at this time, exliibit more magnificent displays than can 
be seen in the Mammoth Cabinet Warehouses of Evansville. 

An advantageous circumstance for this important pursuit may 
as well be mentioned in this paper. The art of Veneering, it may 
be stated, has not been very long understood. Previous to its 
discovery, a crotch of Mahogany wood (which was then mostly 
used for furniture), was cut into Veneers by a narrow blade saw, 
drawn laterally by two men. They could not get more than four 
Veneers out of an inch of thickness, which was not only a great 
waste of the finest class of material, but the Veneers could only be 
applied to flat work, or very slight curves. About this time Cir- 
cular SawB, some of which were seven to eight feet in diameter, 



WOOD, LUMBER AND RELATIVE BRANCHES. 851 

were introduced, but gradually improvements were made, so that 
at the present time, it is not uncommon to produce sixteen Veneers 
to the inch. Mahogany, Rosewood, Walnut and all the finer woods, 
are now used in Veneering with such skill that elliptic ogees, or oval 
surfaces of common wood, are covered with a thin coating of fine wood, 
thus reducing the consumption comparatively of the finer woods. But 
in the course of time. Mahogany became scarce, and, growing in moun- 
tain fastnesses, it was procured only at a great expense. Rosewood 
has always been equally difiicult to obtain. To supply the deficiency, 
the merits of American Walnut were examined, and on trial it was 
found equally suitable for fine Furniture. The grain of the wood and 
the feathery character of the curl (where two branches separate from 
the trunk), are similar to Mahogany, except in color ; the Walnut be- 
ing of an exquisite dark purple shade, though varying in color, accord- 
ing to the latitude and nature of the soil. Walnut is now used more 
than all other woods combined, and, to quote from a Philadelphia au- 
thor: "The supply on the rich bottom lands of Indiana and the West- 
ern States genei'ally, is enormous, and the quality so superior that 
some is shipped to Europe." Evansville, then, being in the midst of 
this supply her favorable position is at once conceded, and to illustrate 
the superiority in this respect already reached, we may, without further 
hesitation, proceed to consider more graphically some of our leading 
Furniture Factories, 

S. MEYER & CO.'S FURNITURE MANUFACTORY. 

The Furniture Manufactory of S. Meyer & Co., occupies a 
block 275x275 feet large on First avenue, *near Franklin street. 
The building is a five-story brick structure 150x50 feet in dimen- 
sions, and may truthfully be placed among the most extensive of 
our industrial concerns. Employment is given to one hundred 
and five hands, all departments enumerated. They have an ex- 
cellent IS-horse power Engine, and are well supplied with all the 
latest machinery usually found in a first-class Factory, devoted to 
similar purposes. Attention is particularly paid to the manufac- 
ture of Fine Furniture and Upholstered Goods, for which they en- 
joy a well merited reputation ; their Carved Work is really superb,; 
and ihe less elaborate, known as Cottage Furniture, is distinguished 
for excellent workmanship, high polish, tasteful painting, and 
moderate price. The prevailing styles are Walnut and Oak, in 
the better grades of gobds, though some attention is also directed 



352 EVANSVILLE: HEK OOMMEKCE AND MANtTFACTURES. 

towards Poplar and Ash work. Their aggregate products will 
reach 6,000 Bedsteads per annum, with other pieces of Furniture 
proportionately large. For the past year their sales toot up 8120,- 
000, the principal trade coming from Illinois, Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. The firm was 
organized about fifteen years ago, and is composed of Messrs. 
Samuel Meyer and A.Guggenheim. The Office and Ware Rooms 
are at the corner of Second and Sycamore streets, a superb new 
brick building, occupied since their fire in October, 1874. Messrs. 
Meyer & Co., have also attached to their Furniture Manufactory 
a department for manufacturing Mattresses, from the Commonest 
Shuck Goods to the Latest Improved and most Elegant Spring 
Mattresses. 

BLOMER, SCHULTE & REITMAN'S FURNITURE MANUFACTORY. 
Messrs. Blomer, Schulte & Reitman may well be classified among 
our foremost manufacturers of Cabinet Furniture, in point of business 
and successful dealing. They date the organization of their firm back 
some fourteen years, during which time they have carried on a trade 
which has exhibited steady growth as each successive year rolled round. 
Their place of business is at 109 and 111 Main street, but the manu- 
factory is on Ohio street, reaching from First to Second avenues, and 
covering a block 150x250 feet large. The main building is brick, 
40x100 feet large. Constant employment is given to seventy-five work- 
men ; and an engine, 12-inch bore and 24-inch stroke, supplies motive 
power for all of the machinery necessary to insure rapid and satisfac- 
tory work. Their yearly sales may be placed at $75,000, nearly all of 
which is ordered from the Southern States. They manufacture and 
keep constantly on sale a vast assortment of Bedsteads, Wash Stands, 
Hat Racks, Tea Poy Tables, Dressing Cases, Wardrobes, Book Cases, 
extension Tables of all manner of styles, prices and varieties of carving, 
moulding and turning known in tbe cabinet art. 

THE EVANSVILLE FURNITURE COMPANY. 
The question of co-operative labor is one that is just now com- 
manding wide-spread attention, and all who are accustomed to give 
the complex relations of capital and labor any thought are deeply in- 
terested in its practical workings. The initiatory step in this particu- 
lar, in this city, was first taken by the Evansville Furniture Company, 
that concern having been organized on the basis of co-operative labor, 
in March, 1870, and we are pkased to be able to repbrt that very com- 



WOOD, LUMBEK AND KELATIVE BKANOHES. 368 

plet€ success has attended its working. This Company consists of four- 
teen stockholders, of whom Phillip Nonweiller is Secretary and Man- 
ager. These stockholders are all ]n-actical and experienced laborers in 
the various branches of the Furniture business, and devote themselves 
personally to supervision of its conduct. This insures thoroughness of 
workmanshiji and an economy of management possibly not otherwise at- 
tained, and the result is a successful competition with older concerns of the 
city. Their manufactory is at No. 309 West Pennsylvania street, be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh avenues. The Factory building is two stories 
high, and 120x50 feet in dimensions. They use one of Schultze, Thu- 
man & Co.'s engines, 12-inch bore and 24-inch stroke, with a full com- 
plement of the best and most serviceable furniture -making machinery. 
They employ 60 men and make average sales of $75,000 per annum. 
They have full and complete arrangements for manufacturing all kinds 
of Furniture, from the cheapest Cottage Sets to the very finest Up- 
holstered Goods for Parlors, Drawing-rooms and Bed Chambers, and 
their rapidly augmented trade is evidence sufficient that they are not 
to be outdone, either in prices, or in the quality of goods furnished. 
Their salesrooms in the city are at Nos. 309 and 311 Main street. They 
have, also, a branch house at Memphis, Tennessee, from which they 
supply their large Southern trade, extending along the line of the 
Mississippi River and its tributaries — the xA.rkansas, White, St. Francis 
and Red Rivers. 

FRED. & J. F. REITZ— FURNITURE MANUFACTORY. 

In point of age, and in consequence of experience in the 
Furniture business in Bvansville, the establishment of Messrs. 
Fred. & J. P. Reitz, is entitled to prominent mention in our col- 
lection, they having succeeded, in 1869, Mr. Valentine Wetzel, one 
of the oldest Furniture Manufacturers in the city. The Office 
and Sales Rooms of the Messrs. Reitz are at JSJos. 317 and 319 
Main street, where they occupy five large Store Rooms in display- 
ing their admirable stock. Their Manufactory is a four-story 
brick building, 90x100 feet large, on Walker street, between Third 
and Fourth streets. In the Manufacturing Department thej' em- 
ploy some fifty men. The Engine used is 16-horse power, which 
drives a full line of Machinery, including all the Improved Ap- 
pliances in the business. The}" purchase material in the rough. 
and season and manufacture all kinds of Furniture embraced un- 
der the several heads : Parlor, Bed Chamber, Dining Room, Hall 
45 



354 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

and Office Sets. They ship large orders to the various Southern 
Slates, aad do aa annual business of $60,000. They have been re- 
peatedly complimented, not only for excellence in production of 
useful articles, to which they have hitherto given their attention, 
principally, but also for various successful attempts that have been 
made in producing those rich and decorative pieces, which belong 
to luxury, rather than utility. 

THE ARMSTRONG FURNITURE COMPANY. 
The most extensive Furniture Manufactory in the State of Indi- 
ana, and, as we believe, in the entire West, is that one owned and con- 
trolled by the Armstrong Furniture Company, of this city. This Com- 
pany are the successors of the old and well-known house of C. Arm- 
strong & Co. — a firm whose name has stood as a landmark of the Fur- 
niture business in this State for many years. Indeed, the reputation 
of the Messrs. Armstrong in the trade is as wide-spread as their envi- 
able standing in strictly honorable dealing is acknowledged. Enjoying 
the benefits of their well-earned virtues, they have still brighter pros- 
pects of a more brilliant future. In May, 1874, the Armstrong Furni- 
ture Company was organized as a regular Stock Company, with a cap- 
ital stock of $200,000, of which $150,000 has been paid in. The Com- 
pany is composed of the following gentlemen : U. W. Armstrong, 
President ; L. Puster, Secretary and Treasurer, and C. Armstrong, 
Hermann Richten, Adam Helfrich, A. Hoeing and R. Griener. Im- 
mediately after organization, the Company began the erection of a 
splendid new Manufactory, and commenced operations on a grander 
scale than ever before. 

This Factory is at the corner of Seventh avenue and Franklin 
street, and includes premises of 5J acres of valuable property. The 
Factory is a brick building 150x60 feet large, six stories high and built 
upon an enlarged and substantial scale, and in all of its parts presents 
as complete and perfect a Manufactory of its kind as can be found 
anywhere, and few surpass it in extent, in the United States- Their 
engine is 14-inch cylinder by 24-inch stroke, and came from the estab- 
lislfment of Reitz & Haney. New and highly iinproved machinery has 
been placed throughout the building, so that in facilities insuring rapid 
work and skillfal workmanship, this establishment will be without a 
peer in this section of country. As our report goes to press this state 
of afiairs is being arrived at, and the concern will be in full operation 
by January 1st, 1875, thus inaugurating the New Year in a manner 
, that will redound to their credit. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



365 



ARMUIiONG FURNITURE COMPANY, 

MANUFACTUREES OF 

FURNITURE, CHAIRS, 

Mattresses and Upholstery, 

(Armstrong's Patent Mosquito-net Frame.) 




o 



05 






THE LA.TEST ST^STLES OF 



Parlor, Ghamber, Study, Dining-Room and Hall Furnitupe, 

Of all kinds, Consisting, in part, of 

MARBLE TOP CENTER TABLES, SOFAS, DIVANS, SOCI- 
ABLES, CHAIRS, ETAGERES, EXTENSION 
TABLES, HAT RACKS, BU 
REAUS, ETC., 

In Rosewood, Mahogany, Oak and Walnut, of every variety of Pattern and Style ol Finish 

SALESROOM— 209, 211 and 213 Main Street. 
FACTORY— Seventh Av-, corner Franklin St. 



366 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MAN LTFACTUKES. 

The Sales Department of the Company are at Nos. 209, 211 
and 213 Main street, where they require no less than thirteen 
large Store Rooms, to disphiy their immense and varied stock. 
They manufacture all kinds of Furniture, from the cheapest to 
the most elegant and elaborately tinished — including, Parlor, Bed 
Chamber, Dining Room. Office and Hall Furniture, In the line 
of Fine Upholstered Groods, as well as in Mattresses, they stand 
first and foremost. The Company employ 200 men in all depart- 
ments, and transact an annual business of $225,000, counting 
their customers in every Western and Southern State, from the 
Lakes to the Grulf of Mexico. Possessing the advantage of inti- 
mate acquaincance with the business, with a good credit, or its 
superior, cash, they can manufacture and sell on such terms as 
enables them to offer satisfactory inducements, and having expe- 
rience in avoiding the quicksands of bad debts, through doubtful 
credit, their future course can scarcely ftiil to be onward and up- 
ward. 

FRED. GEIGER— UPHOLSTERER & MATTRESS MANUFACTURER. 

Fashionable ladies of the present day, no doubt, have found 
it difficult to realize how the women of ancient times — the famed 
Lucretias and Cleapatas, could rest their weary limbs and taste 
the sweet repose of sleep, on the apparently rude and uncomfort- 
able couches of their time. But history tells us that, in no article 
of household Furniture, were the ancients more extravagant or 
fastidious. In those days, the wealthy citizens reclined at their 
meals, and to accommodate these recumbent epicureans, the cups 
out of which they drank, were made in the shape of a horn, out 
of whose small end they took their "potations pottle deep." The an- 
cient writers abound in descriptions of their costly workmanship, 
many of them being made of ivory and ebony, elaborately carved 
and brilliantl}'^ gilt. Lucullus had his banquetting room sur- 
rounded with couches of the most extensive manufacture, and 
those devoted to his most illustrious guests were ornamented with 
precious stones. And yei, in point of convenience and comfort, 
the couches of that period, could by no means, compare with the 
royally superb Mattresses of this date — our modern "flowery beds of 
ease," so conducive to "rosy dreams and slumbers bright." 

This being the case, it is highly satisfactory to know that Evans- 
ville can boast a manufacturer who has literallv made himself famous 



ADVERTISEMEKTS. 35T 



S. MEYER. A. GUGGENHEIM. 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in 

FAICy AND PLAIN FDElTiE. 

Salesrooms, 124 & 126 Second Street, corner Sycamore. 
Factory, on First Avenue, between Seventh & Franklin Sts. 

EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 

EVANSVILLE CHAIRJ'ACTORY. 

JOHN B. BUEHNER & CO., 



Manufacturers of anil Wnolesnle Dealers in 



Wood and Cane Seat Chairs, 

Factor! and Ware Rooms, No. 215 First Avenue bet. Bond and Oliio Sts. 

Hallsi, Hotels and Steamboats furnished and orders promptly attended to. 



GENERAL UPHOLSTER, 

And Manufacturer of 

FINE PARLOR FURIITURE 11ND MATTRESSES. 

SALESROOMS, Nos. 125 and 127 Locust Street- 
MANUFACTORY, No. 519 Illinois Street. 



358 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

in this line. Fred. Geiger, 125 Locust street, is the one to whom we 
refer. He has made fine Upholstery and Mattresses his specialties, and 
turns out work by no means inferior to any in this country. Some of 
his elegantly carved suits of Parlor and Library Goods, covered in 
Brocatille, Coatalene, Tapestry, Damask, Kep, Hair Cloth, Plush or 
Cassimere, are simply superb and exquisite in finish, style and work- 
manship. Geiger's manufactory is at 519 Illinois street, where he em- 
ploys 15 men, and uses a 12-horse power engine, but most of his work 
is from the dexterous hands of his employes. His trade is $40,000 per 
annum, mostly local, but includes some shipments South. 

Chair Manufactories. 

Chairs, if we may admit the poet Milton as an authority, are 
so ancient as to have formed a part of Eve's establishment in 
Paradise. The Chair aifords the accommodation which Nature 
first demands ; and if the theory of Lord Monboddo be correct — 
that men are only monkeys, whose tails have been worn off by 
constant sitting — we are mainly indebted to Chairs for our exist- 
ence as human species. It is a i-emarkable fact, that the remain s 
of Etruscan art, show that the handsome" Chairs of a modern 
drawing-room, are very little other in shape, than fac similes of 
those made in Etruria, twenty-five centuries ago. The greatest 
improvements, however, which have been made in these, and in 
all articles of Household Furniture, are their more perfect adap- 
tation to domestic purposes, and the comfort of those who use 
them. The first essential requisite in a Chair, is its fitness for 
use; and that which can not be comfortably adapted to the pur- 
•poses required, may be called a failure, however elaborate the 
carving or costly the materials. 

As a pursuit, Chair-making, in all the large cities, is a dis- 
tinct and separate branch of the C-reneral Furniture Manufacture. 
It is the same in Bvansville as in all the principal cities — there 
being large establishments devoted exclusivelj^ to the business. 

.J. BUEHNER & CO.'S CHAIR MANUFACTORY. 
The extensive Chair Manufactory of J. B. Buehner & Co. is 
located on the corner of First avenue and Bond street. Their 
premises occupy 120x250 feet ; the main building is constructed 
of brick, and is four stories high and 40x120 feet large. They use 
an engine of 25-horse power, and give employment to 50 hands 
in the various departments. They take their lumber in thorough 



ADVEETISEMENTS. 



359 



FRANK BLOMER, 



CHARLES SCHULTE. 



HENRY RIETMAN. 





Manufacturers of and Dealers in 




"\Ar-A.iiEiiooas^rs ; 



Nos. 109 and 111 Main Street, 

Between First and Second Streets. 



F-A.CTOR.'S': 



(gor. Second lAv., ghio (St. and (girst ^v. 



EV^ISJ'SAriLLE, 1NT>. 



360 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

from the Saw Mills ot the city, and use Walnut, Poplar, Maple and 
Hickory, which, after undergoing seasoning for four or five years, 
is sawed into planks of the following thicknesses : 8, (i, 4f, 3-|, 2. 
If, 1^, 1^ and f inches, and is afterwards re-sawed to suit the vari- 
ous purposes to which it is applied. The first operation in Chair 
making is to get out the leg timber, for which purpose they have 
a superb machine. Next are Stretching Machines, Fancy Front 
Turners, Belt Saws, tor sawing out Chair Backs, Boring Machines, 
for arms and legs, Planing Machines, for wooden bottoms, Friez- 
ing Machines, for dressing the legs. Joint Saws, Scroll Saws, for 
fine work, and Emery Wheels and GJ-rind Stones, for sharpening 
the tools employed. These valuable auxiliaries are to be found 
on the first floor, where some fifteen hands are constantly occu- 
pied. On the second floor they have another Joint Saw, a Boring 
Machine, for Chair legs. Tenant and Morticing Machine, tor com- 
mon work; also, one for finer work, Steam Glue Boiler, and other 
machines, sufficient to engage the attention of twentj^-five work- 
men, this department being the place where the raw material is 
put together. The third floor is used as a wareroom where ma}' 
be seen a large stock of their manufactured goods, including all 
kinds of Cane, Wood and Stutfed Seat Chairs, for Parlor, Dining 
Room, Office, Rocking and Kitchen Chairs and Children's Chairs 
and Stools, in every stjde of wooden finish. The fourth floor is 
devoted to Varnishing, Painting, Caning and Stuffing. The an- 
nual business of the firm is about $50,000 and being energetic 
wide-awake business men, ready sale foi- their wares is met with 
in many of the leading cities and towns in Indiana, Illinois, Ken- 
tucky. Tennessee, Missouri. Arkansas, Mississippi. Louisiana and 
Texas. 

E. Q. SMITH— CHAIR MANUFACTURER. 
E. Q. Smith's Chair Manufactory is at the corner of Division 
and Third streets. The building is brick, four-stories high, 
eighteen feet front. 100 feet deep, and with an •' L" fifty-six feet 
long. He employs from thirty-five to forty men, and does. an 
annual business of $30,000. His concern is capable of turning out 
100 dozen Chairs per week, but at present, he only does one-half 
that amount. He manufactures all kinds of Cane and Wood-seat 
Chairs, for Office, Bar Room, Hotel Dining Room, Chamber oi* 
Parlor, and ships his goods to all the towns along the Ohio, Lower 
Mississippi, Arkansas and Red Rivers. 



WOOD, LUMBER AND RELATIVE BRANCHES. 361 

Stave, Shingle and Barrel Works. 

Another department of the Lumber trade is the manufacture of 
Shingles, Staves, Flour and Whisky Barrels, Bacon Casks, Beer Kegs, 
Water Tanks, etc. This trade is for the most part local, and conducted 
for the benefit of the numerous manufactories in the city needing their 
services. Altogether it will foot up to $150,000 per annum, and en- 
gages the attention of not less than eleven firms, several of whom employ 
steam and a large number of workmen. These firms do business at 
the following places : D. Arn's Shingle Mill, Michigan street, near 
Eighth avenue ; Cody, Burtis & Co , Stave Factory, 712 West Ohio 
street. The principal Cooperage establishments are : Paul Boos, 310 
Lower Second Street; C, & W. Farr, 1118 Division street ; Phillip 
Klein, 1033 Vine street ; Frank Mundo & Co., 505 Wabash avenue ; 
Geo. Pfifer, 232 Bond street; John Schorle, 215 East Illinois street; 
N. Schorle, 9 First avenue; C. Wiggens & Co., 511 Upper Ninth 
street, and Wiltshii'e & Kreipke, 132 East Pennsylvania street. 
Piano and Organ Builders. 

This brancli of Manufactures is a new one with us, and com- 
paratively small, but is entitled 1o some account, for small begin- 
nings, we all know, frequently make big endings. In the manu- 
facture of Pianos, Christian Decker, Jr., 316 Sycamore street, 
has turned out some creditable work, and in that of Church Or- 
gans, Messrs. Goisecke & Eotli. 115 Third avenue, have already 
gained a tair start, that we predict will yet enable them to reap a 
lucrative harvest. They have manufactured a number of Organs 
for Churches in this city, as well as in adjoining towns, and have 
been much complimented on their triumphs. 

Balusters. Netvel JPosts and Stairway Builders, 

McCorkle & Sansom, corner of Eighth and Walnut streets, 
are the leading Stair Builders of the city, and Edward Rapp, at 
the same place, is known with favor for his skill as a Wood Turner 
and Manufacturer of Balusters, Newel Posts, Mouldings, Fau- 
cets, etc. 

Packing and Cigar Box Makers. 

Two departments of industry are represented under this 
head, and three firms are engaged in the business. C. Schrader 
& Co.. 33 Second avenue, and Robt. Smith, 427 Main street, man- 
ufacture all kinds of Packing Boxes, Cases, etc., and B. Mills & 
Co., Third avenue, devote their attention to Cigar Boxes, and sup- 
ply nearly all of the Cigar Factories in the city. 

46 



362 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

Fence Manufactories. 

We have also two establishments paying exclusive atten- 
tion to the manufacture of Patent Fences, J.H. Bunce, No. 10 Main 
(Street, and T. W. Simpson & Co., corner Eighth and Walnut 
streets. They execute orders at home or abroad for Parks, Cem- 
etries, Public Buildings and Hesidences, and claim for their 
Fences many good points, combining strength, durability, orna- 
ment and cheapness. 



Wood and Iron Manufactures Combined. 

Under this head are included a number of manufactures, 
whose constituents include both Wood and Iron, and which could 
not be properl}^ classified under either of the above separately. 

Agricultural Irnplenient Manufactories. 

A learned writer, on the subject of AgiMcuiture, has said: 
" The great problem to be solved, we conceive t(j be. how to at- 
tain the greatest productiveness of crops with least manual labor, 
and without impoverishment and deterioration of the soil." And 
we may add, on the solution of this problem depends the great 
question of cheap bread, and the happiness and welfare of the 
Nation. But we must pass over all elementary details of Agri- 
culture, and confine our remarks to a consideration of one of the 
most prominent means which combined invention and industry 
has offered to Ceres, "the goddess who presides over Corn and 
Agriculture." 

The first want in farming is a machine to break up the soil, 
and consequently, the Plow stands at the head of its fellows in the 
rank of the machinery of the farm. It is a labor-saving improve- 
ment on the Spade, producing substantially the same effects, but 
requiring very simple muscular action. It is an instrument dis- 
tinguished both for the antiquity of its use, and for the various 
successive improvements made in the mode of its construction. 
It is mentioned in the writings of Moses, and figures on the mon- 
uments of Egypt. The Roman Plow, from which Cincinnatus 
was called by the Senate, to assume the Dictatorship of the Em- 
pire, four hundred and fifty-nine years before Christ, was pre- 
ciselj' the same, it is said, as that now in use in Italj^, the South 
of France, and a portion of Spaib. It oonBisted of " a beam to 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 363 



HIMIY P. BLOOIT 



Sole Manufacturer of 



isiif S iiif i lllii iilil 



PLOWS, 



Uos. 503, 505 & 507 Main Street, 



864 EVANSVILLE: her COMMERCE AND MANtJt^ACTtJREg. 

which the yoke was attached, a handle, or cross-piece, by which 
the plowman held a Share fixed into a Share-beam, two Mould- 
boards, or one, at pleasure, a Coulter, and sometimes a Wheel, 
which could be used or not, at will." To such a Plow, we are in- 
formed, "it was not uncommon to see an ass yoked on one side, 
and an old woman, (probably the ' noble Roman's ' mother-in-law,) 
on the other;" and now, in this enlightened age, supplied with a 
complicated machine, propelled b}^ steam, and doing wonders, we 
look back at such rude Agriculture, at the populous cities which 
lived, and flourished and decayed ; at the armies of Xerxes and 
Alexander, and Hannibal and Cajsar, and marvel how so vast a 
population could have been supported. Without, however, going 
beyond our duty, and attempting to trace the steps of its pro- 
gress, or to describe its more essential parts, we shall rather con- 
fine our remarks to the manufacture of the principal varieties 
now so prominently known in the section of country trading 
with Evansville. 

BLOUNT'S STEEL PLOW WORKS. 

The widely celebrated Steel Plow Works, owned and controlled 
by Mr. Henry F. Blount, were established in 1854, by Mr, Urie, but 
were purchased in 1867 by Mr. Blount, formerly of the firm of Roelker, 
Blount & Co. In February, 1873, the concern was destroyed by fire, 
but was immediately thereafter resurrected and re-erected, being at 
present a house excellent in all its appointments. The main build- 
ing is three stories high, 125x30 feet large, and, together with the 
other apartments, occupy Nos. 503, 505 and 507 Main street. This 
establishment is furnished with the most improved labor-saving ma- 
chinery, including some excellent specimens of Planers and Screw-cut- 
ters, and, besides, employs about forty men. When running with or- 
dinary force the capacity of the Works is 100 Plows per diem, the ac- 
tual number turned out this year being about 12,000 Plows, valued at 
$120,000. By his energy and enterprise, Mr. Blount has done much 
to spread the fame, not only of his own works, but of Evansville gen- 
erally as a manufacturing point. In 1870 he placed his Plows on ex- 
hibition at the State Fairs of Louisiana, Texas and Kentucky, and 
though entering the lists with prominent and well-known Plow-makers 
from all sections of the country, he bore oflT, over all competitors, First 
Premiums from each of those extensive Expositions. The inventor 
and patentee of this admirable piece of mechanism, now known as 



WOOD AND IRON MANUFACTOUlJfiS COMBINED. 865 

"Blount's Extra Point Steel Plow,' is Mr. Urie, who for more than 
thirty years experimented upon the best methods of constructing Plows, 
at length having his labors rewarded by arriving at a perfect master- 
piece in this most important art. The Plow is constructed with Urie's 
patent mould, which is supplied with a movable and an extra point. 
The framing is of the very best white oak timber, and the firm always 
have on hand a year's supply ahead, cut out and stacked for proper 
seasoning. " Make the Best," is Mr. Blount's motto, and from all sec- 
tions of the country where his work has been introduced, come flatter- 
ing testimonials of the fidelity with which he adheres to business prin- 
ciples. 

URIE'H STEEL PLOW WORKS. 
Prominent among the manufactories that have given to Evans- 
ville a distinctive and an enviable fame, are the Urie Improved Steel 
Plow Works, located at Nos. 512 and 514 Main street, Messrs. John 
H. Roelker & Co. , proprietors. They manufacture a new design known 
as "Urie's Wrought Iron Upright Plow," which cannot be made with- 
out the Dies patent with said machine. All of these Plows are made 
of the very best Steel and Wrought Iron, no cast or malleable iron 
being used. Its peculiar shape prevents the collection of trash, at the 
same time giving it an additional degree of strength and durability, 
which are greatly increased by the manner in which the beam and 
standard are bolted together. The clevis is wrought ix-on. The beams 
made of White Oak butts, and are tlioroughly seasoned and very 
strong. Messrs. Roelker & Co., turn out both right and left hand 
Plows, and have denominated their prominent brands: •' Sunny 
South," '• Star of the West," and "Eclipse." They also manufac- 
ture Double and Single Shovels, with Wooden Beams and Steel 
Blades ; and in addition, are paying considerable attention to Ex- 
panding Five-Tooth Cultivators, Cotton Scrapers, Cotton Sweeps, 
New Ground Plows, and other improved Cultivating Implements. 
At present they give employment to twelve men. Their annual 
products foot up as high as 3,000 plows, at a cash valuation of $25,- 
000, and their trade extends not only over this section, but reaches 
the nethermost regions of the South and Southwest. 

Carriages and their Manufacture, 

A Carriage may be defined to be any wheeled vehicle designed for 
convenience or pleasure in traveling. It is a general terra for all those 
vehicles used in the conveyance or for the accommodation of persons 



366 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

in contradistinction to those which are employed in the conveyance of 
things ; hence the word is appropriately applied to a Coach, but Carts 
or Wagons are never called Carriages. In common with the progress 
made in other departments of the arts and trades, the manufacture of 
Carriages has become an important one, employing considerable capi- 
tal, affording subsistence to a large number of persons, and as the 
fashions are subject to frequent change, calling into exercise on the 
part of leading manufacturers, a high order of skill and invention. 

The Carriage, as an appendage to royalty, is of such remote an- 
tiquity, that " who was the first Coach-maker," has long been a vexed 
question among the learned. A writer in Eraser's Magazine, several 
years ago, learnedly and amusingly discusses the subject, but, after de- 
molishing all previous theories, he arrives at the not very satisfactory 
conclusion that Phoebus Apollo (the Sun) alone can, with truth, be 
said to merit the honor due to the originator of so useful a species of 
locomotive machine. Whoever may be the inventor, we at least know- 
that so early as the time of Moses, Chariots (which are Carriages ot 
peculiar construction), were in use, for when Pharaoh went in pursuit 
of the Children of Israel, "he took six hundred Chariots and all the 
Chariots of Egypt ; " and that in the days of Rome's power and glory, 
a vehicle, ornamented with gold and precious stones, was the usual ac- 
companiment of pomp and magnificence. The long period of barbar- 
ism, however, which succeeded the fall of the Roman Empire, effaced 
almost every remnant of luxury, and the necessities of the times dic- 
tated a change of sentiment respecting it. Carriages were no longer 
patronized by the nobility, nor permitted to their vassals. The feudal 
lords, with whom military service was a chief consideration, considered 
it policy to discountenance their use, as tending to make man indolent 
and effeminate. Hence, even as late as the Sixteenth Century, "Mas- 
ters and servants, husbands and wives, the clergy and laity, all rode 
upon horses or mules, and sometimes women and monks upon she 
asses, which they found more convenient. The minister rode to court, 
and the horse, without any conductor, returned alone to his house, 
till a servant carried him back to court to fetch his master." 

In the early history of England, occasional mention is made 
of Coaches, but it is surmised that the ancient vehicles were 
merely Cars, or a superior sort of Wagons. According to Stowe, 
" In the yeere 1564, Guylliam Boonen, a Dutchman, became the 
Queene's coachman, and was the first that brought the use of 
Coaches into England. And after a while divers great laydes, 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 367 



F. L. GREEN, 



(Successor to J. B. Green & Co.) 



MANUFACTIRER AND REPAIRER OF 



Carriages 




mil 



J 



E^^A.NSVILLE, IND. 



G. F. LANNERT. C. W. BARENFANGER. 

LANNERT & BARENPANGER. 

CARRIAGE BUILDERS. 

{§orner (Sycamore and rgifth Streets, 



iB 



368 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

with as great jealousie of the Queene's displeasure, made them 
Coaches, and rid iu them up and down the countries, to the great 
admiration of all the beholders ; but then, little by little, they 
grew usual among the Nobilite and othei'S of sort, and within 
twenty yeeres became a great trade of Coach-making." The fash- 
ion gained a permanent footing, notwithstanding the opposition 
of watermen and chairmen, and the vituperation of Taylor, tlie 
" Water Poet," who reviled the new-fa«hioned Coach, as a "great 
hypocrite, for it hath a cover for knavery, and contains a vaile 
to shadow any wickedness. Besides, like a perpetual cheater, it 
wears two bootes and no spurs, sometimes having two pairs of 
legs to one boot, and oftentimes, (against nature,) it makes faire' 
laydes wear the bootes ; and if you note, they are carried back to 
back, like people surprised by pyrats, to be tyed in that misera- 
ble manner, and thrown overboard into the sea. Moreover, it 
makes people imitate sea-crabs, in being drawn sideways, as they 
are when they sit in the boot of a coach : and it is a dangerous 
kinde of Carriage for the commonwealth, if it be considered." 

Following history, we find that Carriages too, haveundergone 
much change in fashion, which is not limited to the form or orna- 
ment of Carriages designed for pleasure or convenience, but also 
extends to their nanies. But we have no further inclination to 
take up the subject. Carriage-making is one of the most highly 
skilled departments of manufactures, requiring the workmen in 
many of its branches to possess a practical knowledge of geomet- 
rical forms, and a very accurate hand and eye. All the different 
parts of a carriage, however, arc never made by one class of 
workmen, or in one establishment. The person who is known in 
the trade by the name of Carriage or Coach Builder, is the one 
who fits or adjusts the variety of articles that other branches pro- 
duce, and he usually makes the Wood-work or Frame of the Car- 
riages. 

So far as the Carrige Manufacturing Business of Evansville 
is concerned, we have never as yet had the least fear of compar- 
ing its status to that of an}'- of the cities of the West, for the vehi- 
cles constructed here will be found as good as tiiose made any- 
where ; combining lightness with strength, and attaining dura- 
bility in conjunction with the greatest beauty of appearance and 
high finish. True, there are some articles " made to sell" alone, 
but we claim that the general quality is above the ordinary aver- 



WOOD AND IKON MANUFACTORIElS COMBINED. 369 

age, iuid that those wlio denire a perfect vehicle will be likely to 
find such an article in this city. The prominent builders nt' this 
city are men of experience, and practical workmen. They under- 
stand, perfectly, the proper proportions of every partof avehicle, 
besides always being well posted in improvements of st^yle and 
finish reached by the workmen of other cities. No more sixjtcrior 
material can be found in the West, for Carriage purposes, than 
the Hickory, the Ash and the Oa'c of Southern Indiana and Illi- 
nois. 

Evausville Carriage Manufacturers are prepared to, and do, 
actually turn out all kinds of work, from a "Dog Cart" to \Uc 
Finest Family Cai-riage. All styles and shades, cut and finish, 
are made, embracing Jenny Lind Top and Shifting Top Bug- 
gies, ''Low Neck'.' Buggies. Doctor's Buggies, Ladies' Ponj^Phee- 
tons, Rockaways. BaroucheK, Prince Alberts, Family Carriages, 
(Clarences, and almost a hundred kinds; also Hackney Coaches, 
Hearses, Hose-reels and Light Fancy Spring Wagons. Although 
we cannot pride ourselves so much on t'he quantity as on the 
(juality, we may state that the entire business for the past year 
amounted to fully $130,000, and the number of vehicles turned out 
will not fall short of two hu)idrod and seventy. 

F. L. GKEEN & CO.'S AMERICAN CARRIAGE WORKS. 
The American Carriage Shops, owned and conducted by 
Messrs. F. L. Green & Co., are at No. 520 Main street. They em- 
ploy some fifteen first-class workmen. They are devoted exclu- 
sivel}" to the building of Carriages, and light, handsome work of 
that character, and use the celebrated Wheel patented by Sarvin. 
The gentlemen comprising this firm, are the successors of the old 
and creditably known firm of J. B. Green & Co., and they have 
the advantage of being themselves practical Coach Builders, and 
thoroughly understand the art. Their Manufactory is conducted 
on approved principles, combining economy of space, convenience 
and adaptation. It is well worthy of a visit by those who delight 
in viewing the operations of industrj^, directed by intelligence and 
skill. This firm construct about sixty Carriages per annum. 

LANNERT & BARENFANGER'S CARRIAGE WORKS. 
The Shops of this firm are at the corner of Fifth and Syca- 
more streets. They give employment to fourteen men, and turn out 
about sixty vehicles annually. Both members of the firm are 

47 



370 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

practical Coacli Builders of ample and varied experience. In 
their business career ihey have not been unmindtul of the pro- 
gress making in their art, but have ever been ready to encourage 
and adojDt improvements based upon sound, mechanical princi- 
ples, and the excellent reputation which their work has among 
customers, both in this and various Southern and Western States, 
is a guarantee that orders will be executed with fidelity, 

F. HAMMERSTEIN'S EAGLE CARRIAGE WOORKS. 
F. Hammersteiii's Eagle Carriage Works are at 326 Upper Fourth 
street. When under full headway 15 men are employed. During the 
last year eighty-three new vehicles were turned out at these shops. 
Mr. Hammerstein prides himself on fine work, and has a creditable 
reputation, now of eighteen years standing. 

A. GANTNER'S CARRIAGE WORKS. 
At the corner of Main and Sixth streets are the shops of A. Gant- 
ner, giving employment to ten men, and building about fifty vehicles 
per annum. 

ATHOLFF & HOLMES— CARRIAGG SHOPS. 
This firm began business the present year, and are located on Sec- 
ond avenue. 

Wagon and Wlwel Manufactories. 
The largely increased demand for Wagons of the best construc- 
tion within compai-atively a few years has elevated the business of 
Wagon-making into the prominent rank of manufactures. The Wheel- 
wright aud the Blacksmith are no longer able, in their narrow and con- 
tracted shops, to supply the immense demand ; but establishments are 
now required that can purchase lumber, iron and other raw materials, 
in large quantities, and which are provided with all the requisite ma- 
chinery and appliances for turning out heavy or light vehicles with ex- 
pedition and rapidity. The excellence of the timber furnished from 
the forests of Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky ; the reputati(jn t>f our 
builders already wide-spread ; the present facilities of the Wagon-mak- 
ing establishments and the immense stock of well-seasoned lumber 
always kept on hand, }nake Evansville, at the present time, a capital 
seat for AVagon manufacture. The Wagon-makers of this city include 
in their products Farm and Road Wagons of all kinds, from two to six- 
horse, Carts, Express Wagons, Drays, Wheelbarrows, Garden aud 
Railroad Barrows, etc. Being skillful and practical builders, and pay- 
ing scrupulous attention to the selection of their stock — taking the ma- 
terial "in the rough" and preparing it for its various offices them- 



MARBLE, BUILDING STONE AND BRICK WORKS. 871 

.xelve.s, they are fully able to warrant all work done in their shops, and 
can compete with any in the West. The business in the city will 
amount to fully $75,000 per annum. 

The most prominent establishment of this class in Evansville is 
that of C. Decker & Sons, 428, 430 and 432 Main street. This manu- 
factory is one of the oldest and best-known in the city, having been 
founded by Christian Decker, Sr,, in 1837. At present they give em- 
ployment to from thirty to forty men, and have their concern fully 
equijiped with the best machinery known in the business. 

The next largest establishment is that of Becker & Bro., No. 
816 West Pennsj'lvania street. They employ aboiit twent}- men, 
;ind have all the necessary Steam Machinery to conduct their 
business. In addition to the foregoing, there are some fifteen or 
twenty smaller concerns, located in different portions oi' tlie city. 



Marble, Building Stone and Brick Works. 

Marble and Limestone, are both, of late, coming so extens- 
ively into use, in Evansville, either for objects of ornamentation, 
or as building materials, that the business now involves consider- 
ations of no little importance. Marble, in Architecture and 
Sculpture, has ever held the same rank to other Stones, that the 
Diamond, in Jewelry, holds to other gems ; and its use in modern 
times, for both these purposes, and especially for testimonials to 
the memory of the departed, has given an impetus to the produc- 
tion and its manufacture, which places the trade among the most 
promising and important of industrial pursuits. Marble is found, 
we believe, in every nationality of the civilized globe, and of 
every variety of quality and color. England has the Black 
Mai'ble. of Derbyshire ; the Variegated Marbles, rif Devonshire, 
and the Green Marble, of Anglesea. Ireland has her Kilkenny 
iVlarble, and Scotland her Tivil Marble and renowned Granite. 
In France are found the Marbles of Griotte and Campan. Spain 
produces the lovely Brocatello, resembling the gold cloth and em- 
broidered silk stuffs of that name. Portugal has the Marble of 
Troncas ; Switzerland, the Marbles of Leman ; while both Austria 
and Russia abound in Marbles of various colors. But a due re- 
gard to our space and purpose, limits us to the principle varieties 
used by the Marble-workers of Bvansville, and which are consid- 



372 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

ered under the two elassiticationH of Foreign and American Mar- 
bles. 

The F<jreig'n Marble, vvhicli i.s principally used in the United 
States, is obtained from the Diich}- of Massa-Carrara, in Italy, 
from vvhicii it was said the material was taken for building the 
Pantheon, at Home. The Quarries of Carrara contain four varie- 
ties, the most valuable of which is that known as Statuary Mar- 
ble, and which has but one rival, the Parian Marble. Tliequality 
used here, though, is the ordinary and veined Italian, which has 
a parity of color, delicate transparency' and fine granular texture, 
but being traversed by colored lines, renders it inappropriate for 
the higher uses of the Sculptor's art ; but for Ornamental pur- 
poses. Mantels, Furniture Tops and Monuments — of '-storied urn 
or animated bust," it stands unrivalled. 

Nearly every State in the Union is abundant in white granular 
Limestone, commonly called American Marble, and very suitable for 
building and architectural purposes. The whole range of the meta- 
niorphic rocks from Northern Vermont at least as far South as Maryland, 
affords ample supply of this material. The character varies from finely 
granulated to coarsely crystalline, and from a compact, close-grained 
mass to a friable crystalline rock. In color it presents all varieties, 
from pure white to light and deeply clouded. The finest varieties, how- 
ever, are obtained from the quarries along the Western slope of the 
Green Mountain Range, those at Rutland being the favorite. Marble 
is also found in Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania. In 
Maryland, the " Potomac and Breccia Marble," of which the columns 
of the Hall of Representatives at Washington are made, is the princi- 
pal variety. A red mottled Marble found in the picturesque moun- 
tains of East Tennessee, bids fair to come into extensive use for orna- 
mental purposes, especially as the superstructure of Soda Fountains, 
etc. As we previously stated nearly every locality has its desirable 
building material ; that procured in the vicinity of Evansville being a 
superior quality of Limestone known as "Green River Marble," and 
which has proven not only ornamental, but economical and durable. 
But the condition of the business, so far as we are concerned, can be 
best understood and illustrated by noticing the mode of operations as 
conducted in some of the leading Marble-works of Evansville. 

The leading Marble Works in the city are those of H. H. Uhl- 
horn, corner Fifth and Sycamore streets ; Stahlhcefer & Nightingale, 
320 and 322 Main" street; F. J. Scholz, 11 Lower Third street ; John 



ADVERTISEMENTy. 



373 






(ESTABLISHED, 1848. 



JL JCa JC3IL. J L wJL 




"W O I^ IC s. 



Corner of Fifth and Sycamore Streets 



EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 



374 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Burrucker, 1230 Division street; Clias. H, Goodge, 410 Olive street ; 
A. Schcenbaura, 703 Main street. The leading steam workers in Build- 
ing Stone are Albaker & Caden, corner Fourth & Vine streets ; B. H. 
Kroger, 314 Division street, and H. H. Uhlhorn, corner Fifth and 
Sycamore streets. Hatch & Murray are Contractors for Stone Work. 
The combined business in this line will reach 1135,000 per annum. 

UHLHORN S MARBLE W0KK8. 

The most prominent establishment of the kind in the city, em- 
ploying steam power, is the Marble Works of Henry H. Uhlhorn, cor- 
ner of Fifth and Sycamore streets, and occupying a quarter of a block. 
For a number of years Mr. Uhlhorn has successfully conducted a largely 
increased business very ably and creditably to his reputation. Recently 
he has remodeled and renovated his machinery, and is now amply able 
to meet, satisfactorily, all demands made upou his Works. To do the 
heavier work of the establishment, it requires an engine of 40-horse 
power, which runs some four gangs of saws, and which, when tested, 
can cut through 300 or 400 cubic feet of Stone per diem. Marble is 
sawed, as many, though not all persons, know, by the friction upon 
the block of long strips of soft iron with a smooth edge, called saws, 
aided by sharp sand and a constant supply of water. In all Steam 
Marble Works, and especially in tliese, a large number of these saNvs 
are arranged in frames, attached to a longlever connected with the main 
shaft of the engine, and when in operation have a quick backward and 
forward motion. There are also Boring Machines for making indenta- 
tions in Pedestals and w'ork of that class. Also, a ponderous Revolving 
Bed, for polishing, made of Cast Iron, 11^ feet in diameter and weigh- 
ing 9,000 pounds. This bed, when properly braced, makes sixty revo- 
lutions per minute, and, as we have been informed, cau do more work 
in one day than twenty-five men. These and other improved facilities 
enable Mr. Uhlhorn to execute work both satisfactorily aiid rapidly. 
These works employ constantly during the season about forty men, and 
as it is the practice of the proprietor, not onl}^ to secure the best 
native and foreign artists in Carving and Designing, but to stimulate 
their ambition by rewards and liberal remuneration, he is thus enabled 
to execute orders in every branch of the Marble manufacture — Monu- 
ments, Tombs, Statuary, Marble Table and Bureau Tops, and all classes 
of Building and Grave Yard Work — from a simple Slab to a Sculp- 
tured Statue. In connection with the Works there is, also, a depart- 
ment for cutting Stone for all classes of building-work ; and in all its 



MARBLE, BUILDING STONE AND BRICK WORKS. 375 

relations, we liave the satisfaction of saying, this concern has kept pace 
with the thriving city of Evansville, while the fruits of Uhlhorn's en- 
terprise may be seen in the beautiful forms designed by him for many 
buildings, public and private, while in Monumental Art, his triumphs 
are written, not only in the Cemeteries of Evansville, but on the 
Mausoleums and resting places of the dead throughout many of the 
Western and Southern States. 

EMPIRE STEAM STONE WORKS. 
The Empire Steam Stone Works, corner Fourth and Vine 
streets, are owned by the firm of Albaker & Caden. Mr. Albaker 
died recently, but the firm name has not been changed. They 
eni^jloy some thirty men at the Works in this city, and use an en- 
gine of 25-hor8e power, built by Wm. Heilman, and which runs 
three gangs of Saws. They also woi-k a Quarry in Waren county, 
Kentucky, near Bowling Greeu, where they employ twenty men. 
They confine their operations altogether to Building Stone, and 
have constructed many elegant House Fronts, not only in this, 
but other cities. In 1870, they were the succesful bidders for the 
solid and massive Stone Fi'ont to the Masonic Hall, at Indiana- 
polis, which cost $18,000. Their annual business will average 
$25,000. 

Brick Manufactories. 

We have elsewhere, and in various ways, manifested the ex- 
tensive growth and development of the city of Evansville — in the 
increase in the different departments of trade, both commercial 
and manufacturing — in the enhanced market value of Real Estate 
— in the enumeration and voting statistics, and in the number and 
value of the buildings erected. These glowing pictures, liowever, 
are re-substantiated in the number of Brick manufactured and 
consumed in the city, and may, after all, speak more forcibly than 
we could have done in mere words. The indications at the begin- 
ning of the year were, that owing to the stringency of the money 
market, following upon the contraction of currency, one of the 
direful results of the never- to-be-forgotton "panic," and the un- 
certainty and distrust of business operations for the approaching 
season, that very little building would be entered upon. The 
Brick-makers and Lumber Manufacturers and Importers were in 
a doubtful fog as to the demand for materials, and a general feel- 
ing was prevalent that very inconsiderable progress would be 



37t5 EVANSV^LLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUEES. 

made either in Llie way of public or private irnprovenieiits. But 
the financial enibarrussaients which were anticipated did not seri- 
ously aflfect the city, contidence began to be restored, a healthy 
demand for real estate sprang up, the actual requirements ol busi- 
ness and the necessities of comfort could not be set aside, and, per 
sequence, building was engaged in with an earnestness that assur- 
edly gave evidence of permanent prosperity. 

It is, therefore, estimated by prominent manufacturers that 
tlie total number of Brick manufactured in the city and suburbs, 
for the year 1874, will reach 35,000,000, and will foot up in finan- 
cial value to not less than $200,000. It must be remembered, per 
interim., that nearly a mile of Brick Sewerage was constructed in 
the city during the year; that a large number of Brick Pavements 
were laid, and that a vast quantity of Bvansville Brick were 
shipped to other points. The trade in this line was very consid- 
erably larger than ever before. Two of the leading coiicerns em- 
ploy steam, and one of these — only in the business since Septem- 
ber, 1873— added 8,000,000 Bricks as its first year's product. 
Altogether there are thirteen Yards, either in the city or near its 
corporate lines. 

THE EVANSVILLE HYDRAULIC PRiESS BRICK COMPANY. 

The most remarkable, as well as the largest Brick Works, 
near the city, are those owned by the Evansville Hydraulic Press 
Brick Co. This Company was organized in March, 1873, under 
the State laws, is provided with the proper charter, etc., and is 
controlled by a Company of Stockholders, of whom Messrs. 
Semonin & Dixon are the principals. The officers at present are 
as follows : G^eo. L. Dixon, President; Herman Engel, Secretary 
and Treasurer; W. L. Parker, Superintendent. The Works are 
situated on the Cynthiana Road, beyond the Crescent City Springs, 
about one-fourth of a mile. The property includes twenty-four 
acres of ground, and the buildings comjjrise ten • lUamps," Press 
Rootns, Engine Rooms, Blacksmith Shops, Stables, etc. 

It may be well enough for us to state, in a runjiing wa}^ the 
manner in which these Works are conducted, and while avoiding 
voluminous points, we shall strive more especially to please the 
seeker after ireneral information. Of course, the earth required 
in the making of Brick, is first thoroughly plowed and harrowed 
before it is hauled to the extensive Sheds. From the Sheds a 



MARBLE, BUILDING STONE AND BRICK WORKS. 377 

railroad contrivance is used to conduct the raw material to the 
KoUers, situated in the Press Eoom, where the stuff is thorough Ij' 
ground and impounded and all lumjis and clods removed. From 
the Rollers it is elevated to a large Hopper in the story above, 
where a Eevolving Rake feeds the Press below, the process being 
very similar to the flouring-mill system. The Clay then reaches 
the Press, completely pulverized and dry, and without a semblance 
of moisture in its composition. 

The Press, itself, is an admirably constructed piece of mechan- 
ism, and is worked by hydraulic pressure, and constructed on the 
plan of the compress machine. Two Cylinders with counter- 
action, working upper and lower, constitute the power. The upper 
Cylinder weighs nearly 7,000 pounds, and the entire weight of the 
Machine will reach seventeen tons. Dry Clay is run into the 
Moulds and subjected to this powerful pressure, and "Green 
Brick" are thus transformed into a substance, compact, tough and 
solid and without that brittle nature and porousness to be seen in 
Brick made by the old hand system. It requires the close and 
constant attention of two men to remove the Brick from this 
Press, and while the Machine is in full running order, the}^ have 
no time to swap knives or " skj^lark." The capacity of this Machine 
is eighty Bricks per minute, or an average of 40,000 per diem, in 
a run of ten hours. 

After the " Green Brick" are pressed, thej^ are removed by 
hand-barrow to the " clamps," a feature suppljnng the place of, 
but a great improvement on, the old-fashioned kiln. An intel- 
ligible idea of their construction may begainedby describing them 
as built in the form of a hollow-square, with walls 42 inches thick. 
Their floors are built over iron frames, and each Clamp has fifteen 
eyes with cast-iron doors, frames and grates. Each Clamp has 
capacity for 240,000 Bricks, placed in arched pyramidical shape 
over the furnaces, leaving a space between each one so that the 
heat permeats the entire kiln, and the burning is as complete as 
possible. All of the heat produced in the furnaces is confined and 
concentrated within these Clamps, and when we consider this, and 
in addition, calculate the cost of coal, at 10c a bushel, as com- 
pared with wood at $3 50 per cord, it will be seen that the fore- 
going system is not only a rapid plan, but one also economical 
and very n^ar jDcrfect. A triumphant proof of the superiority and 
durability of the Hydraulic Press Brick was made in a critical 
48 



378 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

and decisive trial before a number oJ experienced builders and 
mechanics, February 27, 1874, A hand-made Brick was first 
selected by a practical brick-layer and placed on a well-seasoned 
White Oak plank, 3f inches in thickness. On the application ot 
122,500 pounds or 61J^ tons of pressure by the Hydraulic Press, 
the Brick was crushed into dust. JNext a Pressed Brick was se- 
lected and placed upon the same plank, lying aci'ossthe grain. A 
pressure of 304,300 pounds, or 152^ tons was then submitted, and 
at this point about three-quarters of an inch in average broke 
from the end, leaving the balance ot the Brick solid and unin- 
jured. After the Brick had been released, it was found that an 
indentation five-eighths of an inch in depth had been made in the 
plank, showing the wonderful strength and endurance of this 
article of building material. 

We would like to speak more at length as to the facilities of 
this Company, but find our account already quite extended. The 
motive power of the Works is obtained from a superb Walking- 
beam Engine of 125-horse power, built by Schultze. Thuman & 
Co., of this city. They have also the latest improvements — a 
Patent Heater for purifying water for their excellent Four-flue 
Boilers, a '• Doctor " Engine, for pumping water into the same, 
besides other conveniences. They employ from thirty to forty 
men, and manufactured, this year, 8,000,000 Brick, valued at 
$50,000. 

NIAGARA BRICK WORKS. 
K. W. Stieneker, JS'o. 14 West Iowa street, has control of the 
Niagara Steam Brick Works, which emploj^s a process of manu- 
facture different from that we have detailed, but which combines 
many points worthy of consideration. He employs about twelve 
men, and manufactures Brick more especially for the City Con- 
tractors and Builders. 

I*otterie.s, Terra Cotta and Stone Ware Manufactories. 

The above branch of business is represented in Evansville hx 
four establishments, transacting, entire, a business of about $30,- 
000 per annum. They are located as follows: Jacob Daum k 
Son., 600 East Ohio street; A. & L. TJhl, 900 Main street; Vital 
Waltz, 26 William street, and Jno. Zimmerman, 1,309 Division 
street. They manufacture all kinds of Stone Ware, Water Pipes, 
Stove Flues, Flower Pots, Fancy Flower Vases, etc. 



MARBLE, BUILDIKG 8TONE AND BETCK WOKKS. :^.79 

A. & L. UHL'S EVANSVILLE STEAM POTTEEY. 

The largei^t establishment in this line, is the Bvansville Steam 
Pottery, of the Messrs. Uhl. On page 172 we have introduced 
some historical tacts relative to the manufacture of Crockery, but 
the process is so interesting that vp^e cannot refrain from mention- 
ing, briefly, its condition as locally considered The Evansville 
Steam Pottery, therefore, may be classed among our remarkable 
manufactories. It is possessed of facilities over many others, by 
having perfect macliinery for grinding and otherwise preparing 
the raw material, and assisting the workmen in their dexterous 
operations. These advantages are manifiest alike in the I'apidity 
with which articles apparently intricate are produced and in the 
superiority of their Wares. The making of a .lug, for instance 
is a much more speedy, and yet skillful operation, than one would 
suppose. After the Cla}^ has been properly prepared by moisten- 
ing, grinding and kneading, it is divided into lumps of the re- 
quired size and weight of the Jug to be made, and the lumps are 
successively placed upon a Revolving Throwing Wheel. The 
workman then introduces his thumb, in the center of the lump, 
and, by pressure of the thumb and fingers of one hand on the in- 
side, and a square flat piece of lignum-vitre on the outside of the 
Clay, gradually draws it up in the thin circulai- form of a Jug, 
and through the same means draws the upper edge inward, so as 
to form the nozzle, in an incredibly brief space of time — the han- 
dle being subsequently formed and stuck on. After the evapora- 
tion of their moisture, the Jugs thus formed ai-e packed com- 
pactly in the Kiln for baking, from which they cv)me out ex- 
tremely hard and tough. 

This firm has two large Kilns, which consume 500 cords of 
wood annually, besides 5,000 bushels of coal, while, in the same 
time, 500 tons of Clay are fabricated into almo«t «very variety of 
form and size of articles of Stone Hollow Ware, from the smallest 
Beer Bottle to a Half-barrel Jug. 

Hydraulic Cement Drain Pipe Works. 

Wm. Allen, successor to Lant & Allen, Manufacturer of Hy- 
draulic Cement Drain Pipes, has his establishment at the corner 
of Fourth and Powell streets. His works are 185x85 feef large, 
and, with the necessary machinery used, requires an engine of 
12-hoT8e power. The process of manufacture is peculiar to this 



380 EVANSVILLIi: HEK COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

branch of business. The material is a concrete composition made 
of the best Hydraulic Cement, with clean, sharp Gravel carefully 
proportioned and mixed, and, as is well known by Hydraulic En- 
gineers, has the property of continually hardening, until it be- 
comes a veritable stone. It is not affected by ordinary acids, hot 
or cold vapors, or gases; can be cut to connect other drains 
without fear of breaking, and for all practical qualities has been proven 
imperishable. For Drains and Sewers it is highly recommended, and 
is rapidly superseding Brick Sewers, except for the largest sizes. It is 
made under heavy pressure in iron moulds, and presents a smooth, 
straight interior surface, offering the least possible resistance to the 
flow of sewrage. For Culverts on Railroads and Turnpikes ; Chim- 
ney Flues and Ornamental Tops and Green and Hot House Flues, this 
Pipe is being extensively used. Mr. Allen makes all sizes of Drain 
and Sower Pipes, Connections, Elbows, "Y" and "T" Branches, 
Stench Traps, Hot and Cold Air Flues, Ornamental Chimney Tops, 
etc., and solicits patronage fi-om Engineers, Architects, Builders and 
Plumbers in this city and elsewhere. 

Leather and its Manufactures. 

The sale of Hides and the manufacture and sale of the various 
kinds of Leather, has grown to be one of the leading pursuits of Evans- 
ville, and a large portion of that produced in the interior of this and 
adjoining States finds a market here. We find that the leading kinds 
produced are Oak Sole, Upper, Kips, Bridle, Skirting and Harness 
Leathers, while some kinds of Morocco are also made. At present 
there are eight Tanneries within or near the city limits ; which tan 
about seventy thousand hides annually, principally slaughter hides, be- 
sides Calfskins, and the amount of business in this line will probably 
exceed five hundred thousand dollars annually. All of the Tanner- 
ies have warehouses or business offices in the city. They are 
located as follows : Jacob Britz, 415 Main street ; Henry Bunge, 204 
West Columbia street; Francis X. Faller, 212 Douglas avenue; Pfist- 
ner, Ritt & Co., 222 Upper Water street ; Anthony Reis, 12 Main and 
110 West Michigan streets ; Albert vSteinbach, 418 Main street, and 
Topf & Long, 109 Upper First street. The following firms deal in 
Leather and Findings, but do not own Tanneries : J. O. Flicknor, 28 
Main street; Thos. Kerth, 219 Main street, and Wm. Wagner & Co., 
412 Upper Fourth street. 



LEATHER AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 381 

The Hide and Leather business, although possessing the greatest 
apparent affinity, and should be collectively one and the same, 
frequently form two distinct branches of trade, and are divided be- 
tween the dealers on the one part and the manufacturers on the other. 
That is, probably two-thirds of the Hides purchased in this market are 
manufactui'ed here, and the other third is exported to other cities, the 
superior qualities as a general thing being those that are retained. 
In addition, then, to the figures we have made, were we to speak of 
the business of the several Curriers and workers in finishing Calf-skins, 
Harness and Upper Leathers, the total amount would appear much 
greater. 

The great demand foi- Hides, both here and at all points, 
since the war, has created sharp competition between the Dealers 
and Tanners, until the producer has been able to realize as much, 
if not more, for his product at this point, than in almost any 
market in the country. The Hides produced in this section, are 
finely suited to the manufacture of Upper Leather for Shoes, and 
to the various grades of Saddlery Leather, but are not so good for 
Sole Leather, from they- deficiency in that " plumpness " found in 
the Texas and South American Hides. Evansville-made Leather 
is principally exported to the vSouthern States, and the greater part 
of the Sole Leather consumed here, is exported from the celebrated 
Tanneries at Buffalo, New York. Several thoiisand Hog Skins are 
tanned here also, for Saddle Skirting. TheChestnutOak Bark, used 
in this business is procured from the regions lying along the Up- 
per Ohio and Tennessee Rivers, and in all respects lOvansville 
presents an extremely favorable site for this important trade 
interest. 

ANTHONY REIS— PIONEER TANNERY. 

The Pioneer Tannery, founded by Anthony Reis, now some 
twenty years ago, is located at the corner of Michigan street and 
Fifth avenue. Mr. Reis gives employment to forty-five men, and 
uses an Engine of 20-horse power, made by Reitz & Haney. He 
has all the necessary improved machinery, and runs one of Star-* 
buck Bros., Trojan Bark Mills. He tans about 25,000 Hides per 
annum, valued at $75,000. He manufactures Saddle and Shoe 
Leather exclusively, and numbers his customers from New York, 
Philadelphia, and particularly the cities of the Far West ; St. 
Joseph, Kansas City, Omaha and several cities in New Mexico. 



382 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERdE AND MANUFACTURES. 

PFISTNER RITT & CO. S TANNERY. 
Pfistner Ritt & Co., have their Salesroom at 222 Upper Water 
street, and their Tannery on Franklin street and Pigeon creek. 
They employ ton men. Their Engine is of 10-horse power, built 
by Wm. Heilman. They also run the Trojan Bark Mill. They 
have only been in the trade two and a half years under the pres- 
ent firm style, but have already secured a fine trade. They tan 
5,000 Hides per annum, valued at $15,000. 

ALBERT STEINBACH— TANNER AND CURRIER. 
Albert Steinbach has a Tannery on Lincoln avenue ; a Collar Fac- 
tory on Douglas avenue, and a Saddlery Manufactory at 418 Main 
street. He employs steam and all requisite machinery and works 18 
men. His products will amount to 10,000 Hides for Harness and 
Upper Leather, besides about 1,000 Hog Skins per annum. 

TOFF & LONG— TANNERS. CURRIERS, ETC. 
Messrs. Topf ife Long, No. 109 Upper First street, engage in all 
branches ot the business, being Tanners and Curriers, Manufacturers 
of Saddles, Harness, Collars, Saddle-trees «and Wholesale Dealers in 
Saddlery Hardware. They employ altogether about 70 men. Their 
Steam Tannery is on Seventh avenue, where they tan about 12,- 
000 or 15,000 Hides per annum — mostly Upper. Kips, Collar, 
Skirting, Harness and Lace Leathers. 

SMALLER TANNERIES. 
Joseph Britz, 415 Main street, and F. X. Faller, 212 Douglas 
avenue, will tan about 5,000 Hides per annum each. In ad- 
dition to the foregoing there are several Tanneries outside of the 
city, whose products find a market here, but are not enumerated 
above. 

Saddlery and Saddlery Hardware, 

Considerable difficulty has been experienced hy the writer in 
properly defining and estimating the trade, coming under the 
above tri-caption, for we have in the city several different branches \ 
similar in their nature, it is true, but in a measure seperate and j 
distinct in their dealings. Thus we found in our peregrinations, j 
the houses of Topf & Long, 109 Upper First street ; Wack & Mil-| 
ler, 20 Upper First street, and Wolff & Oliver. 204 Upper First! 
street, the leading dealers in Saddlery Hardware, and Manufacrl 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 373 



C. WOLFF. M. W. OLIVER. 

WOLFF & OLIVER, 

Manufacturers and Wholesale Dealers in 

SADDLES, HARNESS, COLLABS, 

SADDLERY HARDWARE. ETC., 
No. 304 FIRST STREET, 

WACK & MILLER, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 



AND DEALERS IN 

SADDLERY HARDWARE, 

sic3-:isr OF bigs- colXj-a-I?,. 

No. 20 Upper First Street, Akin's Block, 
EYANSVILLE, INDIANA. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Lfiatler, Sailes, HarDess. Collars. 

And WholosiileDealers in 

SADDLERY HARDWARE, 

309 Upper Third Street, 



Proprietors of Crescent City Taiinery4 



384 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCE AND MANUFAOTUEES. 

turers of Saddles, Harness, etc; while the houses of Thornhill & 
Son, 306 Upper Second street; B. Weber & Son, 121 Upper Third 
street; F. Hennicke, 108 Upper Third street; A, Steinback, 418 
Main street, and a half dozen smaller concerns, manufacturers of 
Saddles and Harness, etc. But having triumphed over the task 
of classification, we are able to estimate the combined business of 
the city for 1874, at figures nearj^ye hundred thousand dollars . 

It is a fact well known to persons who are at all familiar with 
the history of Industry in our midst, that the Saddle and Harness 
Makers of Bvansville have invariably carried off the " palm," at 
local Exhibitions and Fairs, for the quality and workmanship of 
their specimens. The special causes conducive to this superiority 
are manifold ; nearly all the raw material consumed, especially 
the Leather, is made here, of the vei-y best quality ; the workmen, 
as a general thing, have permanent employment, and the manu- 
facturers have an established reputation for faithful work, which 
they are determined to maintain. Their solvency and character 
in the trade enable them to buy at the lowest rates; and the sys- 
tem of business involves much less ostentation, and consequently 
less expense than in many cities, where the Saleshouse and Fac- 
tory are distinct and seperate establishments, even if owned by 
the same parties. In this city the goods are generally manufac- 
tured and offered for sale under the same roof. And one impor- 
tant feature worthy investigation, is thefact that they throw down 
the gauntlet and agree to duplicate any legitimate bill St. Louis, 
Chicago or Cincinnati can get up. 

This branch of manufactures is also diversified ; and Ave have been 
informed by a leading manufacturer, that, of Saddles, there are prob- 
ably not less than five hundred various styles and qualities, including 
in"part, Texas, English and Spanish Saddles, Ladies' Side Saddles and 
Boys' Saddles, with a proportionate quantity of " Horse Millinery " 
or Furniture, such as Bridles, Bridle Mountings, Martingales, Girths, 
Circingles, Stirrups and Leathers, Saddle Bags, etc. ; besides an almost 
unlimited number of styles and qualities in Harness, either for Carri- 
ages, Buggy, Sulky, Stage or Omnibus ; while in coarse Harness for 
Carts, Drays, Wagons and Plows, thei-e is also great diversity. In ad- 
dition, some of the houses enumerated above have facilities for manu- 
facturing Horse Collars, Saddle-trees, Whips and other articles of 
that character whose relations with this trade are so intimate, that 
they may properly be considered in the same chapter. 



LEATHER AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 385 

WOLFF & OLIVER— WHOLESALE MANUFACTURERS OF SAD- 
DLERY, ETC. 

This house is one of the most prominent and one of the oldest in 
the trade, having been established by Mr. Charles Wolff about fifteen 
years ago. He first occupied the stand at the corner of Second and 
Main street, now held by John Rasch as a boot and shoe store. In 
1872 the business of the house had increased to such an extent Mr. 
WolflT removed to No. 204 Upper First street, where he has .since en- 
gaged in manufacturing on a large scale. When in full operation they 
employ from 40 to 45 men, and manufacture very superior styles and 
qualities of Saddles, Harness, Bridles, Collars, Girths and all manner 
of" Horse Millinery," or "Bridle Trousseau " for serviceable quadruped. 

February 14th, 1867, witnessed the arrival in the city of Mr. M. 
W. Oliver, a young gentleman, from Kentucky, who began work as a 
salesman for Mr. Wolff. After seven years' faithful service, like 
Jacob who labored that period for the hand of Rachael, he was re- 
warded by admittance to a copartnership, July 1st, 1874. It was a 
merited promotion, and we will undertake to say that no salesman ever 
penetrated the tributary section in search of trade more popular or 
more universally regarded with approbation. Very like Yorick — "a 
fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy," he has contributed no 
little to render the fame of the house as practical and enterprising 
dealers, as wide-spread as the knowledge of their tried integrity, and 
persons who rely on the judgement and representations of Messrs. Wolff 
& Oliver, are in no way likely to be deceived or to regret their pur- 
chases. 

WACK & MILLER— WHOLESALE MANUFACTURERS OF SAD- 
DLERY, ETC. 

This firm comprises gentlemen who have been uninterrupt- 
edly engaged in the Saddlery Business almost from boyhood — in 
fact, are professional in a knowledge of its peculiarities, and the 
industry, integrity, skill and taste displayed by them, has founded 
and fostered an extensive business, and a perseverance in the prin- 
ciples with which they commenced has kept them, amid all the 
vicissitudes of surroundings in the front rank of the Saddlery 
business in the State. They date their organization as Steiuback, 
Wack & Co., from 1867. In 1871 that firm was dissolved, two 
members thereof forming the present firm. Until December Ist, 
1872, they occupied the building corner Main and Fourth streets, 
but are now located in the splendid house, No. 20 Akin'e Block, 
49 



386 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Upper FijL'st street. When under full headway, this house em- 
ploys seventy men, and manufactures all kinds of Saddles, Har- 
ness. Horse Collars, Saddle Trees, besides selling Saddlery Hard- 
ware, principally to the Southern trade. 

Trunk Manufactories. 
In this branch of manufactures, David Baer, No. 21 Main 
street, alone occupies the field. He began this business in a very 
small way, but has so increased as to give employment to some 
twenty persons, and turns out about three hundred Trunks per week. 
The principal articles manufactured by him are nearly all sizes 
of Saratoga, Traveling and Packing, Sole Leather and Imitation 
Sole Leather Trunks, Valises, Traveling Bags, Traveling and 
School Satchels, Reticules, etc. These he makes in sizes and 
prices to soit almost any demand, and claims to sell superior arti- 
cles as low as any Eastern manufacturer, and, perhaps, a fraction 
less. 



Beer and Brewing, and Kindred Branches. 

Among the early products of industry during the Colonial 
period of America's historj" was Wine and Beer. Bishop, in his 
" History of American Manufactures," tells us that at the time 
of the settlement of the American Colonies, Tea, Coffee and Choc- 
olate were almost unknown, even in England, their place being 
supplied by Fermented Liquors. From the earliest Anglo-Saxon 
times, whence we have probablj^ derived the name of our Malt 
Liquors, Ale and Beer, or Wine, had been the principal beverage 
in England, as Mead had been with the ancient Britons and the 
Irish. According to an ancient Saxon dialogue. Wine was with 
them the drink of the ''elders and the wise," while the common 
people drank "Ale, if they had it; water, if they had it not." 
The Brewer of bad Ale was by them consigned to the ducking- 
chair, or mulcted for his neglect. Nearer the times of which we 
write, a quart of Beer and a quart of Wine, always formed a part 
of the breakfast of my lord and lady of Northumberland. Ale 
and Beer were first made without Hops, which were not raised in 
England until about 1524. An old writer says : 
"Hops, reformation, bays and beer, 
Came into England all in one year." 

The price of Beer in the Thirteenth Century was regulated 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 387 



COOK & EICE'S FEEUroU LASEE BEER. 



CITY BREWERS, 



COOK & B1€E, Proprietors, 



MANUPACTUEERS OF 



LAGER BEER &8T0CK ALE. 



AND DEALERS IN 



Eons, Malt ni Brewers' Suilies. 



OFFIGE, 214 UPPER SEVENTH STREET, 



EVANSVILLE, IND. 



388 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

according to that of Corn and Wine, and itn cheapness in the 
Sixteenth, favored an enormous consumption. The extent may 
be inferred that it was then seldom absent on an}^ occasion, from 
the courtly banquet to the humble repast of the cottage ! No less 
than 23,000 gallons were drank at a single entertainment given to 
Queen Elizabeth, at Kenilworth. English Beer was reputed to be 
the best in Europe. It was brewed in March, and by persons ot 
consequence was not used until it was a year old. The Monaste- 
ries in early times, brewed the best Ale, as they made the best Wine: 
and even the Halls of Science were not less celebrated for their Ale 
than for their learning. As late as the year 1748, when in Eng- 
land and America Tea began to displace the use of Malt Liquors, 
the laureate Warton, in his ode to Oxford Ale, laments the declin- 
ing popularity of a beverage, which he is not alone, in represent- 
ing to be the salvation of the British Nation. 

But we cannot follow history in its track, from the time w^hen 
our ancestors 

" Learned the noble secret how to brew," 

But shall more definitely speak of its local business. It is said 
that the manufacture of Lager Beer was introduced into this 
country about thirty 3'ears ago, from Bavaria, where the process 
of Brewing was kept secret for along period. Its reception was 
not a very cordial or welcome one, and about twelve years elapsed 
before its use became at all general. Within the last few years, 
however, the consumption has increased so enormouslj^, not 
merely among the German population, but among the natives, 
that its manufacture forms an important item of productive in- 
dustry. The superior quality of that made in Kvansville has, no 
doubt, increased the demand in this section; and by diminishing, 
to some extent, the use of fieiy Liquor, who will not say it has 
not effected, at least, partial good? " Lager " signifies " kept'' or 
"on hand ;" and Lager Beer is equivalent to "Beer in store." It 
can be made from the same cereals from which other Malt Li- 
quors are made; but Barley is the grain generally used. The 
process resembles that of brewing Ale and Porter, with some 
points of difference, and the brewing generally forms a seperate 
and distinct business. 

The reputation of Bvansville Beer is wide-spread in popularity, 
and is extending into everj^ quarter of the country that our com- 
merce is known, and at present, the Malt Liquors made in Evans- 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



389 



CHARLES 8CHAIIM & CO., 



PROPRIETORS OF TEE 





Iki^i 




wmm Sis 




Corner Seventh Av. and Water St. 
EVANS V ILL E, INDIANA. 



Keep constantly on hand the best of Barley, Rye and Corn Malt and 

Hops for Breweries and Distillers. Also, purchasers of 

Barley, Rye and Corn, at the highest 

market price. 



390 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

ville take precedence in many cities of the South and West. The 
qualities for which they are most distinguished, are purity, bril- 
liancy of color, richness of flavor, and non-liability to deteriora- 
tion in warm countries; qualities, the result in part, of the pecu- 
liar characteristics of our waters, in part of the intelligence, care 
and experience of our brewers, conjoined with the use of appara- 
tus possessing all the best modern improvements made in this 
country or elsewhere. The process of making this highly popu- 
lar and health-giving beverage is very interesting, but limited 
space forbids a close following thereof in a mere sketch. We will 
only say, that strangers, who come to Evansville, should not fail 
to avail themselves of a visit to, and an insight into their work- 
ings. 

One of the largest and most admirably conducted establishments 
of the kind in the Western country is 

COOK & RICE'S CITY BREWERY. 

It is located on Seventh street, between Main and Sycamore, and 
the concern, altogether, occupies just half a square. It is an establish- 
ment of such a favorably known reputation, that it almost seems use- 
less for us to say anything complimentary. The concern is divided 
into several compartments, including a splendid Malt House, 140 feet 
deep, 40 feet wide, 2^ stories high and with spacious cellars in which 
they keep from 5,000 to 10,000 bushels of barley constantly on hand. 
In connection therewith are two large steeping tubs which have a ca- 
pacity for 300 bushels of barley each, and a superb Kiln with capacity 
for drying 400 bushels of malt in 24 hours, the entire malting capacity 
of the concern being 50,000 bushels per annum. The Brewery Build- 
ing proper is an excellent new brick structure, three stories high, and 
140x50 feet in its dimensions. In this building may be found the 
business office, the hop room, the engine and machine rooms, the brew 
house and a number of fermenting cellars and sub-cellars. In this 
building they have a new Brewing Copper which cost $2,000 and is 
large enough to boil 115 barrels of Beer at once. The furnace under 
this Brewing Copper is built after the patent of Prof. Balling. An ad- 
joining apartment is supplied with a Copper Cooler known as Baude- 
lot's Improved Patented Refrigerator and Beer Cooler, and which has 
capacity for fifty barrels of beer per hour from boiling heat down to 40° 
Fahrenheit. 

In another department of this same building are the ice-houses 



BEER AND BREWING, AND KINDRED BRANCHES. 391 

built over subterranean Beer Cellars. There are four of these latter ; 
the first two are arched cellars, one above the other, the lower one be- 
ing 35 feet below the surface of the earth. Over these are two ice- 
houses containing, together, 500 tons of ice. The third cellar is of 
patented construction, with galvanized sheet iron ceiling, and has above 
it an ice-house containing about 400 tons of ice. The fourth cellar is 
built after an entirely new plan, patented by. Fisher, of Chicago. 
There is, also, an ice-house above it. There are large casks and fer- 
menting vats in all the cellars, and to give an idea how much cellar 
room the firm has, we may state that if the cubic measure was aggre- 
gated, it would be, if strung out equal in length to about one-half mile, 
10 feet high and 10 feet wide. To -fill this immense space, it would re- 
quire 800 casks of 25 barrels each, and 798 casks of 10 barrels each, 
and if all these were placed side by side they would reach one and a 
half miles. Altogether their space admits of 27,980 barrels. The 
actual brewing of the concern is on an average from 700 to 800 barrels 
of Beer per week, or probably not less than 40,000 barrels per annum. 
They use about 3,000 tons of ice yearly, employ all the latest improved 
steam apparatus, do their own cooperage, employ about thirty men, 
and run six teams in the city alone. But a great part of the Beer 
manufactured by Messrs. Cook & Rice is sold to points in Southern In- 
diana, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee and Arkansas. The extent of 
business done by them is the best evidence of the high repute in which 
their products are held. The firm is composed of Mr. Fred. Cook, 
who is the sole owner and proprietor, but who retains the old firm 
name which the Brewery worked under before his partner's decease. 
A live, thorough-going business man, in 1865 he was chosen to repre- 
.sent Vanderburgh county in the Indiana Legislature, and but few men 
are more popular or more courteous than our worthy fellow-citizen, 
Hon. Fred. W. Cook. 

CHARLES SCHAUM & CO.— MALSTERS. 

One of the largest Malting establishments in the West, is the 
one in this city, owned by Messrs. Chas. Schaum & Co. It was 
built during 1871-2, at a cost of $60,000, and is located near the 
St. Louis and Southeastern Railroad, occupying all of one square, 
and having four fronts, one each on Seventh avenue, and Water, 
Third and Short streets. The building is exactly 120 feet square, 
and built of brick, five-stories high, two of which are ' subterra- 
nean. It is constructed in the Castellated style of architecture, 



392 EVAKSVILLE; HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

and has four towers, one at each end, besides middle projections. 
It required 2,500.000 brick to complete it. It is highly compli- 
mented by men practical in the business, as being one of the most 
comprehensive and admirably adapted concerns of its character 
to be found in the country. It has all of the latest improve- 
ments necessary to conduct the Malting business on an enlarged and 
efficacious plan. There are Steam Elevators ; three Steam Dryers, 
made by VV. Hughes & Son, of Philadelphia, under their patent 
of August 24, 1869. These Dryers cost $2,400, and are the only 
ones of the kind in the West. The Engine employed is of 30- 
horse power, built by Wm. Heilman. 

The entire capability of this 'immense concern presents storage 
room for not less than 300,000 bushels of grain. Its sprouting capac- 
ity is 2,000 bushels of Malt per diem, and so far as our information 
goes, it is, as before stated, the largest and most complete establishment 
of the kind in the Western States. Though not put to full test the 
present season, Messrs. Schaum & Co. malted nearly 75,000 bushels — 
including Barley, Rye and Corn Malt — which they sold to the Brew- 
eries and Distilleries in this city and the adjacent country. 

^'KR(ENER'S OLD BREWERY." 

The ■' Old Brewery " of P. Kroener & Son, is on Fulton 
avenue, between Fifth and Sixth streets. It was built in 1836 by 
Rice & Kroener, who continued in partnership until 1857. Sev- 
eral years since Mr. F. Kroener died, since which time the manage- 
ment of affairs has devolved on his son, Mr. Casimer Kroener. 
The concern covers three-fourths of a block. Their Malt House 
is three stories high, and has capacity for 10,000 bushels of Malt. 
Usually, they keep on hand 6,000 bushels. They have, in addi- 
tion, all the necessary Ice Houses, Kilns, Mills, Elevators, Cellars 
and Sub-Cellars. One of their Cellars is constructed after the 
Fisher Patent, and has peculiar ventilating qualities, regulating 
the temperature of the Cellar by an ingenious contrivance, con- 
ducted on the feasible law, that hot air rises and cold descends. The 
atmosphere consequently passes up over the Ice House above, and 
returns greatly cooled. Their Ice Houses have capacity for 1,200 
tons of Ice per annum. They employ ten men, and run an Engine 
of 12-horse power made by Wm. Heilman. The aggregate an- 
nual product of this establishment, in full season, is about 15,000 
barrels of Beer. In addition, they also brew and bottle about 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 8d8 



F. W. COOK. A. BERNARDIN. 



A. BEMARDIN & CO., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



IMPROVED 




AMERICAN GINGER ALEj 

SELTERS WATER, 



AND THE CELEBRATED 



POMOmC CHAMPAGNE. 



Manufactory, 712 and 714 Main Street. 
Office, 214 Upper Seventli Street. 



50 



394 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

2,000 barrels of Ale per.annutn. Their Beer finds sale not only 
in this citj', but throughout the Southwest. 

M. STUMPF'S EVANSVILLE BREWERY. 
The well-known " Evansville Brewery," of which M. Stumpf is 
proprietor, may be found at Nos. 529 and 531 Ingle street. It is now 
in the tenth year of its prosperity, and bids fair to increase and enlarge 
for many seasons to come. The main building is 125 feet square, and 
has room for one Malt Cellar, one Malt Kiln, three Ice Cellars, three 
Lager Beer Cellars and three Fermenting Cellars, one of the latter of 
Fisher's Patent. The actual capacity of this concern is about 15,000 
barrels of Beer per annum, aggregating not less than $150,000. So 
favorable is the reputation of Mr. Stumpf for manufacturing a supe- 
rior quality of Beer, that nearly all of his make is consumed in this city, 
and the nearest towns in Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky. 

ALE BOTTLING ESTABLISHMENTS. 

There are four establishments in the city devoted exclusively to 
the Bottling and Sale of Ale, Porter, Beer, etc. , located as follows : 
Fred. Kroener & Co., 13 Upper First street; P. Frick & Co., 9 Upper 
First street ; Aumiller & Fauss, 18 High street, and Geo. S. Fischer, 
708 West Franklin street. The combined business of these houses will 
amount to $70,000 per annum. It is claimed that the system of 
bottling Ale gives additional strength to its taste, as the Liquid under- 
goes a second fermentation. These houses are run most extensively 
during the Summer months, as their Liquids have greater sale in warm 
weather, and are, for the most part, intended as Summer Beverages. 

F. Kroener & Co.'s establishment is one of the largest of the 
kind, and employs during the Summer season, about eight men. 
They have a splendid Bottling Machine, patented by Hobbs, Tay- 
lor & Co., Wheeling, with six Tubes, and worked on the plan of 
the Syphon, capable of bottling fifty dozen per hour. Their 
Corking Machine, patented by Pfeister & Metzger, Cincinnati, 
has capacitj^ for seventy-five dozen per hour. The actual pro- 
ducts of the establishment will amount to 24,000dozen bottles per 
annum, aggregating $30,000, and is sold to this and adjacent cities, 
and even as far south as Memphis, Vicksburg and Natchez. 

The house of P. Frick & Co., is of similar size, and transacts 
about an equal amount of business as the one we have mentioned. 
This firm, however, use large quantities of Madison XX Ale, but 
buy their largest stocks from the Breweries ot thJB city. 



ADVEETISEMENTS. 396 



H, C, L. MEYER. FRED. RAHM. 

MEYER &RAHM, 

lEpi ill liiiligfifgl'S, 

No. 311 1-S FIRST STREET, 



21 



Music, Magazines and Serials Bound in the Latest Styles. Plain and 
Fancy Paper Boxes Made to Order. 

HATCH & MURRAY, 

Sail M Coimty Boai Contractors, 

Bridge Builders, 

EVANSVILLE, INDIANA. 



Are ready at all times to make Contracts on Rea- 
sonable Terms for Building: Roads 
and Furnishing Gravel. 

OFPIOB AT THE EVANSVILLE DRY DOCK. 



396 EVANSVILLB: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURE8. 

F. WEBER & BRO.'S FRANKLIN BREWERY. 
This establishment is on Fourth avenue, between Illinois and 
Franklin streets. They employ ten men and make about 6,000 bar- 
rels of Beer per annum. But recently they have turned attention 
more especially to Malting, and this year made about 20,000 bushels. 
They consumed about 700 tons of ice during 1874. 

THE WESTERN BREWERY. 
Fahnley, Kuhn & Co.'s Western Brewery is situated in Babytown, 
near the city, but since the recent death of Mr. Fahnley has not been 
in full operation. 

Mineral and Sellers Waters, and Potnonic Champagne. 

A man who creates a new and profitable branch of manufac- 
ture is a public benefactor ; but he who, in addition to this, furn- 
ishes the people with an article of drink, which partakes of nearly 
all the nutritive qualities of a beverage, without the frequent del- 
eterious effects of violent stimulants — an article which is health-giv- 
ing in all its properties, and the general use of which cannot fail to 
elevate the health average of the people — a man who does this, 
absolutely deserves the gratitude of his fellow-men. 

We desii-e, therefore, to cite an instance in point. Until quite 
recently, say the Summer of 1873, there was not in existence in 
the city of Bvansville, a well established Mineral Water Manufac- 
tory, but to-day the concern of Messrs. A. Bernardin & Co., Nos. 
712 and 714 Main street, most admirably fills the vacuum. En- 
gaged in the manufacture, bottling and sale of Artificial Mineral 
Waters as a beverage, they claim for their products many excel- 
lent medicinal qualities, which, no doubt, they contain, if popu- 
larity be a test of superior worth and efficacy. A visit to their 
establishment is convincement of their claims. They employ the 
most improved and novel Silver-lined Generating System, and use 
only the best and purest ingi'edi.ents. This patent was introduced 
into this country, from France, by M. Bernardin, about three 
years since. We can not undertake to note the varied and ap- 
parent advantages existing over the old system, but shall merely 
mention the more prominent. Under the former process Gas was 
produced chemically, at about 100 pounds pressure to the square 
inch, but the Liquid passed through with such a rush, that no time 
scarcely was allowed for purification. M. Bernardin 's system is bet- 
ter ; Gas is generated mechanically, and without any pressure, the 



BEER AND BREWING, AND KINDRED BRANCHES. 397 

Liquid passing into a Glass Indicator or Washei', where it bubbles 
continually, showing its purity and giving opportunity to the 
manufacturer to regulate at will. In the old system the pressure 
was so great that a Glass Washer would have been out of the 
question, and in the process Gas could be forced through only 
about four gallons of water, whereas, in the new process, the same 
Gas travels through about eighty gallons of water, the pressure 
being made by means of Steam Pumps, and the Liquid gasified in 
the Fountain. The points of advantage, therefore claimed, are 
these : Fresh ingredients free from extraneous matter, undoubted 
purity of Gas, better carbonization of water, security against loss 
of Gas, etc. Messrs, Bernardin & Co., have been complimented 
by Dr. H. W, Cloud, the well-known Chemist of this city, with a 
certificate, stating that the Gas obtained by them is the purest 
Carbonic Acid Gas he has ever seen generated. The manufactur- 
ing capacity of the house is 600 boxes, or 1,200 dozen bottles per 
day. Their Mineral Watei-s include all the popular flavors. Soda, 
Sarsaparilla, Lemon, etc. 

Another extensive branch of their business is the manufacture of 
Selters Water, which has, in a great degree, stopped foreign importa- 
tion, and is claimed by customers of this house in St. Louis and Cin- 
cinnati to surpass the well-known "Seltzer's" of Germany. These 
assumptions of superiority are seemingly well-grounded, too. The 
foreign article has been thoroughly analyzed, and its component ele- 
ments arrived at. To these, Messrs. Bernardin & Co. can add such 
minerals as are known to be the best, and, by concentration of qualities, 
secure greater strength as well as better carbonated gas. The stone 
jugs which contain the foreign article cannot stand more than three 
pounds of pressure, whereas, Bernardin & Co., in their improved and 
patented Syphon Glass, are enabled to charge with 125 to 150 pounds 
pressure, the Water retaining its freshness and vigor to the bottom. 
And again, frequently it occurs that the supposed "foreign article" is 
manufactured in Philadelphia and New York, so that very little can be 
gained and much is lost by ignoring home production. 

This firm has, also, a new invention in the beverage line in their 
" Pomonic Champagne." The word Pomonic is a derivative of the 
Latin Pomum — "an apple." It is made of the very purest and best 
crab cider, and by the superb gas-generating application, rendered 
sparkling, pungent, with good body, and a mild and pleasant Summer 
drink withal. It has recently been introduced by them into Southern 



898 EVANSVILLB: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

cities, and from the favor it has met with, is undoubtedly a "happy 
hit." They have received such encouragement that they are now mak- 
ing preparations for manufacturing Champagne Wines from the best 
native vintages. Their Ginger Ale is, also, a prominent candidate for 
attention, and large quantities are daily turned out for use in the city 
and elsewhere. The firm is composed of A. Bernardin and Fred. W. 
Cook. 



Paper and Its Manufactures. 

In this age ol literature and printing, when incalculable 
quantities of Paper are used every day, the business of Paper 
Manufacturing is deservedly taking rank with the most important 
of industrial pursuits. Paper, it it well known, canbemadefrom 
any fibrous vegetable substance ; such as Bark, Stalks, Tendrils, 
Wheat-straw ; but nothing has yet been found to answer so well 
as Linen, Hempen or Cotton Rags. The art of making Paper from 
fibrous matter is said to have been discovered by the Chinese, 
nearly 1,800 years ago ; but we are indebted to the Egyptians for its 
name derived from a reed, called Papyrus, which grew along the 
banks of the Nile, and from which a sort of Paper was made. How- 
ever, it was not till recent times, and among the most enlightened 
nations, that the manufacture reached any high degree of excel- 
lence. In all kinds of Paper-making, whatever may be the raw 
material, the general process is the same. The fibrous substance 
is cut and bruised in water, till it is separated into fine and short 
filaments, and becomes a sort of pulp. This pulp is taken up in a 
thin and even layer, upon a Mould of Wire-cloth, or something 
similar, which allows the water to drain off, but retain the fibrous 
matter, the filaments of which are, by subsequent drying and 
pressing, so interwoven or felted together, that they can not be 
separated without tearing, and thus form Pa^er. The conversion 
of pulp into Paper, was formerly done by hand, but now is almost 
entirely done by machines, of which the most noted is that in- 
vented by a French firm, Messrs. Foudrinier, which is one of the 
most remarkable of modern inventions, and cost $300,000 to in- 
vent, and eventually caused the inventors' bankruptcy. 

If the consumption of Paper in a nation be a barometer of the 
intelligence ot the people, those of the United States certainly surpass 



PAPER AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 399. 

all others. In France the yearly production averages about four 
pounds of paper per head ; in England, about four and three-quarters; 
while in the United States the annual consumption is calculated at thir- 
teen and a half lbs. per head — a part of the supply being imported from 
France and England. Within the last few years the consumption of 
Paper has been so enormous as to excite apprehensions that the scarcity 
of the raw material — rags — may advance the cost, and thus affect, dis- 
astrously, the interests of literature; and the experimental geniuses of 
the world are now attempting to discover a substitute for rags in the 
manufacture of Paper. Some one professes to have discovered it in 
straw — others in a variety of substances, but we have not yet heard 
the great shout which will go up when rags are no longer king. 

Thus we see that the economical European system, which allows 
nothing to go to waste, seems to be gaining favor in this country — and 
is reversing the old adage, " what is one man's meat is another man's 
poison." But all things act reciprocally. The tide ebbs and flows; the 
sun gathers the dew into clouds and again diffuses it in rain showers 
over the earth ; light and heat are co-relative ; grain brings forth its 
kind ; bread cast on the waters returns after many days, or drifts to 
some famishing coast, and all nature seems to move and work on the 
grand principle of mutual benefit. 

The Evansville Paper Mill. 

It is very true that we can not boast of anything like exten- 
sive operations by this concern, but it helps to make up the array 
of our manufactures, and we feel obliged to mention it on that 
ground. The Evansville Paper Mill owned by Ferd. Funke, is at 
the corner of Ohio and Short streets, near the St. Louis Depot. 
His Engine is of 25-horse power, built by Keitz & Haney. He em- 
ploys six hands, and manufactures about $5,000 worth of Paper 
per annum — chiefly Brown and Manilla Wrapping Paper, and 
Paper Bags. He expects soon to add the manufacture of Letter 
and Newspaper, and no doubt, Mr. Funke will be found the right 
man in the right place. 

Book Binders and Blank Book Manufacturers. 

Book Binding is the most ancient of all the arts appertain- 
ing to Paper and its Manufacturers, having been attempted more 
than two thousand years ago. Dibden, in his Decameron, confi- 
dently states the fact, and a man of his general correctness ie. 
not likely to err. Books were formed into quartos and foIioB, a4»&^ 



400 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

very early period, and once in those forms, a cover was a natural 
consequence. Books, in manuscript, were so made in Catullus' 
time, and in the age of King Attains, a method of preparing skins 
for writing on both sides was discovered, and the King ordered 
the leaves to be made square, and afterwards to be put into 
covers. Sj^ecimens of illuminated manuscripts in binding, exe- 
cuted before the invention of printing, are said to be still in ex- 
istence, and there is proof that the art of Binding, in fair per- 
fection, has been practiced for nearly twelve hundred and fifty 
years. The old Printers united with their trade that of the 
Binder. They fastened the leaves of their Books between wooden 
boards, as thick as door pannels, the coverings being cased with 
leather, which was sometimes strangely and grotesquely embossed. 
There were large brass nails with ornamental heads on the lids, 
and the corners were lavishly gilt and embellished. Clasps held 
it solidly in front, and the back was rendered strong with paste 
and glue, so as to last for centuries. If any of our readers happen 
to be the descendants of old Grerman families, and it is quite likely, 
they may be able to call to mind some curious and cherished 
specimens of this style of Binding on Bibles and Hymn Books 
brought by their ancestors from Germany many years ago. Noth- 
ing adds more to the appearance of a Book than a handsome Bind- 
ing, and many unique Books command high prices, solely because 
they are handsomely bound. 

After the printed sheets of a Book have been properly dried and 
pressed, they are conveyed to the Bindery where they are folded — gen- 
erally by females — to the requisite form, collated and sewed into Books. 
This completes the process of '-Making Up.'' Subsequently the "-For- 
warding" process follows, where they are glued, pasted, cut, ham- 
mered, and dressed ; gilded or otherwise ornamented. There are 
many and various styles of binding, viz : Paper, Cloth, Half-cloth, 
Sheep, Calf, Morocco and Russia Leather. Half-binding is a style of 
Binding in which the back and corners are covered with leather, while 
the sides are of paper or cloth. For the purpose of Binding, Cloth is 
the material most extensively used, unless it be for valuable and stand- 
ard works. But the most durable of all substances for this purpose 
are Morocco and Russia Leather. All others will decay in a number 
of years, generate worms, or invite damp and mildew. Our prelimi- 
nary remarks, however, are quite suflScient, and it seems proper now 
to say a few words as to;the Book Binding Business of Evansville, and' 
by whom it is conducted. 



PAPER AND ITS MANUFACTURES. 401 

MEYER & RAHM— BOOK BINDERS AND BLANK BOOK AND 
PAPER BOX MANUFACTURERS. 

This firm, whose house was founded some five years since, may be 
found at No. 311^ Upper First street. They employ nine persons and 
turn out about $9,000 worth of work per annum. They are well pre- 
pared to manufacture all kinds of Blank Books, from a common PocUet 
Pass Book to the largest size Steamboat Register, a Turkey Morocco. 
Bible, or a Super Royal Ledger for the Counting House. In the Bind- 
ing Department they pay especial attention to Magazines, Music and 
Serials, or re-bind Standard Works. 

Their Paper Box Manufactory is the only one of the kind in the 
city, and they are enal)led to make all sizes, from a Pill Box to a Ship- 
ping Box. They employ no complicated machinery, but use " elbow 
grease;" and by strict attention to business, have well merited and re- 
ceived an increasing patronage. 

HE ALT, ISAACS & CO., BOOK BINDERS, BLANK BOOK MANU- 
FACTURERS, ETC. 

Messrs. Healy, Isaacs & Co. , corner Main and First streets, Book 
Binders, Blank Book Manufacturers, Stationers and Book-sellers, have 
a thorough and complete establishment, now of seven years duration. 
They employ ten persons, and transact an annual business of $15,000. 
In the Manufactory they are well prepared to do all kinds of work, 
and have the following valuable auxiliaries : one Ruling Machine, one 
Paging Machine, one Cutting Machine, one Board Cutter, one Stand- 
ing Press and two of Gordon's Job Printing Presses. They pride them- 
selves on first-class Commercial Work, and have, by sedulous attention 
to business, accomplished much success. 

EVANSVILLE JOURNAL COMPANY, BOOK BINDERS, BLANK 
BOOK MANUFACTURERS, ETC. 

The business of the above house, in some respects, is entitled to 
mention here, but in order to avoid repetition, we have spoken more 
definitely of their facilities in this line, under the head of "The News- 
paper Press of Evansville." 
51 



402 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Cotton, Woolen and Textile Fabric Manufactories. 

The Cotton Plant is not alluded to in sacred history, although 
it had been used for manufacturing purposes long before the com- 
mencement of the Christian era. It was probably first cultivated 
in India, and from thence was first introdiiced to Persia and 
Egypt. Cotton fabrics were used in Kome in the century before 
Christ, and the Cotton Manufacture was carried to a great degree 
of perfection in Spain, before the expulsion of the Mahometans. 
It was used in England for candlewicks in the Thirteenth Cen- 
tury, but the weaving of Cotton Fabrics was not extensively prac- 
ticed there until after the arrival of the Flemish weavers, already 
mentioned on page 91 of our work. The Spinning Jenny was 
invented in 1767, and the Spinning Jack, by Eichard Arkwright, 
(afterwards Sir Richard,) about the same time, and the Mule — 
which received its name from its being a combination of the ad- 
vantages possessed by the two machines already mentioned, was 
contrived by Samuel Crompton, in 1779. The Power Loom fol- 
lowed soon after. 

The United States were for a long period, more celebrated for 
the production than the manufacture of Cotton. The Cotton Gin, 
of Whitney, however, gave bold impetus to the business. The 
first regular Cotton Factory in the United States was located at 
Beverly, Massachusetts, in 1787, but since that time what an array 
of Factories everywhere, and who can calculate the wide-spread 
growth and great importance of the business? At this time an av- 
erage crop of Cotton ranges from 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 bales, of 400 
pounds each, and the prospect is the demand will equal, if it does not 
exceed, the supply for many years to come. Hence the produc- 
tion of this article, sometimes called " Vegetable Wool," is des- 
tined to increase much faster than population ; for, as civiliza- 
tion and commerce extend, the number that will consume Cotton 
Fabrics, and the annual consumption of each person, by reason of 
his greater productive power, will extend in a still greater ratio. 
Fortunately, however, there is no lack of Cotton lands, or climate, 
for statisticians have already figured out an area in the South, 
capable of yielding 9,000,000 bales per annum. But even of our 
present vast crop, amounting in value to more than two hundred 
millions of dollars, we have often had occasion to admire the 
tact, skill and industry with which these three or four thousand 
millionB of pounds of seed Cotton are picked by human fingers 



ADVEKTISEMENTS. 403 



Evansville Cotton Manufacturing Co. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 





Dozen Yarns, Assorted Numbers^ 



CARPET WARP & BATTING, 



OFFICE AT THE MILL: 

No. 121 Lower First Street, 
Evansville, Ind. 



404 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

in a harvest of a few months duration ; and while admiring this 
plodding industry as best we could, believe that the inventive 
genius of man will yet come to the relief of wearied dilligence 
and practically improve such impracticable operations. But our 
duty directs us nearer home. 

The Evansville Cotton Manufacturing Company, 

For many years it has been felt that Evansville, situated with such 
convenient communication with the Cotton fields of the South, and 
having such an abundance of cheap labor and fuel at hand, could suc- 
cessfully enter upon the manufacture of Cotton Fabrics. Impressed 
with the soundness of these views and ever ready to push forward any 
enterprise that promised to add so much to the material prosperity of 
their growing city, William Heilraan, John H. Polsdorfer, Peter Sem- 
onin, David J. Mackey, Charles Viele and J. B. Tisserand, in 1866 
proceeded to show their faith by their works, and put in operation the 
first Cotton Mill in Evansville. They organized ajoint stock company 
with Mr. Heilman President, and Mr. Polsdorfer, Secretary, and with 
a capital stock of $100,000. The growing success of this establishment 
for the past eight years has demonstrated the wisdom of the enterprise. 

Beginning with a force of forty hands, and a daily product of only 
700 pounds of Yarn, they now employ ninety hands, and every day 
turn out from their looms 2,500 yards of Standard Brown Sheetings, 
branded " Crescent City," besides Carpet Chain, Batting and a large 
quantity of "Sale Yarns" for the country trade. The Company's Mill is 
a spacious three-story, iron front brick, on First street, 70x100 feet, 
with rear additions running back 150 feet, and furnished throughout 
with first-class machinery, and employing a splendid engine built by 
Wm. Heilraan, of 16-inch cylinder and 24-inch stroke, and equivalent 
to 75-horse power. Passing through the various departments of the 
establishment, in order, we took the following inventory of the ma- 
chines used in changing the raw Cotton to the beautifully woven Fabrics 
of the sales room : A Willy, a Kitson Two-beater Lapper, thirteen 
Clipper Cards, each section of Cards being furnished with a Railway 
Head ; two Drawing Frames, two coarse and four fine Speeders, 3,000 
Spindles, a Spooling Machine, a Filling Winder, a Warper and Dresser, 
100 Looms, a Reeling Machine, and Cloth Trimmer. All of these ma- 
chines are of the best Lowell and Bridesburg manufacture, and under 
the careful and experienced supervision of Mr. Polsdorfer and his 
trained workmen are made to turn out the very best qualities of goods. 
At present the wholesale dealers of Evansville absorb all the goods the 



EVANSVILLE COTTON MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 405 

concern can furnish them. The production of the Mills at present is 
$150,000, and 600 bales of Cotton are consumed within that period. 

Within the time of its existence possibly not one of our mammoth 
manufacturing concerns has prospered, so well as this one. The de- 
mand for their goods has even gone beyond their powers of production, 
and in view of this cheering fact about one year since it was determined 
to enlarge the capacity. Accordingly the capital stock was increased 
to $250,000 and the corporation in every way strengthened. A favor- 
able site on Ohio street, in the Western suburbs, was procured and 
the erection of a splendid new Mill commenced. This concern is now 
nearly completed, and by the Spring of 1875 will be adding its roar 
to the never ceasing din and its industrious achievements to our hun- 
dreds of manufactories already in operation. The new Mill is a superb 
brick structure 233x75 feet in dimensions and three stories and a base- 
ment high. In addition there is a wing to be used as the Picking 
House two stories high, 76x31 feet large, and an Engine and Boiler 
House, 85x36 feet large, besides other necessary buildings. This new 
Mill will have 300 Looms, 11,000 Spindles, 73 Self-stripping Cards, 13 
Clipper Cards, as well as a full complement of Drawing Frames, coarse 
and fine Speeders, etc. The capacity of the Mill will be about 16,000 
yards of standard Sheetings per diem, to manufacture which it will re- 
quire 3,000 bales of Cotton annually. An immense engine of more than 
300-horse power and requiring eight tubular boilers, will be placed in 
the concern. The Mill proper includes the three upper stories. The 
basement will be devoted to the manufacture of Notions, such as Twines, 
Cords, Staging, Batting, Sale or Dozen Yarns, and probably some 
Rope. From every view the enterprise is bold, healthful, energetic and 
promising, and will each year add several hundred thousand dollars 
to our trade, as well as increase our population probably not less than 
one thousand. 

The Evansville Woolen Mills. 

The Evansville Woolen Mills, Messrs. Heuke, Lemcke & Kehr, 
proprietors, are at the junction of First avenue and Bond street. 
The main building is of brick, 100x60 feet large and three stories 
high. They run one ot Heilraan's 20-hor8e power engines, and 
recently added two new boilers enlarging their capacity. The 
principal machines used on the second floor are : one of Kellogg's 
Improved Pickers, with capacity of 2,000 lbs. of Wool per day ; 
three sets of Davis & Furbers' Cards, consisting each of First and 
Second Breakers and a Finisher; one of Wright's Patent Self- 
operating Spinning Jacks, of 250 spindles, and with a capacity of 



406 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

125 lbs. of Spun Yai*ii per diem; one Wool Waste Duster, etc. 
On the first floor are thirty Looms, of Gilbert's patent, devoted to 
the weaving of Jeans ; also, four used on Flannels, and one on 
Blankets — these latter being from the Bridesbm-g Manufacturing 
Company at Philadelphia, of which Barton H. Jenks, one of the 
most ingenious of American inventors is President. There is, also 
one of Jenks' Stocking-Yarn Kulers and Twisters,- capable of turn- 
ing out 150 lbs. of stuff per day ; also, a vei'y closely-constructed 
Warping Mill, put up by the firm themselves ; and one of Park & 
Woolson's Shearers, which is used to remove the nap from goods, 
which they afterwards sell to hatters, from which felt hats are 
made. Their warehouses have capacity for 200.000 lbs. of wool ; 
and besides which there are, also, Dye Houses, Bleaching, Dyeing 
and Scouring Eooms on the premises. 

The Mills employ about forty operatives, male and female. 
They manufacture ten different colors and mixtures of Jeans of 
unsurpassed quality, and of all wool filling, and which will be 
recognized in many quarters, from their brand: "The Pride of 
the West." Flannels of eight or ten different varieties, are also 
produced. In Stocking Yarns they turn out seven different colors 
and grades. In Blankets they have, also, attained eminence, and 
produce various qualities of Gray, Blue, White and Stripe. Their 
annual products may be summed up as 150,000 yards of Jeans and 
Flannels; 30,000 lbs. ot Stocking Yarns, and 1,000 pairs of Blan- 
kets valued in toto at $125,000, showing handsome increase each 
successive year. The Mills were founded in 1861, and prominent 
among other benefits realized, it is gratifying to know that a home 
market, which never existed prior to their labors, has been estab- 
lished, and upwards of 125,000 lbs. of Wool are annually purchased 
from Vanderburgh and surrounding counties. 
Hosiery Manufactories. 

The manufacture of Hosiery engages the attention of J. M. Gleich- 
man, 502 Main St.,Benj. Schapker, 125|^MainSt., Mrs. M. Schwentker, 
502 Main Street, They produce both Plain and Fancy Goods, and some 
of their specimens are very creditable. The business in the city annu- 
ally amounts to $13,000. 

J. M. Gleichman 604 Main Street, proprietor of the Evansville 
Stocking Factory, has the largest establishment in the business. He 
employs twelve persons, mostly female operatives, and has fifteen of 
Lamb's Knitting Machines. He turns out about 75 dozen stockings 
per week or 4,000 dozen per annum, valued at $10,000. He also 



CAKPET WEAVERS, COTTON BATTING, ETC. 407 

deals in Knitting and Crotchet Yarns, and has customers in Chicago, 
St. Louis and in all of the near Railroad and River towns. 

Carpet Weavers. 
This branch of Manufactures is represented by two small concerns 
who make, for the most part, a cheaper grade of Carpets. They are 
located as follows : Anton Klein, 12 West Michigan Street, and Leon- 
hard Uhl, 1005 East Indiana Street. 

Cotton Batting. 
The Katossen Bros., at 301 East Michigan street have a small 
establishment for the manufacture of Cotton Batting, Cotton Yarns, 
etc., etc. 

Dye Houses 

There are four Dye Houses in the city, viz : Henry Butts, 405 
Upper Third street; F. Graupner 721 Upper Fifth street; G. H. Krach 
312 Ingle st. and Jos. Morris 200 Locust street. 

Miscellaneous Manufactures- 

Under this head are classified a number of Manufactures which 
help to swell the grand aggregate of productive interests in our city. 
Many of them are small establishments but each one fills a niche and 
are quite indispensable withal, thus demonstrating that for nearly all 
articles of common necessity, the people of Evansville and those who 
come here to trade need not pass beyond our borders to make their pur- 
chases. 

Soap and Candle Manufactories. 

Chas. Reade has asserted that workmen are a dirty set and a reck- 
less set. His observations have been confined to English workmen ; 
Avould he not have occasion to modify the general character of the 
statement were he to visit and inspect American shops ? Certain it is 
that personal cleanliness leads to order and work in business, and ele- 
vates the moral character of all who exercise it. It is a virtue second 
only to godliness, and exerts not only a benign influence upon moral 
character and physical health, but upon intellectual growth. Says an 
eminent Chemist : " The quantity of soap consumed by a nation would 
be no inaccurate measure whereby to estimate its health and civiliza- 
tion. Political economists, indeed, will not give it this rank; but, 
whether we regard it as a joke or earnest, it is not the less true, that 
of two countries equal in population, we may declare with positive cer- 
tainty that the wealthiest and most civilized is that which consumes 
the greatest weight of soap." No matter then which horn ot the di- 
lemma we take, one thing is established, but few branches of our manu- 



408 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

factures have grown more rapidly with the prosperity of the city than 
that of Soap and Candles and we have been assured that there is 
more of both articles made here in one month than there was fifteen 
years ago in twelve months. At that time we were greatly dependent 
upon the Northern and Eastern Manufactories for our supplies, and 
"Procter & Gamble's Cincinnati Rosin Soap" crowded every store ; but 
now our own Manufactories supply the market in Laundry Soaps, to 
the exclusion of nearly all competitors, and have besides large quanti- 
ties for exportation. They make all the varieties in common use, 
and some make Soap of a superior[quality. Fancy White and Marbled 
as well as Castile. 

The manufacture of Soap and Candles is so very generally asso- 
ciated together that the branches may be considered inseparable. In 
the latter, also, our manufacturers have been equally as fortunate. 
The advances that have recently been made in Chemical science have 
wonderfully influenced the manufacture of Candles, and by the sepa- 
ration of constituents, purification, distillation, pressure and other arts 
and appliances, known to the initiated, they are possible to attain 
remarkable results from materials that are sometimes very unpromising. 
Especially is this the case in their Moulded Tallow Candles which form 
an important part of their business. The most prominent houses in 
this trade are A. Melzer & Co., 113 East Oregon street; Phillip Decker 
& Son, 114 Upper Third street, and Wm. Freidrich, 129 West Dele- 
ware street. 

Bottled Sauces and Table Notions. 

The establishment of Miller, Upfield & Co., 511 and 513 Up- 
per Fourth street, is a novel one for Evansville. It has been in 
operation only one year, but has past beyond the stages of a mere 
experiment and may now be considered permanently established. 
They manufacture all kinds of Bottled Sauces, Catsups, Pickles, 
Chow-Chow, Mustard, Horse-Radish, also Crab Apple Vinegar, 
Cider Vinegar; Flavoring Extracts for Creams, Confectionery or 
Pastry. They also bottle fine Wines, Brandies and the best qual- 
ities of Liquors generally. It is an enterprising house and footed 
up their sales for the first year 18,000. 

JBroom Manufactories. 

Who would have thought the prophet a truthful man, or even 
compos mentis if a few years ago he had foretold that Evansville 
would claim to-day among her separate manufacturers a depart- 
ment devoted exclusively to Brooms. Our people so long relying 



STEAM SPICE MILLS, BAKING POWDERS, ETC. 409 

on Eastern Manufactories for the commonest necessities of every- 
day life, are beginning to wake up and progress is now the watch- 
word in small things as well as large. If our farmers only knew 
that with an expenditure of $30 to the acre they could produce 
Broom Corn commanding as high as $300 per ton, that it is a crop 
requiring but little labor and attention, and that Indiana corn is 
especially preferable on account of durability and fineness of brush, 
perhaps they would plant accordingly. Two manufactories are 
already running in the city, and others might be induced to start. 

Glunz & Maurer, Broom Makers, 916 Bast Pennsylvania st., 
employ eightmen andhavefour Tying-machines, and four Sewing- 
horses. The sewing is done with large steel bodkins, and the 
workmen are provided with a pair of cuffs or palms made with large 
iron thimbles in the center. Bach operator makes and finishes 
his own Broom. They turn out 5,000 dozen Brooms per annum, 
valued at $10,000. 

Kappler & Eoth, corner Second Avenue and Pennsylvania street, 
employ four men and manufacture fifty dozen Brooms per week. 
Steam Spice Mills, 

The steam Spice and Coffee Mills, of J. F. Bruning & Son are 
at 203 Lower First street. They use an engine of 6-hor8e power 
and have a steam revolving Drum capable of roasting twenty 
sacks of coffee per diem and Mills to comport with the same. 
They have been in operation only about one year but are con - 
stantly adding to their business. 

Baking Powders. 

Citizens of Bvansville and of the tributary sections need no 
longer depend on Durkee, Dooly or any other Yeast man of the 
East, for here in Evansville we have two concerns making a spe- 
cialty of manufacturing Baking Powders, viz: Cloud, Akin & Co.. 
16 Upper First street, manufacturers of the "Magnolia Baking 
Powder," and Ed. Gr. Wayman, 708 Main street. 

Awnings, Tents, Tarpaulins, Etc. 

Two houses are engaged in manufacturing Awnings, Tents, 
Tarpaulins, etc.: Sinzich, Rankin & Co., corner of Water and Syc- 
amore streets, and Chas. Evert, 102-| Upper Water street. The 
former are engaged more especially in furnishing Tarpaulins for 
Steamboats, while the latter takes in all branches of the trade. 

Bonnet Bleachers and Manufacturers. 

We of course do not mention under this head the numerous 
Millinery EstabliBhrnents of the city — and Evansville hag an host 
52 



410 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

of these — but desire to call attention only to the firm of a S. A. 
Cobb & Co., 222 Sycamore street, who have a very creditable Bon- 
net Bleachery and Manufactory. 

Fruit Dryers and Feed Steamers. 
Wm. W. Shannon, 119 Sycamore street, has made a specialty 
of the manufacture of Fruit Dryers and Feed Steamers, made on 
an improved plan and claiming many points of advantage. 
Grain Scourer and Separator. 
W. C. Knox & Son, 814 Chestnut street, are manufacturing G-rain 
Scourers and Separators — a machine patented by the senior of the 
firm, and for the cleaning of wheat, said to be unexcelled. They 
employ an engine of 6-horse power, and do all the necessary work 
— wood, iron and painting in their establishment. They number 
their customers among all the leading Flouring Mills of this sec- 
tion and have sold a large number of Machines in Georgia. Ala- 
bama and Mississippi. 

Roofing Manufactories. 

The manufacture of Roofing in this city engrosses much at- 
tention of late. In old times people were content to live under a 
covering made of shingles, or " clap-boards." They now take it 
upon themselves, and well they should, as a duty, to select some- 
thing that can be recommended as non-combustible, durable and 
at the same time cheap. Various advocates have risen up claim- 
ing for their particular kind of work precedence over all others. 
Tin, Slate and Gravel Roofing each has its champion, but wo do not 
propose to engage in the discussion either j9ro or con and will merely 
refer all inquirers to Wallis Glover, Gravel Roofer, 628 Main street, 
and Wm. Bedford, jr., Slate Roofer, 314 Grant street. 
Vinegar Manufactories. 

Five establishments in the city are manufacturing Vinegar 
and articles of that character, viz: A. G. Anspacher, 321 Sycamore 
street ; Jacob Daussmann, 615 Bond street ; Gottlieb Doering, 620 
Upper Ninth street ; Duby Green's Great European Vinegar Fac- 
tory, 116 Fulton Avenue, and Miller. Upfield & Co.. 511 and 513 
Upper Fourth street. 

Shoiv Case Manufactories. 

John Nelson, 212 Locust street, is a manufacturer of Show- 
cases of almost every description and although only working in a 
limited way has been enabled to increase his business very sat- 
isfaotorily. 



EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCK AND MANUFACTURES, 411 

The foregoing we believe to be the leading raanutacturing 
concerns at present in operation in the city of Bvansville, and we 
are of the opinion tliat we have thus fai- made the fairest and 
most complete exhibit ever before attempte<i of those branches 
that could be called representative in their respective spheres. 
These embrace 7nore than three hundred houses, representing more 
than one hundred distinct branches. Ot these houses ninety-Jive em- 
ploy steam engines aggregating three thousand four hundred and two 
horse povjer, and of this large number only eight of these engines 
were built outside of the city, thus showing that our manufacturers 
practice what they preach and prove the theory of their faith by 
their works. But we are well aware that among the many differ- 
ent concerns there are quite a number of others worthy of men- 
tion which we have not had time to visit, and the reader will 
readily observe that among those we did call upon, by long odds, 
a greater part failed to patronize or«- enterprise. No matter: The 
completeness and fairness of our report would not be so well recog- 
nized were it otherwise. But a volume would hardly contain 
what might be written of these concerns. In by-ways and rooms 
concealed from the public gaze, there might be found an army of 
industrious artisans busily engaged in transforming rude materials 
into obje cts of utility or productions of taste and skill — "inven- 
tions for delight, and sight, and sound" — and aiming, by superior 
dexterity in their handicraft operations, to compensate for the 
lack of machinery and business facilities. We may say, moreover, 
after many opportunities for comparative examination, that goods 
made in small factories, illy provided with machinery for rapid 
production, are as good, and frequently superior, to the average 
quality of fabrics made elsewhere. One reason for this superiority 
is, that being under the direct personal supervision of the owner 
and depending for popularity and sale more on reputation than 
on mere cheapness, the fabricator consequently must give close 
attention to the selection of material and character of the work- 
manship, and master competition by the durabilitj^ and intrinsic 
excellence of his fabrics. 

And in view of these results we now see spread out l)efore us 
in ample testimony, do they not fully demonstrate the original 
proposition that Evansville possesses the requisites necessary for 
prosperity, and the causes commanding economical production in 
manufactures ? Do they not prove that the locality possesses the 
advantages for manufacturing in an eminent degree of perfection ? 



412 EVANSVILLE: HEK OOMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Finally do they not indisputably characterize the city of Bvans- 
ville already a great manufacturing center? 

Many other considerations are suggested by the facts which 
we have collected and partially submitted, and to which we would 
gladly invite attention did space and circumstances admit, but we 
will conclude this portion of our work, by adopting the graphic 
language of an eminent gentleman, whose heart and soul was in 
the great cause of industry and whose pen spoke for another what 
we hope we have demonstrated for our city: "Our Steam Engines 
are plying their arms in every street, in every by-way is heard 
the ring of the anvil and the clink of the hammer, as the artisan 
contributes his mite to the vast sum of toil; whilst many a stately 
edifice, with its legion of employes and clanging machinery sends 
forth a stirring music to quicken the pulse of our city life. Why, 
then, stiall we not spread beyond our borders the knowledge that 
here is a busy hive in which are being made many articles that 
can contribute to the wants or luxury of man ?" Evansville is the 
mart of Southern commerce and manufactures, varied and extensive 
in its products. As such let it he proclaimed. 

Prospective Manufactories. 

We can not close this department of our work without making 
some mention, however brief, of the several enterprises now on 
foot in our city, and whose establishment will impart new life and 
vigor to the sinews of trade, unlock more wealth now hidden away 
in bank vaults, and be productive of many beneficent results which 
finally will lead to prosperity and happiness. 

Prominent among these is the establishment of a Hat, Cap 
and Fur Manufactory on a large scale by the Weber Brothers, one 
of our best and most progressive firms. They have already se- 
cured the large four-story double store-house Nos. 116 and 118 
Main street, and are making active preparations for an early 
commencement. 

Even since our work has been in course of publication another 
step has been made in this direction. The Hermann Brothers 
who for 15 years have been largely engaged in the manufacture 
of Wagons, Plow-Handles, etc., at Tell City, Ind., have established 
a branch concern in this city, at 117 Sycamore street. They have 
been very successful and their own patented axle made on the plan 
of the Thimble Skein, but being of wrought iron instead of wood, 



PROFITABLE MANUFACTURES NEEDED IN EVANSVI.LLE. 41S 

has given them considerable celebrity. As soon as a proper site 
is secured they will transfer their business to Evansville. 

In addition there are several others of greater or less i rapor- 
tance now in process of construction or contemplated. 

Profitable Manufactures needed in Evansville, 

Notwithstanding we have shown that Evansville has already 
a large number of manufactories furnishing a great variety of 
products, and now in successful operation, there are many 
special wants for certain classes whose places have not been taken. 
Our establishments, numerous and extensive as they are, do not 
complete that general system which the trade of the South and 
West demands. And while we have shown the great natural and 
geographical advantages Evansville unquestionably possesses as 
the seat for a great manufacturing center, we would also call 
the attention of manufacturers or capitalists elsewhere, to the 
actual needs of the place. But among the "wants" of the city 
there is not one that will be suggested that has not received the 
hearty endorsement of the leading and most sagacious citizens 
here and who believe affords opportunities for making a profita- 
ble investment of money, or skill, or business enterprise and will 
be liberally supported. The solid basis of a city, especially in the 
West, no matter what its elements of success otherwise, is admit- 
ted to be in its manufacturing interests. Thepeople of JCvansville 
realize this, and therefore are willing and desirous of giving all 
the encouragement in their power for the establishment of new 
concerns here. We proudly boast of what we have, and realize 
their value so much that we want more. The same enterprise, 
with a similar backing of capital, which is noW converting in this 
locality the crude material lying around loose, or made easily 
available from neighboring communities, turning out almost 
every article of a popularly useful nature, has a still greater field 
in Evansville for further extension. There is no better point in the 
West for this purpose. Not one of our great competitors in trade 
— Cincinnati, Louisville, Chicago or St. Louis, presents the same 
considerations. Immediately around Evansville there are no 
manufacturing towns of any importance. Seventeen counties in 
Indiana, twelve counties in Illinois and twenty counties in Ken- 
tucky now trading with Evansville do not manufacture to any 
noticeable extent and are dependent upon our workshops. It not 
only requires less capital to enter the field here but small towns 



414 RVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE ANB MANUFACTURES. 

do not come into competition. Around Cincinnati we find the 
manufacturing towns of Hamilton, Dayton, Richmond, Xenia, 
Springfield, Chillicothe and others. Louisville is much annoyed 
by the close proximity of Madison, Jeffersonville and New Al- 
bany. St. Louis has a score of manufacturing towns in Illinois: 
Quincy, Jacksonville, Springfield, Peoria. Bloomington and others 
detracting immeasurably from her own productive greatness. The 
great Northwest is thickly dotted with manufacturing cities, and 
Chicago, grand and enterprising as she is, receives but little en- 
hancement to her already inflated real estate values by such thriving 
neighbors as Milwaukee, Joliet, La Porte, South Bend et als. 
Indianapolis, land-locked and hampered at every turn by Terre 
Haute, LaFayette, Logansport, Fort Wayne, Toledo, Sandusky 
and Cleveland, can only boast of her wonderful system of rail- 
roads, which directly leads to the doors of competitive manufacto- 
ries. And in view of these tacts, while we do not indulge in the 
vainglorious complacency of the Pharisee who went up into the 
temple to pray, they are the facts, and unquestionably the fiat 
of a Provident God who has planted our valleys and mountains 
with an abundance of riches, and placed us as a city on a hill that 
cannot be hid. Therefore we do not believe that there is any- 
where a better market in the West for the production and dis- 
tribution of manufactured goods than Evansville ; no greater or 
more central depot for the receipt of raw materials ; no place 
where property, all advantages considered, may be secured cheaper ; 
no city where a multitude of workmen can more economically 
support themselves and families. 

We need extensive Nail Works. 

We need a Rolling Mill for the manufacture of Merchant Iron. 

We need an establishment for turning out Agricultural Im- 
plements, Threshers, Mowers, Rakes, indeed, evei-ything in that 
line. 

We need G-lass- Works to manufacture Flint Glass, Window- 
Glass, Bottles, and Druggists' Materials generally. The Sand and 
Spar for this purpose is plentiful and near at hand. 

We need a manufactory to furnish us with all kinds of Cedai 
and Wooden-Ware, Buckets, Tubs, Pails, Churns, Wash-Boards. 
etc. It is high time that we should depend no longer on the land 
of wooden nutmegs for such commonplace and necessary goods. 

We need Linseed and Cotton seed Oil Works. 



MISCELLANEOUS BUSINESS PUBSUIT8. 415 

We need a Mill for the Manufacture of Letter, Book and 
News-Paper. 

We need more large Boot and Shoe Factories. 

We need one devoted to Shoe Lasts, Shoe Pegs, etc. 

We need another Cotton Mill. Competition is the life of trade. 

For the same reason we need another Woolen Mill. 

We need a Starch Manufactory. 

We need one devoted to Shoe Blacking, Inks, etc. 

Also one for Paints and Lead Chemicals generally. 

One for Scales and Balances. 

We need Stucco Works, Bone Fertilizer Works, and a Pow- 
der Manufactory. 

We need more G-alvanized Iron Cornice Works. There is only 
one of the kind in the city and it is over-crowded with paying 
work. 

We need an establishment for building Railroad Coaches, 
Street Cars, etc. 

*We badly need an establishment where Engravings can be 
made for Books, Machinery, Trade Circulars, and Price Lists. 

We need a|Varnish Factory, and there are already eight large 
Furniture and Chair Manufactories here to support it. 

We need Morocco Factories, Gun and Pistol Factories, Corset 
Factories and others, small and great, which will be welcomed 
here and can succeed. 

Miscellaneous Business Pursuits. 

These include a number of bi-anches not strictly belonging to 
anjT^ of our other classifications but which cannot be ignored in a 
general report. 

Undertaking Establishments. 

Notwithstanding the seriousness of the subject, some there 
will be found prone to smile at the above business when included 
in a trade report. And yet it certainly calls for a place and can- 
not be denied admission. But it must be understood that we, by 
no means admit, an unusually flourishing trade, nor more in real- 
ity than the stern necessitiies of the times demand. Still it may 
be some consolation that " after life's fitful fever" we may sleep well, 
having first undergone a first-class burial. The prominent under- 
takers of the city are L. Geiger, 20 West Pennsylvania ; J. W. Hen- 
son, 420 Main ; A. Johann & Bro., 116 Washington ; Henrj- Klee, 
22 Lower Third; John G. Resing, 712, Upper Sixth ; Joe. vSchaefer, 



416 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKGE AND MANUFACTURES 

11 Lower Fifth and Robert Smith, 427 Main street. These houses 
employ experienced workmen and manufacture all of their wood- 
work to order, including Coffins of every kind, both for adults and 
children. Their Metallic cases, including Zinc, Cast and Wrought 
Iron, and Galvanized Sheet-Iron, done in the highest perfection 
known to the business, are purchased direct from Eastern Factories. 
They also deal largely in all kinds of Coffin Trimmings, such as 
Silver-Plated Screws, Handles, Name-Plates, Silver-Headed Tacks, 
etc. They also boast of having elegant Equipages, supplied with 
beautiful and ornamental furniture, and insignia suitable for Ma- 
sonic, Odd Fellows or Catholic Funerals. They also Embalm 
Bodies, and are prompt and reliable in their calling. 

Sewing Machines. 

If we were to interrogate a score, a hundred, or even a thousand 
persons, of the whole number we would find but few outside of the 
several Sewing Machine Agencies in the city, possessed of the 
slightest tincture of enlightment as to the extensive business car- 
ried on in this line. Its importance, however, is by no means re- 
condite and this lack of information is much more attributable to 
general ignorance as to the growth and greatness of our trade. 
According to the Auditor's report, made June 23, 1873, there were 
2,140 Sewing Machines owned and in operation in Vander- 
burgh county. According to estimates made by gentlemen in the 
business here, not less than 2,500 Machines, valued at $170,000 
are sold here annually. All of the leading manufactories in the 
United States — Grrover & Baker, Howe, Remington, Singer, Weed. 
Wheeler & Wilson, and others have representatives here. Evans- 
ville is the distributing market in this respect for a large territory. 
Some of the establishments employ as many as fifteen canvassers 
and seven wagons. The offices and warerooms of these agencies 
are fitted up in elegant style with splendid drawing-room furniture, 
Brussels carpets, etc., and are among the neatest and most attrac- 
tive places in the city. 

Millinery and Hair Goods. 

There are twelve first-class Millinery establishments in the city, 
doing a business amounting annually to not less than $40,000. 

In addition to these there are five establishments devoted exclus- 
sively to dealing in Natural and Artificial Hair Goods. It is indeed 



lOE DEALERS; COAL— ITS LOCAL TKAD^. 41 '7 

surprising to note the extent of their transactions, and at the same 

time to reflect that — 

"These golden locks, 
Which make such wanton gambols with the wind 
Upon supposed fairness, are often known 
To be the dowry of a second head — 
The skull that bred them in the sepulchre/' 

At the same time, we think but few of our readers imagine the Hair 

business in Evansville will amount to $15,030 per annum — including 

the manufacture of Hair Jewelry and the sale of Wigs, Chignons, 

Waterfalls, Switches, '-Thingumbobs" and so on. 

Ice Dealers. 

The Ice Business of the city is one too that we can by no means 
overlook. It employs quite a number of person-;, and during the Sum- 
mer months, as a matter of course, enjoys a season of bustle and ac- 
tivity, and many carts are kept constantly running, while the trade 
with adjacent towns is also large. The present demand in Evansville, 
including that consumed by the Breweries will amount to about 7,000 
tons, or 14,000,000 lbs. which after making liberal deductions for 
wastage, etc., would net a trade of $140, 000 annually. The principal Ice 
Dealers in the city are: Ingle Bros., 13 Lower Water street; H.'Jacobs, 
Maryland street near Oakley; T. W. Murray, 404 Main street, and S. 
A. Tupman, 9 Lincoln Avenue. 

Coal — Its Local Trade. 

It is a remarkable fact that Coal is now sold in Evansville lower 
than at any manufacturing town in New England, lower than at 
Philadelphia, and lower, we believe, than at any manufacturing town in 
Pennsylvania, not even excepting Pittsburgh. 

For the following valuable statistical account of the local Coal 
Trade we are indebted to Mr. John Ingle Jr., Jr., of the firm of John 
Ingle Jr. &Son, proprietors of Ingleside Mines, near the city limits, and 
only regret that the paper did not reach us in time to be incorporated 
with our remarks on " Evansville's advantages for Manufactures." 

Receipts and consumption of Coal at Evansville for the year end- 
ing Sept. 1, 1874: 

Lump. Nut. 

Mined at Evansville and received by barges, 1,573,356 :-!08,7l4 

Receipts by Rail, .' 131,000 

■ do. of Pittsburgh Coal, including Gas Works. 160,000 

, , . 1,864,356 308,714 

Total number received from all sources, 2,173,070. 

Oonstrmed in .the city during the year 1,504,356, Lump, 
do. do. do. do. * 186,714, Nut. 

Total BuBhels consunaed in the citv ... 1,691,070 
53 



2 


do. 


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do. 


4 


do. 


2 


do. 


1 


do. 


1 


do. 


1 


do. 


2 


do. 



418 EVAN8VILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Lump. Nut. 

Amount sold in the city 1,504,356. 186,714. 

do. do. to Steamboats, 360,000. 122,000. 

1,864,356. 308,714. 

Total number of Bushels sold in the City, 2,173,070, 

Location and number of Mines contributing to the supply of the 
city: 

2 Mines at Newburgh, Ind., via. River, 16 miles. 
Spottsville, Ky., do. 16 miles. 

City limits. (Ingleside,) 
Boonville. Ind.. via. Railroad, 20 miles. 
Shelburn, Ind,. do. E. & C. R. R. 
Equality, Ills.,' do. St. L. & S. E. R. R. 
St Bernard Coal Co., Ky., via. St. L. & S. E. R. R. 
Speer's Landing, via. Ohio River, 20 miles. 
Washington, Ind., O. & M. R. R. 
One in progress 12 miles from the city on the Evansville & Lake Erie R. R. 

These several Mines are represented in Evansville by seven firms 
acting as Dealers and Agents. 

Coal is being delivered at Retail at 8 cts. per bushel for Nut Coal 
and 10 cts. for best Lump Coal. 

Manufacturers are getting their coal delivered in front of their fire- 
doors at from 7 to 10 cents per bushel, governed by grade and quality 
of Coal. 

The mines above enumerated have the capacity to furnish, readily, 
four times the number of bushels of cheap Coal that is at present con- 
sumed in this market. 

The Live Stock Trade. 

The Live Stock business of Evansville is another branch 
attracting but little notice, save bj^ those directly and personallj^ 
concerned in it; and yet, were it entirely removed from our midst, 
what a very crreat change would at once be perceptible. Evans- 
ville claims many advantages for the sale or shipment of Horses 
or Mules and from its temperate climate, the richness of herbage 
in the surrounding neighborhood, and the large and conifortable 
Btal)le8 and sheds in the city, we are led to entertain many flatter- 
ing hopes as to its future success as a Stock market. Delays in 
the shipment of Stock are always attendant with heavy expense, 
and drovers, invariably seek, or should seek, a point like this, best 
provided with means of transportation to the South and other 
purchasing localities. The past season on account of disturbances 
in the South and the hitheito unsettled condition of the country 
has been a serious draw back to the sale of Live Stock. Probably 
not less than 4,000 head of Horses and Mules rendezvous here an- 



LIFE stock: trade, retail trade of the city. 419 

nually on their way South, and di'overs from Indiana, Illinois and 
the Northwestern States are constantly in the market. However, 
omitting the value of Stock in transitu, the following sales were 
actually made in the city during 1874: 

About 1,200 Horses at average $125 $150,000 

" 800 Mules " " 110 88,000 

Total, $238,000 

There are in the city five leading firms in this business besides 
'a number of floating dealers. The former are Setchell Bros., 114 
Upper Third ; Thos. Bullen, 415 Upper Fifth ; Kronenberger & 
Barnett, 316 Locust; Eichardt & Behme, 17 Second Avenue, and 
Forth & Bowles, 350 Upper Third Street. 

In Cattle, Sheep and Hogs a still heavier business is carried 
on. From Jno. Dannettell, Proprietor of the Evansville Stock 
Yards, and City Weighmaster, corner Ingle and Market Streets, 
we obtain the following statistics as to Stock sold in the city for 
the year 1874: 

9,152 Cattle average 850 lbs. beef each at 4 cents per lb $311,168 

5,200 Hogs " 250 " meat " " 5 " '• " 75,000 

6,928 Sheep at $1.75 per head 10,364 

5,304 Calves " $5.00 " " 26,520 

Total, $423,052 

These figures however do not include the value of animals 
slaughtered by Butchers purchased outside of the city. 

The Retail Trade of the City. 

It is not to be expected that a detailed statement could be 
made of the Retail Trade here in its various departments. Such 
a paper fally elaborated, would, by far, too greatly have tran- 
scended the limits already occupied in this work, delayed its ap- 
pearance, and demanded a personal sacrifice of time and 'means 
which could not be entertained. Our patrons and readers will be 
content, we are certain, with a general outline of it as furnishing 
indication as to its extent and importance. The benefits of a 
healthy and progressive Eetail Trade to a city are not easily summed 
up, or disposed of in a few words. It not only supplies the city 
and country demand, but the inducements which it offers, bring 
hither thousands upon thousands of dollars from all portions of 
Southern Indiana, and from localities in other States, which are 
made directly tributary to this market by means of convenient 
railroads and river communications. Every species of goods, plain 
and common to the most superb and costly articles are to be ob- 



420 EVAN8VILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANTJFACTURfiS. 

tained here at prices which vary but little from Eastern Re- 
tail figures, and, we believe, every article in general use can be 
found. The Retail Merchants of this city are, as a body, men ot 
intelligence and business qualifications and constitute an element 
in our midst, which adds much to the vigor, the forwardness and 
growth ot the city. 

Their establishments are scattered over every quarter ; in the 
business centers, and in the suburbs, everywhere a group of dwel- 
lings may be found; there some enterprising Retailer has set up his 
sign as a landmark of the extending frontiers of civilization, and 
while driving a good business for himself, is adding something to 
the grand aggregate of bustle and importance of the city. Al- 
though there are a great many of these houses keeping miscella- 
neous stocks, yet we feel confident the following figures will ap- 
proximate the true number, and are for the most part those that 
have not been mentioned before. Altogether there are about 
30 firms retailing Dry Goods, 66 Boots and Shoes, 20 Clothing and 
Furnishing Goods, 20 Drugs, 167 Groceries exclusive, 105 Saloons 
exclusive, 61 Groceries and Saloons combined, 35 Cigars and To- 
bacco, 25 Confectioneries, 40 Daily Meat Markets, and 25 Barber 
shops, besides a numerous array of miscellaneous houses, so varied 
that it would bo a herculean task to give a clear idea of their pur- 
suits. After having made a careful summary, we are able to place 
the Retail Establishments of Evansville, all branches included, at 
not less than nirie hmdred houses. We hardly feel like attempt- 
ing an estimate of their business, for anything short of acomjilete 
census would be incomplete, and the man has not yet been vouch- 
safed prying qualities or inquisitiveness sufficient to form any 
correct idea of trades, where large dealers have a horror of Rev- 
enue CoUectors, and small dealers a penchant for making their 
vocations appear as large as possible, and oftentimes swelling their 
volumes beyond such reason that even a newspaper reporter would 
be put to blush, And yet for the sake of a little mathematical 
calculation, even if we cut down the receipts of the houses to eight 
dollars each for 300 days of the year, we have an annual miscella- 
neous Retail Trade of more than two Tf^Ulions of dollars. 



TH'B NEWS PAPER PRESS OF EVANSVILLB, 421 

The Newspaper Press of Evansville. 

Perhaps in no essential feature has Evansville, since the close of 
the late war, exhibited such noticeable progress as in the character of 
the Press of the city. Always a liberal patron of Printer's ink, her 
merchants have never, in any period of her history, evidenced their 
appreciation of newspaper enterprise more substantially than in the new 
business era which has succeeded the war. And yet, if the truth must 
be told, that patronage is not a tithe so great as it might be. Although 
at times Evansville has had a swarm of inferior papers they have gone 
the way of things earthly, and she now sustains no less than five live 
Daily progressive journals; three of which are printed in English and two 
in German ; three issued in the morning and two in the evening. But this 
number is ample for a city of its population and dimensions, and is a 
positive advantage, insomuch as the patronage heretofore divided out 
among miserably dull and sleepy sheets, now concentrated upon the 
present journals, invokes a lively and commendable spirit of rivalry, 
and enables the proprietors to produce papers which are a credit to 
the city abroad, contributing, in a quiet, almost imperceptible way, 
vastly to her commercial and intellectual character. The Press of 
Evansville to-day when compared, file with file, presents a striking 
contrast to the same Press before the war. Where it had been the cus- 
tom to print some two or three columns of dry miscellany, always 
going from home to hear the local news, and the rest of the paper filled 
up with advertisements, paid for by the square yard almost, and dis- 
played in gigantic hieroglyphics sometimes called " horse type," we 
now havequarto Dailies averaging their twenty and twenty-five columns 
of live local and telegraphic news, flashed from the four quarters of the 
globe, employing a corps of half a dozen editors, where they once em - 
ployed but one, and a *' slow coach " at that, and spending a thousand 
dollars a week, in cash outlay, where they expended perhaps but a 
tenth of that sum weekly before the war. 

Thus in less than ten years the entire range and method of the news- 
paper business has undergone a revolution, and may we not predict 
that during the next fifty years the Press will play the most conspicu- 
ous part in public aiFairs, combining among its requirements a knowl- 
edge of telegraphy, phonography and in all probability a more con- 
densed and perspicuous mode of typography. It will then be what 
its sycophants have claimed for it, but what it never really has been, 
the "Fourth Estate." Ultimately books will cease to be written. 
Belles-lettres will be confined to the standards. The Newspaper, 



422 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE A.ND MANUFACTURES. 

enlarged and every way improved, will probably supply the public its 
daily mental food. Journalism, strictly, is the science of human na- 
ture ; a combination of action, and actor's art — at once a reflection and 
the thing itself. Oratory, as an art, has long since had its day and 
the thunder tone of the press drowns forever the lungs of man and 
drives its convictions home with bolts of steel. But, after all, elo- 
quence according to Demosthenes is nothing more than : "Action! 
Action ! Action ! " The really ably journalist must, therefore, be not 
only a man of thought, but a man of action also. The voluptuous 
literateur has no place in the modern printing office ; for he only is 
useful who can work at night ; give up society ; subordinate his person- 
ality to his craft; consider himself, while on duty, as a man on a 
voyage, bound to serve out a certain time. Workers on the Press 
have very little leisure — for their labor can never be said to be finished. 
The mere manual labor of writing pages enough of manuscript to fill 
two or three columns in a daily newspaper would be a good day's work 
for many people. But when we add to this, that of collecting the 
news about a city — of arranging the details of names, places, time, 
and the comments and deductions necessarily attached to it — and then 
the task of mentally preparing all this to suit the public demand, it 
will be admitted that the daily labor of the editorial room is not sur- 
passed by any other occupation. We do not, in this list, count 
the multifarious duties connected with the other departments of writ- 
ing ; the commercial, the news summaries ; the arranging of corres- 
pondence ; the selections from interior or country papers ; the patient 
perusal of contributions, personal puflTs, and poetry on every conceiv- 
able subject under the sun, and sometimes on the sun himself, and 
which must, to the chagrin of'the writer, often be rejected after all. 

The men who now conduct the Press of our interior are not the- 
village lawyers and politicians of early times, who were wont to use 
the Press as a mere stepping-stone to office. Men educated to the pro- 
fession by a life-time apprenticeship ; men of hard practical sense and 
knowledge of human nature have reformed the business, purged 
away old abuses, infused new life into every channel, and made the 
American Press the most important in the world; and the character 
of our newspapers increases as the wealth and talent required becomes 
greater. 

Aside from its benefits as a general every day advertisement for 
the commercial importance of Evansville, the city press distributes 
large sums of money in the community. The five daily newspaper 
establishments here give employment to upwards of one hundred and 



fcoi j-'i ,»' ^ooii, ^^i) i'r^iiL*> ^"oci is»' ^/.i n>J> oOo s^^»)(i;r^ j]^ s^i *^^ (ic^i. jio*^ ^^] 



/• /f^'^^S:5i=::#^^SBO 



THE EVANSVTLLE 




•3»3- •3*3 -^^ ■§!? <« >fei8^ ^ 
i(Vl HWI Ifwl ICi f/lT^ 



v<iH -sra <[•>> -eiJ 







DAILY AND WEEKLY, 

An Independent Democratic Journal, 

PUBLISHED AT 

i^os, 308 # 310 §econd (Street, 

BY THE 



m 



^$ii£if>];il^2^|& *" fi||^^'^ 




JOB PRINTING 

OF ALL KINDS NEATLY EXCUTED IN 



liOTH THE 



STATIONERY 



()f the must Fashinable Styles, 
Includi nsr 



^edding{Cards # (Cards of [Ceremony 



OF EVERY DISCRIPTION. 



BiisrDiisra 

sr/,'S7\UVT/.lLLi' A.Vn PROMrTLY EXECUTED. 

I I ORDERS FROMTHECOUNTRY 

ARE RESPECTFULLY SOLICITED. 



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BVAN8VILLE COURIEK COMPANY. 423 

fifty employes, many of whom have families. Very few manufactories 
yet established here supply and sustain more consumers in the city. 
Finally, under this head, let us remark that nothing adds so greatly 
and so I'apidly to the immigration, trade and wealth of the city as a 
well regulated and liberally sustained local Press, and every dollar ot 
advertising patronage so bestowed, is bread cast upon the waters, which 
not alone returns ten-fold to the individual advertiser, but indirectly 
contributes immeasurably to the general prosperity of the place. 

The Evansvllle Courier Company. 

The Printing House of the Evansville Courier Company is at 
Nos 308 and 310 Upper Second street, in a central quarter and ad- 
mirably adapted to the business. Conducted with ability and 
enterprise and independence of tone, the success of the Courier 
has been perhaps unequaled in the annals of Indiana journalism. 
True, there have been vicissitudes meeting its progress here and there 
but the Courier has outlived them all; seen not a few days of pl'os- 
perity, and is to-day in the enjoyment of a permanent!}' established 
business it has never before experienced — having obtained a circu- 
lation of many thousand sheets, thrown off from its press, for 
subscribers in this and adjoining States. Its influence therefore 
is deservedly proportionate with its wide spread circulation, and 
it may be justly «aid of it, that no paper in the State or the West 
has ever exhibited more candor or been conducted with more dig- 
nified manliness, or more earnestly devoted to the interests of its 
section. It is the leading Democratic paper of the State and is 
extensively quoted as authority by contemporary journals and 
considered the palladium of Democratic principles in this section 
of the country. Its business affairs are conducted by a young 
firm and are managed with perfect system and with good judgment 
and taste. But we cannot undertake a history of its progress. 

In October. 1873, the paper was purchased of C. & F. Lauen- 
stein hy Messrs. S. D. Terry & Co., and on March 31 st, 1874, was 
again sold by the latter to Messrs. J. G. and G. W. Shanklin, 
being now conducted under the firm name of the Courier Com- 
pany, with Jas. Hunter as Business Manager. Having, in the 
meanwhile secured spacious quarters as above stated, they largel}'' 
increased their facilities, bought new machinery and presses iind 
added an extensive stock of improved and fashionable typographic 
materials from the latest designs of the Type Founders. At pres- 
ent there is no style of elegant and tasteful letter-press printing 



424 BVANSVILLE: HER COMMEKCK AND MANUFAOTUKBS. 

executed in the Eastern cities that they are not able to turn out 
equally as well and expeditiously, including all manner of Mer- 
cantile, Legal, Eailroad, and Steamboat Printing, plain and in col- 
ors. All kinds of Business, Visiting, Ball and Wedding Cards, 
Theater Bills and Mammoth Posters, Labels, Election Tickets — 
in short every kind of printing that can be called to mind — 

Tracts for the times, and most untimely tracts, 
Ingenious systems based on doubtful facts ; 
Polemic pamphlets, literary toys, 
And easy lessons for uneasy boys ; 
Hebdomadal gazettes, and daily news, 
Gay magazines and quarterly reviews. 

Taking in the machinery employed in the various depart- 
ments we would mention the following to iliusti'ate the facilities 
for doing work: One of Cottrell & Babcock's Improved News- 
paper and Job Presses with Rack and Screw distribution, one ot 
Hoe's celebrated Single Cylinder Newspaper Presses, One of Hoe's 
Book and Job Presses, one of Gordon's Eighth Medium Jobbers 
and one of Wells' Nonpareil Jobbers — besides other improved facili- 
ties. They also possess all facilities for Book Binding and Blank 
Book Manufacturing. 

The Evansville Journal Company. 

The Evansville Journal is both an ancient and familiar insti- 
tution having been founded in 1833, but it is none the less want- 
ing in that industiy and enterprise which are so essential to the 
success of journalism in the present age of enlightenment and pro- 
gress. Indeed it is an institution that has gathered both strength 
and influence as the years have rolled away, and retains in its busi- 
ness and editorial family many of the members of the old house- 
hold. It is conducted editorially both in its daily and weekly 
editions with marked dignity, courtesy and good taste, and its 
business department with admirable system — and no other inter- 
pretation of its pecuniary success is needed than is furnished in 
the number of these characteristics. Its business is prosperous 
and its circulation steadily increasing. 

In 1867 the Journal Company erected for their use a first- 
class marble-fronted building. No. 14 Locust Street, five stories 
high, including basement, and 144x20 feet large, and costing 
$30,000. The basement is used for Engine and Press-Rooms and 
Paper-Warerooms ; first story as the Business Department and as 
a Stationery Salesroom ; second for Editorial Rooms and the Job 
and Book Printing Department; third as the Bindery and the 




© 



'? 



» 



35 



» 



£> 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 425 




DAILY AND WEEKLY. 



The only Daily German Democratic Paper in the State of Indiana. 



The "(Demokrat" has the largest circulation of all city 
papers in Southern Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky. 



Published by F. LAVBN STEIN, 

No. 308 Uppkr Second Street, 

Evansville, Indiana. 

DAILY EYEimG HERALD, 

No. 321^ UPPER FIRST STREET, 



Has the Laegest Circulation of any Daily Paper in the 
LowEE Ohio Valley. 



PRODUCERS ADVOCATE, 

(8 Pages — 48 Columns.) 
Subscription, - $1.00 per year 



W. T. KING, Proprietor. 
54 



426 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

fourth story as the News Eoom. They give employment to about 
sixty persons. Their engine is of Heilman's make, of 20-hor8e 
power, and is supplied with an improved upright boiler. In the 
Printing Department they use the following machinery: one of 
Cottrell & Babcock's Four Roller Mammoth Poster Presses, (new); 
one of Hoe's Small Cylinder Newspaper Presses, one of Hoe's 
Drum Cylinder Presses, two of Gordon's Job Presses, one of Gor- 
don's Segment Cylinder Presses, and one "Universal" half-medium 
Job Press (new). In the Bindery they have two Euling Machines, 
Paper Cutters, Paging Machines, etc., — and also have a Steam 
Elevator connecting the News and Press Rooms. With the help 
of such excellent machinery the capabilities of the Journal Com- 
pany for first-class work in all the various departments of Print- 
ing, Press Work, Binding and Blank-Book Manufacturing, are un- 
surpassed by but few if any Printing Establishments in the West. 
The proprietors of this establishment are Messrs. F. M. 
Thayer, Jno. H. McJNeely, Claude G. DeBruler and Edward Tabor, 
under the firm style of the Evansville Journal Company. 

The Evansville Evening Herald, 

As an unmistakable evidence of the increasing demand for 
newspapers in Evansville, we may instance the career of the Eve- 
ning Herald, established October Uih, 1873, by W. T. King, 
the present proprietor and Editor-in-chief. Beginning at a most 
inauspicious time, just when the financial storm, never-to-be-for- 
gotten, was sweeping the country, tearing down old established 
houses and almost precluding the possibility of success with new 
ones, its inauguration was certainly prognostic of anything else but 
success. Thus cradled in adversity it nevertheless survived disaster, 
and to-day presents a condition little short of the marvelous. Indeed, 
many of its most sanguine friends have been completely surprised, 
and even awaited the announcement of its journalistic funeral, 
extending the limits of its possible existence only by a few very 
short weeks. And yet, as we have said, the Evening Herald has 
arisen like the starof early twilight, undimmed and still refulgent. 
Commencing with twenty-four columns, June 22nd, 1874, it was 
enlarged to twenty -^ight, and is now a very lively, compact little 
sheet, devoted to local and general affairs, and winning its way to 
the mansions of the wealthy and the bumble fireside of the work- 
iugman. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



427 







(GERMAN DAILY AND WEEKLY.] 






^ (Mt apMl ^ IKit 1? „ 



|, <EM&iS§M> (^iiMwAcr ^ ^toprietoT. 



J^os. 2iy &' 21 g Upper Third Street ^ 

OPPOSITE COURT HOUSE, 



Evansville^ 



Indiana, 



GEO. A. SETCHELL. 




Between Sycamore and Vine, 



JNO. K. SETCHELL. 

SETCHELL Bj^iOS., 

Proprietors of 

Livery and Sale StaUe 

114 Upper Second Street, 

Evansville, Ind, 



Prkb. Krokner. Otto Brandlet. 

FRED. KROENER & CO , 



DEALERS IN 



i '^ 



ALSO, 

LAQER BEER BY THE KEG. 



No. 13 Upper First Street, 



Evansville, Indiana. 



428 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

The Evansville Detnokrat. 

The leading German Democratic paper in the Lower Ohio 
Valley, and the only German Democratic Daily Paper in the State 
of Indiana, is the Evansville Demokrat. It was established in 
1864 by Peter Maier, Esq., who conducted it successfully until 
1866, when he sold out to Peter Gfroerer, In March, 1867, Messrs. 
C. & F. Lauenstein purchased the Demokrat, and for six years 
conducted it with spirit and ability, placing it on a firm and pay- 
ing basis, and commanding a broad influence with the large Ger- 
man population of this section, numbering many of its most intelli- 
gent citizens among their firm and unflinching adherents. In 
October, 1873, Dr. Chas. Lauenstein disposed of his interest to his 
brother Mr. F. Lauenstein, and left the city for a two years' resi- 
dence in Germany — the land of his birth. Mr. F, Lauenstein, 
therefore determined to enlarge and improve his journal; and hav- 
ing secured neat and convenient quarters at No. 308 Upper 
Second street, increased his facilities and re-entered the lists for 
popular favor. The Demokrat is published both Daily and Weekly. 
The mammoth Weekly, containing thirty-six columns, claims to be 
the best German Family newspaper printed in the West. Mr. Her- 
mann Determann, formerly of the Cincinnati Volksfreund, an 
editor of acknowledged ability and pith, is the Chief Editor of the 
Demokrat, and H. Scheller is the ubiquitous City Editor. 

The Evansville Union; 

The Evansville Daily and Weekly Union, the organ of the 
German Eepublicans of Southern Indiana, is published at Nos. 
217 and 219 Upper Third Street. It was established in 1851, by 
John Rohner, as the Evansville Volksbote. In 1863 that paper 
was bought by Emile Bischof, and the name changed to the Evans- 
ville Union. In 1864 Bischof sold out to K. L. Bach who, in 1865, 
admitted Capt. Isadore Esslinger to a partnership under the 
firm name of Bach & Esslinger. In 1869 Capt Esslinger purchas- 
ed the interest of his partner, and has since conducted his paper 
with enterprise and ability. Dr. F. Keller is the Assistant and 
Political Editor, and J. Russmann is city Editor. The Union has 
a well arranged German and English Job Printing Department 
attached, and is well prepared to execute, on reasonable terms 
and in creditable style, all Printing entrusted to it. They use 
one Adams' newspaper Press, run by "moke"-power, two of Wells' 
3S^onpareil Jobbers, and one of Wells' Card Presses. 



MISCELLANEOUS JOURNALS, JOB PRINTING, ETC. 429 

Miscellaneous Journals, 

The General Baptist Herald, owned by a stock Company, and 
the organ of the Free Comraunionists of the Baptist denomination 
of the United States, is published at No. 308 Upper Second street, 
in the Courier Building. Eev. D. B. Montgomery is the Editor-in- 
chief. It is issued every Tuesday. 

The Producers Advocate, &, weekly journal, devoted to the in- 
terests of the Farmers and the Agricultural community in general, 
is edited and published by W. T. King, at 321^ Upper First street. 

The Crucible, a handsomely printed little monthly, devoted 
to Household Chemistry, Familiar Science and Home Miscellany 
is edited by Dr. H. W. Cloud, and issued from the press of the 
Courier. 

Joh Printing Establishments. 

Thos. J. Groves & Co., 312 Upper First street, have a model 
Steam Job and Book Printing Establishment. They run a newly 
patented Trade Engine with upright boiler, and one of Cottrell 
&Babcock'8 Two Eoller, Patent Air Spring Presses, one of Hoe's 
Job Presses, one of Gordon's Quarto-medium Jobbers, one of Gor- 
don's Card Presses and one Liberty Card Press. They devote at- 
tention especially to fine Commercial Printing. 

P. Gfroerer has a Commercial Job Printing House at No. 321^ 
Upper Third street. 

Healy, Isaacs & Co., corner Main and First street also have a 
Commercial Job Printing Establishment. 



^ 



480 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUEAGTURES. 



The Hotels of Evansville. 

A tavern is the throne of human felicity — 

Dr. Johnson. 

It has been tritely, and yet very truthfully, remarked, that just as the 
social and moral status of men and women are classified and judged 
in accordance with the cjiaracter of the company they keep, so, too, 
are the pretentions of a city to metropolitan prominence and metro- 
politan reputation, set down and judged by the character of the Hotels 
and houses of public entertainment that it "keeps." The apostolic 
doctrine that "evil communications corrupt good manners " can, by 
slight transmogrification, be applied to the conduct of Hotels ; and it 
has always been a question of serious concern in the mind of the writer, 
whether or not at the " great day of reckoning," sham hotel proprietors 
and cobbling hosts, — with less genius, and adaptability for properly en- 
tertaining than for mauling rails or following the plowshare over barren 
and unfertile fields, will not in a great measure be held responsible for 
a predominant portion of profanity which guests have been forced to 
indulge^in. In days agone, quite unostentatious periods, the common 
sign-board at the average English tavern gave out that within could be 
found "entertainment for man and beast. " The usualAmerican "hotel" 
proprietor, adopting in some degree the customs of the mother country,' 
but evidently strongly imbued with the Darwinian theory, seems to have 
curtailed the " entertainment for man" and added to his accommoda- 
tion for beasts. The poet Shenstone discovered one of this class in his 
day, and details a jeremiad in the following regretful lines: 
" He who hath traveled life's dull round, 
, Where'er his journe5'S may have been 

Must sigh to think he still has found 
His coldest welcome at an inn." 

On the other hand, convenient and comfortable quarters and gen- 
erous fare, a smiling, jolly, ruddy -faced landlord, whose own corpu- 
lence and well-rounded anatomical " bay window " speak out plainly 
that sumptuous " entertainment for man " has been found within ; a 
corps of good-looking, well-informed and communicative clerks ; an 
army of waiters who need only the monosyllabic mandate of the Ro- 
man centurion to fly and do one's bidding — these added to central- 
ity of position, architectural beauty in the exterior and home-like ele- 
gance internally, with appropriate, luxurious and pleasant apartments 



THE HOTELS OF EVANSVILLE. 431 

throughout the building, induces with an irresistible eloquence of per- 
suasion the weary traveler, the bustling business man, tho voluptuous 
tourist, and people of all trades, ranks, professions, and callings, to 
leave circuitous routes, and tarry awhile 

" To take mine ease at mine inn." 

In such a mood the wholesale dealer prefers to find his prospective 
customer. In such a situation the commercial traveler would rather 
talk of his unrivaled samples. The fast young man, with ten thousand 
a year, and never a thing to do, would not find the world such a 
" bo-ah "in such a structure. Professional men, too, doubtless would 
far prefer pleasant quarters to a "pent-up Utica" where each in his 
narrow cell is laid as rude forefathers of some hamlet — " to sleep, 
perchance to dream? aye, there's the rub." Indeed, if we mistake not, 
arousing majority of people in all stations, " feel their oats " when 
abroad and demand the best the market affords at a first-class hotel, 
and as a general thing do not consult expenses. What people want 
in a hotel is a substitute for home. Now the idea of home which 
comes to us from the old countrie.'s, means an independent cottage, 
fenced in on all sides with high walls, small, wheezy rooms, weekly 
washings, the social hearth, trudging servants and a general tantara 
up and down stairs during the seven days of the week. The song of 
" Home, Sweet Home," was gotten up expressly to satirize this sort 
of living. It was written by a man who never had a home, and it 
only shows how far the unrestrained force of imagination can carry 
one in the wrong direction. That song is like Burns' ' Barley Brae." 
Everyone who has indulged in the "rosy" to his heart's content, 
knows what a fraud that song is. So every man, who has had a good 
square twist at " home" life, knows that all songs calculated to glorify 
such a way of living are arrant frauds. We are progressing out of 
such a way of living. It is of course very nice for the few dozen of 
mankind who can afford to keep a house, and have a retinue of ser- 
vants and fifty thousand dollars worth of furniture. But such a place 
as that is not a home ; it is an " establishment" or a " residence," or a 
"family mansion." It is, in fact, a hotel kept for a particular set, 
who belong to the same system of relationship. 

Inasmuch, then, as a city is estimated by this measure of 
criticism, perhaps it would be well to be a little more pointed and a, 
little more discriminate in our opinions and to inquire into the gen- 
eral good name of the city of Evan svilie elsewhere, as well as with- 
in her own corporate limits. For years past, aye, many more 
years than the memory of our younger citizens runneth to the 



482 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

contrary notwithstanding, the name of JCvansville was synony- 
mous with all that was unsightly, unaccommodating and unin- 
viting in connection with hotel life. On our way to Evansville 
about two years since, to cast our fortunes with this people, curi- 
ous to learn something about the city, we asked a fellow-traveler 
en route hither : 

" What kind of a place is Evansville ? " 

"A go-ahead, driving, business city ; but the d dest hotels 

you ever saw." 

Now, we did not approve of this very un- Sunday -like exple- 
tive, but then there was in connection a fiery twinkle in his eye, 
an up-turned twitch of his nasal organ and a concentrated emphasis 
in his vocalism, that we must confess his answer to our query was 
discouraging. 

Numerous hotel projects, from time to time, had "been talked of," 
and talked of, Heaven bless you, was all. The city jogged along in 
the same old fossiliferous style when the tavern-bell was the "tocsin 
of the soul" and the summons for the morning, noon, or night repast, 
and seemingly neither knowing or caring whether hotels "kept", 
or not. But at length there came a sun-burst, and a propitious 
time when this order of things was to cease. In November, 1872, 
the St. George Hotel project was started, a live movement made, 
and in less than one year from the breaking of ground it was 
thrown open to the world, inaugurating its commencement with a 
grand Mardi Gras Ball, February 19th, 1874. Since that time its 
career has been one of unprecedented success and more strangers 
have since been induced to visit this city on its account than from 
any other circumstantial cause. Not only this, but it has wonderful- 
ly improved the character of all the other houses in the city, and 
the amount of good, thus resulting, cannot be lightly calculated. 

The St, George Hotel. 

This splendid structure, occupying an admirable site, at the 
junction of First and Locust streets, in the very heart of the city, 
on the verge of the resident quarter, and in every way convenient to 
the multifarious Business Places, Railroad Depots, Steamboat 
Landings, Churches, Places of Amusements and Public Buildings, 
is a building in which the highest architectural skill has been dis- 
played, not only for the convenience and comfort of guests, but 
for the excellent and economical and systematic performance of 
the necessary labor to conduct such a mammoth and magnificent 



ADVEKTISEMENTy. 



433 




D. J. MACKEY, 



Proprietors. 



E. P. HUSTON, 




A New and Elegant First-class Hotel 

SUPPLIED WITH 

Haven & Co.'s Improved Patent Elevator, 

Gas, Steam-Heating and Running Water Apparatuses, 

Superb SUITES of Rooms f each with Bath Room 

and Closets, 



This Hotel has adopted a graduated scale of Prices which are reasonable and 
must become very popular, viz : 

FIFTH FLOOR, , $2.00 per day 

FOURTH " 2.50 " " 

THIRD " 3.00 " " 

FIRST and SECOND FLOOR, $3.00 to 3.50 " " 

Meals Seventy 'five Cents. 



By the Elevator, the upper floors are reached in a twinkling. The rooms upon these floors 
are furnished equally as well as on the lower floors, all of which have the very best Hair Spring 
Beds, etc. 

The location is one of centrality, and convenient to all the Railroad Depots, Steamboat Land- 
ings, Public Buildings, Churches, Places of Amusements, etc. 

55 



434 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

house. The Hotel, St. George, is six stories high, counting the 
basement. It has two fronts, one on First and one on Locust St., each 
of 150 feet. There are in the building 130 sleeping apartments, 
besides elegant suites of ladies and gentlemen's parlors, dining- 
room, ordinaire^ promenades, and the grand facade making in all 
160 rooms. The building has also recently been supplied with 
Haven & Go's latest improved and patented Passenger and Bag- 
gage Elevator worked by hydraulic pressure and rendering every 
lloor of eas}'^ access in a twinkling. 

The cuisine, however, is its chief glory. Everything palatable 
that flies, walks, swims or crawls, in air, water or earth is furnished. 
Everything that grows deep down in the soil, or is suspended 
from bough or vine is supplied in abundance. Both the cookery 
and the laundry departments are run by steam — and the entire 
building is heated by Steam — in truth, everything is in keep- 
ing with the most modern advancements in Hotel arrange- 
ments, and language has not been invented terse and con- 
cise enough to give in one breath its many conveniences. From 
its splendidly furnished parlors to the farthest removed apartment 
in its top-loftical stories, all is neatness, cleanliness, and inviting. 
Bath-rooms and water-closets are on each floor, while to its general 
appointments are added Eailroad Ticket and Telegraph ofiices, a 
News Depot, Shaving Saloons, Billiard Jlooms and a first-class Bar. 

The St. George was erected at an outlay of $150,000 inde- 
pendent of the site, thus bringing its value up to $200,000. Since 
its opening we learn that 'by actual calculation not less than two 
thousand names were included in its register the first nine months 
of its career. The St. George is owned by Mr. David T. Mackey, of 
the firm of Mackey, Nisbet & Co., a gentleman whose wealth en- 
terprise and public spirit have marked him a clear-headed and able 
financier as well as one of our most prominent citizens. The con- 
trol of the house is under Messrs. Mackey and Huston, the 
younger member Mr. B. P. Huston by far the most admirable 
Hotel man of his age in the West, and combining with enviable 
executive qualities, a suave and popular manner that has made 
the St. George a peerless resting place. By many travelers in the 
country Mr. Houston will be remembered as formerly of the 
Terre Haute House and afterwards proprietor of the National 
House, Terre Haute. In the oflSce of the St. George may be 
found a corpB of gentlemanly clerks, who always have time 
to answer questions and to treat guests with that regard be- 



SHERWOOD HOUSE, ALLEN HOUSE. 436 

coming their station and duty. The cuisine in under the personal 
supervision of Monsieur A. Lapice, caterer, who undoubtedlj- un- 
derstands the business. The whole force emploj'ed in running the 
establishment numbers seventy persons, and we verily believe 
none are retained who are wanting in efficiency in the strongest 
sense; for the most systematic order is preserved throughout from 
parlor to kitchen. The St. George Bar and Billiard Eooms are 
under the direct control of Harry Johnson, formerly of the steamer 
Idlewild, and his brother Wash. H. Johnson, fbrmerl}- of the 
steamer Eob't Mitchell, with a first-class stock of the choicest 
wines, liquors, cigars and etceteras, dispensed with the particular- 
ity and nicety of true artists, as well as from their affable and 
courteous attention they have secured a fame quite in keeping with 
the renown of the splendid hostelry in which they are domiciled. 
The Sherwood House. 
The Sherwood House, of Evansville, dates its origin back to 
days that have long since passed into history. From time im- 
memorial it has been the rendezvous of many of the prominent 
men of this section, and on its old register pages might be traced 
the strange and varied chirography of names that "were not born to 
die." Passing successively through the hands of a long lino of 
genial and hospitable landlords, in September, 1874, it came into 
the possession of, and wa** opened under the most favorable aus- 
pices, by the present genial Boniface and experienced landlord 
Mr. U. G. Damron, formerly proprietor of the Damron House, 
Mt. Vernon, Ind. Refitted and refurnished entire, it immediately 
began a career whose success has never flagged. The Sherwood 
House is situated at the junction of First and Locust streets. It 
has fifty bed chambers, besides a full complement of Parlors, Din- 
ing Hall, Offices, Bar-room, etc. The table is admirably kept, and 
the clerical force, headed by Capt. H. Clay Stinson and Rue 
Shawver, are courteous and experienced. 
The Allen House. 
The Allen House, under control of its builder, owner and pro- 
prietor, Mr. Fran'c D. Allen, is at the corner of Second and 
Division streets in one of the most central, yet retired and conve- 
nient quarters of the city. The Allen was built in 1872 at a cost 
of $30,000. It has twenty-eight neat and well furnished sleeping 
apartments, a dining hall tidy and comfortable, and indeed, many 
other conveniences modern and metropolitan. The House was 
built with a view to conducting it on the European plan and in 
the spring of 1875 will be run in that way. 



436 EVANS VILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

The FLedderich House 

The Hedderich House, corner of High Street and Second 
Avenue was built in 1862 at a cost of $16,000. It has thirty-six 
sleeping apartments, and a handsome suite of Parlors, besides Bar 
and Billiard-Hooms. Jno. Hedderich is the proprietor. 

The St. Cloud Hotel. 

The St. Cloud Hotel is one of the oldest and best known houses 
of public entertainment in the city. It is located on Water street, 
quite convenient to the Steamboat Landings, and enjoys a large 
share of trade and travel from Kentucky, Tennessee and Southern 
Indiana and Illinois. It has twenty-five sleeping apartments. 
Hall & Joffries proprietors. 

An Array of Smaller Houses. 

There are in addition to the foregoing quite a number of other 
Hotels, small it is true, but as a rule are well kept and well pat- 
ronized. 

Planters House, (formerly the Woodson), 318 Upper Water 
street. 

Congress House, 617 Main street. 

Crescent City Hotel, 424 Upper Water street. 

Depot House, 718 Main street. 

Farmers House, 200 Lower First street. 

Franklin House, 228 West Franklin street. 

Fulton Avenue House, corner of Ohio street and Fulton Ave- 
nue. 

Gait House, 209 Upper Second street. 

Henrie House, 215 Upper Second street. 

Hotel G-arni, 205 Upper Third street. 

Klauss Hotel, 701 Locust street. 

Lafayette House, 110 Upper Water street. 

Mayflower House, 121 Lower Water street. 

Southeastern House, 415 Lower Water street. 

Wariick House, corner of Locust and Third streets. 

Williams House, 121 Third Avenue. 

Workmen's Home. 324 West Pennsylvania street. 

In addition to these there are about sixty smaller Hotels and 
Boarding Houses all open to public accommodation. 

Restaurants. 

Evansville also has a number of Restaurants, where the hun- 
gry or the thirsty can have all of their gastronomic tastes satiated 



ADVERTISEMENTS. <37 



-wm '^mmM Wf^m^Qi^ mm 



*"^'"*'l illllF^^^^' 



?^ 5-flf^ 



RESTAURANT AND SALOON 

JOS. JAMES, Proprietor. 

No. 214 UPPER FIRST STREET, 

Evansville, Ind. 



Oysters, Fish, Game, etc., constantly on hand. 

THE ONLY RESTAURANT IN THE CITY OPEN AT ALL HOURS 
OF THE NIGHT. 



JE^WELL'S 



'1^ 

319 UPPER FIRST STREET, 
Between Main and Locust, EVANSVILLE, IND. 



The only place in the city where you can take a lady without going into a bar- 
room, for meals at all hours. 

JOHN ALBECKER, 

215 LOCUST STREET, 

i^arisvillll©» tndibni. 

CHOICEST WINES AND LIQUORS. 



438 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

and satisfied, and where all of the little delicacies that serve to 
tickle the palate may be found, making the science of living a 
practical study and a positive delight. 

FIRST NATIONAL RESTAURANT AND SALOON. 

The Fii'st National Restaurant and Saloon, Jos. James pro- 
prietor, is at No. 314 Upper First Street. Centrally located, 
pleasantly surrounded and with everything about the establish- 
ment well arranged, it offers inducements that have already se- 
cured it a liberal patronage. It is the only Eestaurant in the city 
open at all hours of the night, and the saloon attached, being well 
stocked with the best liquors to be obtained in this market, has 
lured many customers to its counter. 

THE GRAND CENTRAL DINING ROOMS. 

The Grand Central Dining Eooms, No. 319 Upper First street, 
flourishes under the personal supervision of the proprietor, R. C. 
Jewell, a distinguished caterer in this section. It is the only Res- 
taurant in the city without abar-room, and where liquors are not 
sold and therefore is extensively patronized both by ladies and 
gentlemen — native citizens, as well as visitors. All of the delicacies 
of the land — fish, fiesh and fowl, are admirably served, and polite 
and attentive waiters attend the guest at every beck and call — mak- 
ing the Grand Central very inviting as to refreshment. 

OTHER RESTAURANTS. 

Peter Burk & Co., proprietors of the Dining Parlors, 203 Up- 
per Second street, hold an enviable place among the Restaurateurs 
of the West and the viands prepared for their table are always of 
the most pleasing nature, and bear the test ot skill as exercised by 
a most accomplished corps of cooks. 

Martin Bahnmueller, 125 Fifth Avenue ; Chas. Habbe, 106 
Locust street ; Louis Eller, 220 Sycamore ; and Henry Schaefer, 
Crescent City Springs, and The "Katie" Restaurant, Chas. Gerard, 
proprietor, 302 Upper Water street, have each well ordered Restau- 
rants. 

John Albecker, proprietor of the "Lottie," 215 Locust street, 
presides over an establishment distinguished for its retiracy, and 
from being the resort of the bon-ton. His popular manners have 
attracted a large custom. 



BUSINESS FACILITIES OF EVAN8VILLE— EAILROADS. 439 



Business Facilities of Evansville. 

« In grouping together what we choose to term the " Business Facil- 
ities of Evansville," we desire only to preserve systematic arrange- 
ment, and to speak briefly of features highly essential in their 
relations to trade. These embrace the Railroads, River Transporta- 
tion, Telegraphy, Express and Fast Freight Lines, Banks, Chamber of 
Commerce, Mercantile and Insurance Agencies, and other valuable 
aids to business, which must be spoken of concisely, yet omitting no 
points of vital interest. 

But in considering these great auxilliaries of trade thoroughly, 
one would be led into a discussion of the important routes, not onlj' 
completed, but those partially finished or in contemplation, and possi- 
bly pass beyond the direct purpose of this work. 

L Railroads. 

Viewing Evansville with respect to situation, we may, again 
truthfully remark, that she possesses almost unrivaled means of 
communication with the South and Southwest, and directly or in- 
directly with all points of prominence in the United States. By 
glancing at a map of the country it will be observed that 
Evansville is the geographical center of that grand section of fa- 
vored territory composed of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky 
— a section of country, perhaps the richest, most populous and 
powerful of any of equal stretch in the Union. Its peculiar situa- 
tion in this respect and its singular advantages as a point for the 
interchange of manufactured commodities and raw materials, or 
for the exchange of the great products of this wonderful valley- 
one section bringing wheat, corn, the minor cereals, hogs, and 
manufactured goods to lay at our feet; the other contributing its 
wealth in tobacco, cotton, sugar, cattle, and all that goes to make 
up the volume of trade from the marvelous fields of the South ; 
thus meeting at Evansville, making it a sort of midway station or 
halfway house, and dignifying the place at once as the identical 
spot for the building up of the greatest internal market of the 
sation. Its position, therefore, would naturally point it out as 



440 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

the established city, through- which the most direct lines of com- 
munication between the Northwest and the South Atlantic seaboard 
cities would naturally pass, as would those striking the most available 
points for exchange of products between the Lakes and the South ; 
while as a route from the Middle and Eastern States to the Southwest 
and via the Southern Pacific Road to the Pacific Ocean, it presents the 
most feasible, the most direct, and shortest line of any yet proposed. 
Already we see the gathering strength of Evansville in this respect. 
A very large portion of the trade between St. Louis and Nashville, 
Chattanooga, Atlanta, Augusta, Charleston, Savannah, Columbus, 
Macon, Montgomery, Selma and Mobile, and other Southern centers 
of wealth, passes over our railroad lines, through Evansville. The re- 
turning trade comes the same way. Chicago finds this the most favor- 
able and the shortest line to the same points, and our railroads are 
even successfully competing with powerful rivals in attracting this way 
the traffic of the East with Nashville, Memphis, and other cities in 
that direction. Liberal freight tariffs and prompt and rapid transpor- 
tation are doing much to throttle extortionate monopolies and to intro- 
duce our railroads to popular consideration and favor. The possibilities 
of Evansville, in this respect, are not only grand, but they are dazzling 
in their influence, and time — time alone is needed to bring out immeas- 
urable results. 

EVANSVILLE & CHICAGO RAILROAD. 

The pioneer enterprise in the system of Railroads now centering 
at Evansville is the Evansville & Chicago Railroad, forming the con- 
solidated lines of the Evansville & Crawfordsville, Evansville, Terre 
Haute & Chicago, and Chicago, Danville & Vincennes Railroads. 
Its construction was commenced in 1850 and finished to Terre Haute 
in 1854, where connection was afterwards made with the remainder of 
the line. This Road is of incalculable advantage to the city and inter- 
sects all of the leading roads to the East, North and Northwest which 
cross the State of Indiana, and gives direct routes to all of the largest 
cities in the country. At Princeton it connects with the Louisville, 
New Albany & St. Louis Road, now under construction. At Vin- 
cennes it connects with the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, either for 
Cincinnati or St. Louis, with the Indianapolis & Vincennes Railroad 
for Vincennes, and with the Cairo & Vincennes Railroad for Cairo 
and points in Illinois. At Terre Haute its connections extend over 
the Vandalia Road, either to St. Louis or Indianapolis, Indianapolis 
& St. Louis, Logansport, Crawfordsville & Southwestern, Paris 
& Decatur, (now the Illinois Midland) to Peoria, and the Evansville, 



RAILROADS. 441 

Terre Haute and Chicago Railroad to Chicago. At Danville it strikes 
the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Railroad, Toledo Wabash 
& Western Railroad, and Paris & Danville Road, and in addition crosses 
a number of less important roads — before reaching its Northern ter- 
minus at Chicago, So it will be seen that these connections are not 
only varied and extensive, making the Evansville and Chicago Railroad 
the only route traversing the full length of the State of Indiana from 
North to South, This road has already directed the grain and pro- 
vision trade with the South to this locality, and the bulk of it travels 
this way while its Northern and Eastern bound freightage, includes ' 
the receipt and compels the transhipment at this place, of some of the 
leading products of the South, especially tobacco and cotton. 

The management of this road has been unexceptionable ; not an 
accident of serious importance, it is said, has occured with it for years, 
and it sustains a reputation for safety and care equal to that of any 
public thoroughfare in the country. The total cost and equipment of 
this road was $3,056,526.27. The Company owns 19 Engines, 10 
Passenger Coaches, 1 Paymaster Car, 5 Baggage, Mail and Express 
Cars, 8 Cabooses, 252 Box Cars, 30 Platform Cars, 110 Coal Cars, 10 
Stock Cars, 10 Construction Cars, 30 Hand Cars and 20 Push Cars. 

The gross earnings for the year, ending August 31, 1874, are as 
follows : 

From Passengers $174,525 57 

Prom Freight 317,746 20 

From Express I2,3(i2 30 

From Mails » , 11,689 02 

From Rents 20,674 25 

From use of Cars and Engines (Bal.) 2,440 25 

Total Earnings $539,377 59 

The Expenses of operating the road, including Renewals and 

Taxes, are 342,875 44 

Net Earnings $196,502 15 

The following are its officers : J. E. Martin, President and Super- 
intendent ; F. Heakes, Secretary and Treasurer ; C. Rush, Assistant 
Auditor; C. C. Genung, Engineer and Paymaster; E. S. Babcock, 
Jr.jGen'lFreight Agent; J. L.White, Master Mechanic. The General 
Office of the Company in the city is at No. 8 Main, corner of 

Water Street. 

:;m1.:i 
THE ST. LOUIS, EVANSVILLE & NASHVILLE RAILROAD, ..„j,> 

By a consolidation of the St. Louis & Southeastern Railroad, 

reaching from St. Louis to Evansville, and the Evansville, Henderson , 

& Nashville Railroad, extending south to Nashville, we have anotJieiTi')' 
56 



442 EVANSVILLE: HEE COMMERCE AND MANUFACTUKES. 

route which we choose to term the St. Louis, Evansville & Nashville 
Road. We believe the construction of the latter, or Southern Divi- 
sion of this road, was commenced in 1854, but in its incipiency 
it met obstacles that might have swamped most enterprises forever. 
The two lines however were completed and united in 1872, and through 
trains placed on its track ; and yet, ever since that time, it has fought 
difficulties and experienced draw backs that have not only been dis- 
couraging, but, indeed, have greatly embarrassed the enterprise, and 
finally caused it to be placed in the hands of a Receiver in October, 
1874. There is a voluminous iliad of woes that might be recounted here, 
for while the road has certainly failed to meet some expectations, injus- 
tice to its former management as a fair-minded writer, we must be- 
wail the undeniable fact that it has been pounced upon and hampered 
unmercifully with burdens too great for any corporation to bear. But 
to attempt thorough justification of its cause, or to relate these numer- 
ous barriers, would lead one into an interminable discussion, and per- 
haps call for remarks too severe and partisan for a work of the gen- 
eral pacific nature of ours. We believe that its importance cannot 
long be denied or overlooked. The value of such a connection to 
Evansville can hardly be estimated. It opens the Central, Southern 
and Gulf States to the trade and manufacturing enterprise of our city. 
It makes this their most convenient and cheapest produce and pro- 
vision market. It places us upon a great through route of travel and 
freightage between the North and South. It is the air line between 
St. Louis and Nashville, and, with its connections, forms a Great 
Trunk Route uniting the Northw.estern and Southeastern States, 
bringing in close, rapid and intimate relation the cities and towns of 
both sections; the illimitable prairies of the AVest, and the cotton 
fields of the South. And while its benefits have been undoubtedly 
vast, who could rightly estimate its value to Evansville if unfettered, 
and free it were permitted to exercise even a fair modicum of its un- 
bounded possibilities ? 

The St. Louis, Evansville & Nashville Railroad is fully equipped 
and in fair running condition. At Guthrie, connection is made with 
the Memphis, Clarksville & Louisville Road. At Nashville, it 
strikes the great system of Southern Railroads, and directly leads to 
the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad ; thence to Atlanta, Augusta, 
Charleston and Savannah. At Nashville, it also connects with the 
Nashville & Northwestern Railroad, for Memphis, and points in West 
Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The grand con- 
nection made at Nashville with the Louisville, Nashville and Great 



RAILKOADS. 443 

Southern Railroad, also makes Selma, Montgomery, Mobile, Pensa- 
cola and the harbors of the Gulf, easy of access. At Savannah a 
steamship line is now in operation with Liverpool, and thus direct 
trade with Europe has been gained for Evansville. These are the 
transportation facilities which we already enjoy, and their vastness 
will readily be seen. These facts, joined with our low taxes, our cheap 
coal, our favorable location, remove every obstacle to our growth, and 
make our many more thousands of people and many more hundreds 
of manufactories simply a question of a few years, while the nearer 
benefits derived from the close proximity of such wealth}' and influen- 
tial cities as Henderson, Madisonville, and Hopkinsville, in the 
midst of the coal, the tobacco, and the grain of Western Kentucky, 
are the largesses of fortune spread out for our immediate benefit. 

The general officers of the road are E. F. Winslow, President and 
General Manager; J. H. Wilson, Vice President ; A. E. Shrader, Gen- 
eral Superintendent ; G. S. Winslow, Assistant General Superinten- 
dent ; J. F. Alexander, Treasurer ; C. W. Gardiner, Secretary and 
Purchasing Agent ; J. P. Hains, Auditor ; J. W. Mass, General 
Passenger Agent ; C. H. Crosby, Assistant General Freight Agent ; 
with J. F. Alexander as Receiver for the Western Division, and St. 
John Boyle for the Southern Division. 

LAKE ERIE, EVANSVILLE & SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 

This railroad, when completed, will extend from Bellefontaine, 
Ohio, to this city, and is one branch of the through projected trunk 
line from Cleveland, on Lake Erie, to Altata, on the Pacific Ocean, 
in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico. This is the most western branch, and 
is another chain in the grand enterprise. The total length of this 
route will be two hundred and eighty-five miles, and eighteen of these 
are now completed and in successful operation to Boonvllle. Most of 
the remaining portion is graded, with every prospect of a speedy com- 
pletion. It opens up vast mineral resources, and is itself built upon 
veins of the richest coalmines. The country which this road pene- 
trates has now no railroad facilities, and the transporting of the pro- 
ducts is done by wagons. 

The agricultural products which grow along thjs line amount to 
$30,000,000 annually; the revenue from coal alone would yield a rail- 
road $3,000,000 a year ; this line tapping the celebrated Indiana block 
coal, which, being free from phosphorus and sulphur, is of the greatest 
utility in smelting iron ores and manufacturing steel and gas. Too 
much value cannot be placed upon this line, and the increased trade 
it would bring to us, while cheapening all our manufacturing pro- 
cesses. 



444 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

The city ofEvansville has voted $300,000 subsidy to this road, 
and the bonds are now in the hands of nine leading citizens as Trus- 
tees, vvith Hon. Jno S. Hopkins as President. The officers of the 
road are, Geo, H. Bllery President, New York ; R. Pattison, Vice 
President, Evansville ; Chas. L. Snow, Chief Engineer, Evansville ; 
Wm. Hart Smith, Treasurer, New York, and Wm. S. Ford Secretary, 
Evansville. 

EVANSVILLE, JACKSON & NEW ORLEANS RAILROAD. 

This important and much needed Railroad is intended to con- 
nect the city of Evansville with the growing city of Jackson, in 
West Tennessee, and give the railroads centering at this city direct 
communication with the entire railway system of the Southwest. 
It will cross the Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Rail- 
way at the crossing of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, and 
.thereby reduce the distance by rail to Paducah about twenty miles. 
At or near Milan it will intersect the Mississippi Central, and 
at Jackson or Hamboldt, the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, by which 
the distance between this city to Mobile and to New Orleans will 
be shortened 60 miles, and the great inconvenience and delay 
caused by the long ferry to Henderson will be avoided. 
At Milan or Humboldt it will intersect the Memphis and 
Louisville railroad, making almost a straight line from Evansville 
to Memphis, Little Rock, and to the eastern terminus of the 
Southern Pacific railroad at Texarcana. It will stimulate 
the trade and commerce of some of the finest counties of 
Western Kentucky and Tennessee, and give our merchants 
and manufacturers the means of competing more thorough- 
ly and completely for the large and growing trade of this rich 
section of country. The B., J. & N. O. will give the shortest line 
from Evansville and the great cities east of it, to Mobile, New 
Orleans, Memphis, and to all points in the trans-Mississippi region 
soath of Missouri, and for this reason, will in the future keep Ev- 
ansville in the great current of trade and commerce which is flow- 
ing, and in all probability will continue to flow with increasing 
volume between these points It will* traverse a rich and pro- 
ductive agricultural country, and pass through one of the best 
coal, iron and timber sections of the West, and will secure to the 
merchants and manufacturers ofEvansville the largest and most 
profitable country trade of any road leading to this city, and to the 
citizens of the counties through which it will pass, it will offer the 



EAILEOADS, FAST FREIGHT LINES. 445 

best facilities for travel and for shipment of all they have to dis- 
pose of, to the best markets of the country. 

EVANSVILLE AND LOUISVILLE NARROW GAUGE. 

The above named enterprise was projected and set on foot by 
some of our leading business men and capitalists during 1873, the 
design of which was to open up cheap rail communication with 
the flourishing towns and rich agricultural and mineral regions 
in and near the river, in the direction of Louisville. The "panic" 
coming in just when a canvas for subscriptions commenced, efforts 
for the building of the road on the part of its friends were sus- 
pended for the time, but the enterprise is one of much merit, and 
it is set down as one of Evansville's future roads, and certain to 
be built within a reasonable time. 

THE "GAP" RAILROAD. 

A link in the St. Louis and Southeastern road, between this 
city and Henderson, has never been completed, making it neces- 
sary to transport by river between this city and Henderson. 
This trouble, however, is soon to be obviated, a charter 
having been secured to close up this gap by a magnificent 
line of railway. 

Fast Freight Lines. 

Quite a number of Fast Freight Lines between Evansville and 
various Northern, Eastern, Western and Southern cities have es- 
tablished agencies here. Spirited rivalry exists between these 
competing companies, and the business in the last few years has 
grown remarkably. The presence of such facilities for transport- 
ation are sure indications of the increasing commercial impor- 
tance of Evansville, when we consider only a few years since none 
such existed. It would lead us into a lengthy discussion to satis- 
factorily settle the claims of each for the preference, each one 
claiming its own especial route as the " shortest, best and quick- 
est." Their best time freight from New York to Evansville, and 
vice versa, is about six or seven days ; to Boston seven and eight 
days ; to Philadelphia and Baltimore five and six days. The sev- 
eral Agencies are located as follows : 

Continental Line Baltimore and Ohio E.. E. — both " Bast and 
"West Bound " — Thos. A. Crane, Agent, ofiice 14^ Main street. 

Merchants' Dispatch, " West Bound," via New York Central 
and connections, G. W. French Agent. Office Main street, be- 
tween First and Water. 



446 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUEACTITRES. 

White Line, " Bast Bound," via New York Central, D. W. Fos- 
ter, Agent. Office St. G-eorge Hotel. 

South Short Line and Great Western Despatch, '• West Bound," 
via Erie E. E. and connections, David Jngle, Agent. Office 300J 
Upper Water, corner Main street. 

Erie & Pacific Dispatch, " East Bound," via Brie E. E. and con- 
nections, E. K. Dunkerson, Agent. Office, corner of Locust and 
Water streets. 

National Line, both " East and West Bound," via Pennsylvania 
Central E. E.. B. W. Patrick, Agent, Office 307 Upper First 
street. 

The Ohio River Bridge. 

The union of our converging and diverging Eailway sys- 
tem at Evansville, makes the building of a Grand Bridge 
across the Ohio Eiver at this point both an indispensable and an ine- 
vitable step in our future growth. Thus necessitated, from many views, 
the project is just as certain to be realized, as any human possibility 
well can be. There are many strong and convincing reasons that 
impel us to this assumption, prominent among which may 
be stated the peculiar location of the city with respect to 
the remainder of the State ; its accessibility and favorable 
topography ; its far reaching Southern advancement in strik- 
ing similitude to the point of a funnel through which traffic 
and trade must pass ; its situation at the head of low water 
navigation in the Ohio Eiver ; the fact that it is already a city 
of broad and commanding influence, controlling millions of trade, and 
demanding, by the potence of wealth, proper outlet to the Southern 
markets ; the fact that three established railroads from the North and 
one from the South already meet here, and are clamorous for the cross- 
ing, and the fact that enduring and substantial foundation can be se- 
cured at much less cost than anywhere perhaps along the shores of 
Indiana and Illinois. These are considerations of " pith and moment " 
weighty and conclusive ; and we are glad to know the grand project is 
now fully under way, estimates have been made, eligible sites surveyed 
and the preliminary steps well advanced — thus giving us a giant stride 
on the royal road to opulence, power and distinction, placing the key 
to the commercial situation in our hands, and making the opportuni- 
ties for excellence far beyond accurate calculation. 



TELEGRAPHIC FACILITIES. 447 

Telegraphic Facilities. 

- The establishment of the Electric Telegraph in our midst dates 
back even prior to the construction of railway facilities, and took in 
Evansville among its earliest steps of progress. The first line in the 
United States was erected between Washington and Baltimore, in 
the spring of 1844, through aid furnished by the Government ; but 
the result of its operations were so unsatisfactory, that the Postmaster 
General, in his report for 1845, expressed the opinion that the reve- 
nues conld not be made equal to the expenditures under any rate of 
charges which might be adopted. The government then declined to 
assume the ownership and control of so doubtful an undertaking, and 
the wonderful invention that has furnished man with a medium of 
communication at present so excellent, necessary and invaluable, 
had to appeal to the enterprise of the people for the means required 
for its development. Companies began organizing in various parts of 
the country, and lines were built in detached sections between the 
more important places, but without any general plan of co-operation ; 
indeed, a brisk rivalry, bordering on fierceness, existed between 
them. 

The first telegraph wire leading into Evansville was put up in 
1848, and ran along the Dirt Road from Evansville to Vincennes, a 
distance of 52 miles. It was controlled by the Evansville & Wabash 
Telegraph Company Jno. Ingle, Jr., President. After the completion 
of the E. & C, R. R, about 1853, its route was changed to follow the 
track of that road, but continued as the Evansville and Wabash Line 
until January 1st, 1872, when it was consolidated with the Western 
Union Telegraph Company — and thus given almost unbounded facili- 
ties and connections with the most extensive telegraph system in the 
world, joining with the Atlantic and Cuba Submarine Cables, and se- 
curing direct and speedy communication with Europe, Asia, Africa 
and the West India Islands. The Western Union now has over 6,000 
offices under its control, has a capital stock of more than forty 
millions of dollars, and transacts an annual gross business of more 
than eight millions of dollars. 

In 1869 Col. N. M. Booth extended the Ohio River Telegraph 
Line from Louisvile to this city, and beyond, to Union town. Prior 
to that time $2.15 was charged for a dispatch often words or less to 
New York, but Col. Booth entering into competition, the charges were 
soon reduced to $1. At present the rate is SI 25. The Western 
Union Company, however, built a line from Nashville, Tenn., to 
Evansville, in July, 1871, and Col. Booth was appointed Manager at 



448 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

this point by G. W. Trabue, Superintendent of the "Western Union 
Company, at Nashville. The Western Union then purchased, for 
$6,000, the Evansville and Wabash Line, and Evansville was placed 
in the Indianapolis District. Col. Booth was retained as Manager of the 
Western Union Line in this city, and at present is also Lessee of the 
Ohio Kiver Line. There are now five Telegraph Offices in this city, 
located as follows : 

Central (or principal) office, 16 Main street. 

Branch office, E. & C. R. R. Depot, Main street. 

Branch office, E. & C. R. R. Superintendent's Buildings, No. 8 
Main street. 

Branch office, St. L. R. R. Depot, Pearl street. 

Branch office, Union Ticket Agency, Main Street. 

The Company gives employment to some sixteen persons in the 
city, including Manager, Operators, Clerks, Messengers, etc. It has 
in the city nine commercial lines, or wires for the transmission of busi- 
ness telegrams, one wire connecting all of the City Railroad Depots 
with the main office, and two fire-alarm wires, one running to the 
Third Street Engine House, and the other to the Water Works, where 
it blows the whistle of the Holly System, and enables the Engineer to 
put on a pressure of water, and have hydrants ready for use one mile 
from the Water Works in about one-and-a-half minutes. It was the 
contrivance of Col. Booth, and has been successfully worked for two 
years. All of these wires take battery at the Main Street Office, the 
largest battery having ninety-three cups ; the next largest sixty, and 
several smaller ones. In addition there is one through circuit from St. 
Louis to Montgomery, Alabama. The business in this city is largely 
on the increase, and not less than 80,000 telegrams are received and 
sent per annum, to say nothing of " dead-head " messages and Asso- 
ciated Press dispatches. 

The Mercantile Agency. — JB. O. Dun & Co. 

This system was established in the city of New York, in 1841, 
just after the terrible mercantile revulsion, in 1837, when our 
whole system of internal commerce was prostrate, and nearly all 
of its operations bankrupt. It was planned and put into • 
operation as a remedy for the difficulties which had been so heav- 
ily and disastrously experienced. It was the first organized effort 
to relieve the merchants, manufacturers and bankers of the country 
from the uncertainty of credit operations and sought to substitute 
for the tardy, expensive and unsatisfactory results of individual 
investigation, a system that should be alike prompt, economical 



MERCANTILE AGENCY. 449 

and reliable. That this system has been sucessfuUj' applied, the 
extensive patronage of all the leading houses throughout the coun- 
try bear unmistakable evidence. From an interest in the subject 
and some acquaintance and experience with the workings ot the 
institution, we have recently taken the pains to inform ourself, 
and do not hesitate to say that this agency is conducted on high 
and honorable principles, and is truly and extensively useful, not 
only to the wholesale merchants, for whose immediate benefit it 
was devised and established, but to all sound, upright, industrious 
traders throughout the land. 

It frequently warns the city merchaHt of danger to his interest 
in some distant part of the country, and furnishes him with facili- 
ties for protection. It aids the solvent country merchant in giving 
him a credit, and the city merchant in selecting his customers ; thus 
acting as a valuable means of introducing buyers and sellers to 
each other, and strengthening confidence where confidence is de- 
served. It serves as an effective chec'i upon the imprudent spec- 
ulations of good men, or the swindling operations of bad ones; 
and tends, thereby, to produce greater solvency and prosperity 
among merchants and business men generally. The object ot the 
system is to supply information as to the character, capital, and 
capacity of parties engaged in trade, and to enable its subscriber, 
who is justified in requiring such information, to judge whether or 
not and to what extent he should give credit to" those applying 
for it; i. e., to protect as well as promote trade. 

The proprietors and managers can have no possible motive 
for injuring or misrepresenting a man, and its true and only inter- 
est must be to get as near the truth as possible ; for the least de- 
viation from this standard must have an unfavorable influence 
upon its own prosperity. In fact, it is plain that the entire suc- 
cess of the system depends upon the truthfulness and justness of 
their records — upon having every report they give out verified by 
the results to which it leads. 

The Associate Oflace at Evansville, No. 121^ Upper First 
Street, was established in January, 1872. At present, under the 
efficient management of Mr. W, B. Macdougall, it has been placed 
upon a firm and paying basis, about one hundred of our merchants 
and manufacturers having become regular subscribers. While the 
establishment of an office here may be taken as a strong evidence 
of the growth of our jobbing interests, it is undoubtedly of great 
5V 



480 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

importance, not only to jobbers, but to retailers and business men 
generally, that our city and the credit of its business men should be 
fairly and impartially represented abroad. 

We could dwell at greater length upon the merits of this ex- 
tensive and important institution, but space will not admit more 
than this brief explanatory sketch. We can say, however, in con- 
clusion, that from our own investigation, and from what we have 
been frequently told by subscribers to the Mercantile Agency, that 
no wholesale house, however well it may be acquainted with its 
customers, can afford to deprive itself of the important and every- 
day practical knowledge the Agency imparts. Not professing to be 
infallible, they possess facilities improved by thirty years' of ex- 
perience and outside criticism, and a merchant should as soon 
think of leaving his property uninsured as to be without the aids 
to be obtained through this well-known source. A suflScient 
guarantee of its efl&cacy is definable in the fact that its enemies al- 
lude to it as a system of espionage, whereas every fair-minded, 
honorable man, will readily concede its reports include only such 
information as every business man has a right to know ; for the 
day of swindlers and those who ply nefarious practices of dishon- 
esty, is full upon us. 

The Adams and Southern Express CompanieSi 

The Adams Express Company established their first agency at 
Bvansville in 1853, but had no office at that time, entrusting the 
small business to a visiting speculator who was engaged at the time 
in shipping produce from this city to Louisville, New Orleans, and 
other cities. The first regular office was at the corner of Main and 
First Streets — Messrs. Healy & Conyngton, Agents. Several years 
afterward Geo. W. McBride took the Agency, and moved it to 
Bray's building on First Street, opposite the present office. Mr. 
McBride was relieved of the office by Mr. Geo. H. Fish, who was 
sent to Evansville for that purpose by the officers of the Company, 
stationed at Louisville. In turn Mr. Fish was succeeded by Chas. 
H. Wentz, who was succeeded by J. A. Thompson in the Fall of 1869. 
In 1870 Henry Temple became the Agent and remained in office un- 
til May 19, 1871, when Mr. S. H. Huffman, the present Agent, was 
placed in charge d'affaires. Some very interesting incidents might be 
recited of the earlier condition of the Express business here, if cir- 
cumstances permitted. In those days all of the Louisville Express 
freight came by River, and was under the supervision of P. G. 



ADAMS AND SOUTHERN EXPRESS COMPANIES, ETC. 461 

O'Eeilly, who reported to the principal office of the Western Divis- 
ion at Pittsburg. Sometimes, when the E,iver was at a low Stage, 
freight was brought overland from Newburgh to this city. 

At present the business in this city is quite heavy, this being 
the joint Agency of the Adams and Southern Express Companies. 
The annual freight business will exceed $100,000 annually, and the 
money packages will foot up among the millions ; averaging the de- 
livery of more than one hundred money packages per diem. It re- 
quires seven persons, clerks and drivers, and three wagons, to ac- 
complish the routine office work. In addition there are fifteen mes- 
sengers who rendezvous here, including those on the E. & C. R. R., 
St. L. & S. E. R. R., (both Western and Southern Divisions), Lake 
Erie & Evansville R. R., and Upper and Lower Ohio River Packet 
Lines. These Companies cannot, nor do they intend to compete in 
cheapness of transportation with purely freight or fast freight lines, 
confining their operations to conveyance of light articles, such as 
money packages, and all valuables that require careful handling and 
prompt and safe delivery. The distance from here to New York via 
Terre Haute is 1,008 miles, and via Cincinnati, O.. 1,026 miles; 
time, 42 hours by either route. 

Street Mailways. 

One feature of progress, making the great and recent growth 
of Evansville a certainty, is the construction and successful opera- 
tion of several lines of Street Railways, for horse cars, within the 
past few years — and all since the close of the War and the begin- 
ning of the new business era of the city. Year by year this system 
of travel is coming more and more in favor, and while its facilities are 
almost indispensable, the advantages are incalculable to a city, 
since it enables the working classes, persons of limited means, and 
business people generally, to engage in their pursuits in the center of 
the city, and at the same time enjoy the peace and pleasure of a sub- 
urban life. 

The Evansville Street Railway Line in its several routes has 
been constructed and added to at different times. The first track 
was completed Nov. 13th, 1867, beginning on Main Street, at the in- 
tersection of Water and running out Main to the E. & C. R. R. 
Depot. In the Spring of 1868 it was extended from the corner of 
Main and Locust Streets, down Second to Third Avenues, out Third 
Avenue to Columbia Street, along Columbia Street to Fulton Avenue, 
thenct to Spring, and along Spring Street to the Crescent City 



452 EVANS VILLE: HEE COMMEKCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Springs. In the Spring of 1871, another section beginning at Main 
Street near the E. & C. Depot was run out Eighth Street to Black- 
ford's Grove. In the Spring of 1874 still another section was built, 
starting from the corner of Columbia Street and Third Avenue and 
running up Columbia as far as Second Avenue, thence along Second 
Avenue to Division Street, through Division into Third Street, up 
Third to Washington Avenue, out Washington Avenue to Eighth 
Street, there connecting with the old line at Blackford's Grove. The 
total length of the road is six and a half miles independent of switches, 
and the total cost of construction and equipment S100,000. The 
following figures will show the Company's business for two years past, 
omiting December 1874 : 

Total Receipts for 1873 $19,135 80 

" " to December 1st 1874 20,682 30 

" No. Passengers carried during 1873 478.395 

" " " " to Decenaber 1874 517,057 

These figures indicate a gratifying increase of business and show 
that about 85,000 more persons will be transported during 1874 over 
1873. 

The Company owns and operates 10 cars, and 42 head of stock — 
horses and mules. They also give employment to 17 persons. Hon. 
Wm. Heilraan is President, W. W. Chandler, Secretary and Treas- 
urer, and Wm. Bahr, Superintendent ; Office, in Chandler's Block, 
corner First and Locust Streets. 

Evansville City Transfer Company. 

Since every item of information connected with travel is of the 
utmost importance to a transient as well as resident population, we 
also include herein a brief account of the Nashville City Transfer 
Company, or, to be plainer, the City Omnibus Line. Such an 
organization is of much benefit, not only to the city itself, but to the 
traveling public at large — for their vehicles are punctual, and cer- 
tain at all traveling hours. Winter and Summer, and by their com- 
bination regulate the price of transferring passengers, (fifty cents 
with ordinary baggage) prevent extortion or imposition, and, at the 
same time, are alvvnys responsible for losses or mistakes. The system 
was first inaugurated February 15, 1874, and up to October 1st, 1874, 
(seven and a half months), carried 8,183 paying passengers. The 
Company runs two large Omnibuses and two Baggage Wagons. 
Superintendent Th. W. Vecemann, at the Uuion BAilro&d and 
Steamship Ticket Agency, No, 228 Main Stre t. 



RIVER AND STEAMBOAT INTERESTS. 



453 



River and Steamboat Interests. 

We have already briefly alluded to the advantages possess- 
ed by Evansville as a Commercial City, but we may be pardoned 
if we again, and stubbornly insist that its location as a mar- 
atime city should naturally, and indeed does, make it one of the 
largest shipping points in the Mississippi Yalley, and places its 
Steamboat interests among the most considerable on the Western 
waters. As a point for the receipt and export of staple Agricul. 
tural products by water, it is without a rival on the Ohio Eiver, 
and as a point for general Steamboat business it takes the third 
rank, and follows close in the wake only of Pittsburg and Cincinnati. 
The statistics of imports and exports, the registry of the port, the 
number and magnitude of our Packet Lines, and the weekly arri- 
vals of vessels at our wharves conclusively establishes this claim, 
and effectually sets aside all argument to the contrary. 

There are sixty-four steam vessels and eighteen barges, with 
a total tonnage of 14,214,02 tons, that are registered here, owned 
or controlled at this port, or reporting to the district of Evansville 
(6th Maratime.) The following statement shows the increase of 
Tonnage and Number of Steam Vessels and Barges, omitting only 
such figures as were not obtainable ; 





29 
34 
47 
54 
64 

35 


TONS. 


TOTAL 
TONNAGE 


Number of Steam Vessels December 31st, 1868 


4,745,76 
5,574,52 
7,884,19 
8,935,05 
10,854,57 

6,108,81 




" " " " •' " 1869 




(1 « (I a (1 It 1870 




it 11 (( It (( II 1871 




" " " " September 30th, 1874 


10 854 57 


Increase in Number of Steam Vessels since 1868 





Number of Barges December 31st, 1870. 
II I. 11 II II 1871 

" " " September 30th, 1874. 



Total Tonnage and Total Vessels. 



? 


347,47 


14 


1,001,39 


18 


3,359,45 3,359,45 


82 


'l4,2l4,02 



The United States officers at this Port are Col. Philip Horn- ' 
brook. Surveyor of Customs, 217 Upper Water Street. V. Sorenson, 
Special Deputy Surveyor of Customs. Thos. M. Archer, United 
States Inspector of Boilers and Machinery, and Jno. F. McClain, 
United States Inspector of Steamboat Hulls. We acknowledge the 
kindness of Mr. Sorenson in furnishing us with many valuable sta- 



454 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

tistics. The following statement will show the Inspector's account 
current for the years 1873 and 1874 : 

Number of Vessels inspected December 31st, 1873 52 

'< *' " " October 31st, 1874 47 

Inspector's Receipts December 3lst, 1873 $ 3,656,65 

Inspector's Receipts October 31st, 1874 3,271,20 

The above Receipts include charges for the inspection of Steam- 
boats and costs of licenses for Engineers, Pilots, Masters and Mates. 

From the Register of Wharf Masters, — Jacob Froelich and H. C. 
Nanney, we obtain the following Statement of the Steamboat arri- 
vals at this port for the year 1873, and for 1874 to December Ist, 
inclusive : 

Number of Steamboat arrivals during 1873 2,576 

Number of Steamboat arrivals to December 1st, 1874 2,798 

Total Tonnage during 1873 1,931,250 

Total Tonnage to December 1st, 1874 2,098,500 

The "arrivals " include only one landing of the Regular Packets 
per week, so that the actual number of arrivals is not fully shown in 
the above, and yet there is a very perceptible increase the present 
year. 

The regular Packet lines, which afford daily communication 
with the principal towns on the Ohio, Green, Wabash, Cumber- 
land, Tennessee, and Lower Mississippi Rivers, as well as the 
tributaries of the latter, comprise some of the most elegant and 
capacious steamboats afloat on any waters, and the magnificence 
and splendor of Western Steamboats has passed into a proverb. 
These lines are largely owned and controlled here, and it would 
be a supposition against human nature for any one to entertain the 
belief that every advantage is not given to home shippers, as well 
as reduced and special rates for commercial travelers going out 
from Evansville houses. Railroads have, in a measure, destroyed 
the passenger trade of the river, and will ultimately remove the 
passenger specialty as seen in our "floating palaces; " but what is 
lost by the receipts for luxurious travel by cheap transportation 
for freight, has greatly augmented the Steamboat business, and all 
of the companies here have made money, and while they are every 
year increasing their facilities in magnitude and efficiency, they 
are' at the same time doing much to increase the trade and manu- 
facturing interests, and general prosperity of the city. 

EVANSVILLE, CAIRO & MEMPHIS PACKET COMPANY. 

The Evansville, Cairo & Memphis Packet Company, carrying 
the United States Mail and Express, owns three splendid Side- 
wheel Steamers, running daily, Sundays excepted. They are the 



RIVER AND STEAMBOAT INTERESTS. 46B 

Idlewild, Pat Cleburne and Arkansas Belle. The office of the 
Company is 124 Upper First Street— Jno. S. Hopkins, Sr., Presi- 
dent ; H. M. Sweetser, Secretary ; Frank Hopkins Treasurer, and 
Capt. G. J. G-rammer, Superintendent. 

EVANSVILLE & TENNESSEE RIVER PACKET COMPANY. 

The Evansville & Tennessee Eiver Packet Company owns 
three Steamers, the Eed Cloud, Florence Lee and Eapidan No. 2, 
running two boats semi-weekly from this port and one semi- 
weekly from Paducah, as far up the Tennessee river as Eastport, 
Mississippi, and Florence, Alabama. The office of the Company 
is at No. 219 Upper First Street— Jno. Gilbert President, and W. 
G. Brown Secretary and Treasurer. 

EVANSVILLE & CUMBERLAND RIVER PACKET COMPANY. 

The elegant new Steamer Silverthorn, built here and owned 
by Evansville citizens, is the weekly packet to Nashville and 
points along the Cumberland Eiver. Office 206^ Upper Water 
Street — W. H. Conant, Agent. 
EVANSVILLE, OWENSBORO, ROCKPORT & CANNELTON LINE. 

The Steamers Mary Ament and Bermuda are both owned 
here, but are run by rival firms to Owensboro, Eockport and Can- 
nelton. 

EVANSVILLE & GREEN RIVER PACKET COMPANY. 

The United States Mail Steamers Bowling Green and Evans- 
ville constitute the semi-weekly packet line between this city and 
Bowling Green, Kentucky, 

LOUISVILLE, EVANSVILLE & HENDERSON MAIL LINE. 

The Daily Mail Line between Evansville and Louisville, and 
Evansville and Henderson, comprises three elegant Side-wheel 
Steamers— Morning Star, Grey Eagle and Tarascon — J. E. Eankin 
& Co., Agents, Upper Wharf Boat, foot of Main Street. 

EVANSVILLE & NEW ORLEANS PACKET COMPANY. 

This line owns the magnificent low pressure Side-wheel Steamer 

Eobert Mitchell, which runs between Evansville and New Orleans 

during the winter season, or when the Ohio is at sufficient boating 

stage. 

ADDITIONAL LINES. 

Besides the above Steamers leaving this port daily and semi- 
weekly, there are the Cincinnati and Memphis packets passing each 
way on regular days twice a week, bringing to and carrying away 
large quantities of produce, manufactured articles, etc. 



466 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

There are, also, passing almost daily, from ports North, iSouth 
and West — Pittsburg, Wheeling, St. Louis and other important cities, 
a large number of boats which seldom fail either adding or putting 
off freight at Evansville. J. E. Rankin & Co., Upper Wharf Boat, 
J. M. Humphrey, Lower Wharf Boat, and W. H. Conant, 206^ Up- 
per Water Street, Agents. 

Oar coal trade on the river is of no small consequence, one 
Company alone employing four tow-boats and tugs, besides some 
forty barges — in all about eight tugs and steamers are engaged in 
delivering to steamers and for city consumption. 

Evansville Dry Dock and Ship Yard, 

The best constructed, best managed and best patronized Dry 
Dock on the Ohio River, is to be found at the Evansville landing. 
Our positive statement will surprise no one who knows that, the 
Superintendent of the Company, is the celebrated, E C. Murray, 
inventor and constructor oi the Rebel RamMerrimac. Mr. Murray 
was for a long time Assistant Naval Constructor in the United 
States Navy, and also held the same position under the Confederate 
Government. During his long and varied experience as a ship 
builder, he has built over one hundred steam vessels, many of 
them among the largest and finest boats that navigate the Western 
waters. Joined to the obvious advantage of having a man of Mr. 
Murray's reputation and experience to attend to its business, the 
Evansville Dry Dock Company find this city an especially favora- 
ble point for their operations on account of the cheapness of ship 
lumber in this market. It is well known that immense quantities 
of fine oak timber are to be found up Green River, which can be 
readily floated down to this port, where it is worked up into the 
shapes suitable for ship building by the mills erected specially for 
that purpose. 

The Dock is at the foot of Wabash Avenue, and is 198 feet long? 
and has a capacity for boats 188 by 50 feet. During the past year it 
has been fnlly employed, boats from all points on the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers, as far as New Orleans, putting in here for repairs. 
This Company is deserving of mention as having materially added 
to the importance of this port, by its capital and enterprise. Messrs. 
Baird & Start, F. J. Reitz, and E. C. Murray, constitute the 
Company. 

The other principal Steamboat Builders are J. C. Jameson, 
River Bank, between Ninth Avenue and Pigeon Creek, and Jacob 
Meyers & Bro., 301 Lower Water Street. 



RIVER IMPROVEMENTS. 457 

River Improvements. 

It seems appropriate in this connection to speak briefly of tlie 
Government Improvements just completed under the direction of 
Major Merrill, Chief Engineer ot the Ohio River Survey, and Mr. 
Chas. B. Bateman, Assistant Engineer. These works, which directly 
affect Evansville, are the Evansville Dike, just above the city, 
French Island Dike 28 miles above, and Henderson Island Dike, 15 
miles below Evansville. The Evansville Dike has been extended from 
the Kentucky shore 1,500 feet, and is designed to remove an accu- 
mulative Sand-bar, which threatens the upper harbor, by forcing the 
current from the wing-dam to impinge more effectively on the ob- 
structions near the Indiana side. The original appropriation for 
this Dike was $30,000, but the actual cost was $35,000. It was 
commenced in 1872, and took nearly two years to complete it. In 
construction it consumed 13,378 cords of brush, 7,744 cubic yards of 
stone, and 684 piles, each from 16 to 30 feet long. Major Merrill, 
in his report to the Washington authorities, speaks thus encourag- 
ingly of the work : 

" I consider this Dike a marked success in its efloctiveness, its 
strength, and its cheapness. All future Dikes in the Lower Ohio 
will be built in a similar manner. "' 

Banks and the Banking Interest. 

In the brief history of the United States, and even in the still 
briefer histoi'y of Indiana, many important events in the Banking 
business have transpired. We have been blessed with very few 
good Banking system, and cursed with very many bad ones, and 
while now the failure of a Bank causes astonishment throughout 
the country, there have been times — those insecure days of the old 
"wild cat" system, for instance, when more astonishment was 
felt, if a week passed without several failures. Butjustat this par- 
ticular period, the results of the memorable failure of the extensive 
Banking House of Jay Cooke & Co., Philadelphia, and the general 
prostration of trade throughout the country thereunto incident, 
are fresh facts in the minds of all business men. To attempt any- 
thing like a clear account of the present financial situation, or to 
discuss the various modes of relief suggested, would lead us into 
that labyrinthian pathway of errors so many financiers, great and 
small, are now treading with uncertain and wavering footsteps. 
The vital questions of" inflation," or " contraction;" of " paper cur- 
58 



458 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES, 

rency, " or " specie paj-raent, " arc now the subjects engaging the 
master minds of thecountr}' — and more's the pity, having entered 
into politics, the end is not yet. And, while we have felt it 
necessary to allude briefly to these affairs, we are not reluctant to 
confess the verity and acknowledge our own bewilderment in the 
midst of so many theories, plans, systems and policies proposed. 
Therefore, the least necessarily said, perhaps the better. 

In point of number, the Banking Institutions of our city will 
probably not bear comparison with some cities of no greater pop- 
ulation than Evansville, but in soundness, and in the amount of 
business transacted on the capital invested, they will compare 
favorably with any in the country ; and any one at all observant 
would naiurally be struck with the extent of the business of this 
city by merely noticing the amount of capital possessed, and the 
prosperity of the Banking Institutions; for the advance of business 
i« probably more accurately demonstrated by the growth of the 
Banking Interest, than by any other one standard that can be fol- 
lowed with equal precision. Alluding briefly to the history of the 
several Institutions, we begin with the pioneer corporation in the 
city: 

THE EVANSVILLE NATIONAL BANK. 

The first bank established at Evansville, was a branch of the 
old Stntc Bank of Indiana, organized in 1834, with a capital, in- 
cluding State and Individual Stock, of $80,000. The rec- 
ords show that the first meeting of the Board of Directors was held 
JSovember 11th. 1834 — the members being Robert Stock well, Jno. 
Shanklin, Marcus Sherwood, Wm. Lewis, Wm. Owen, Robert 
Barnes, Chester Elliott. James Cawson, Darius North, and John 
Mitchell. Of these, Messrs. Shanklin and Sherwood are the only 
survivors. The Board organized by electing Mr. John Mitchell 
President, and Mr. John Douglas Cashier; and these oflieei's were 
continued until Mr. Mitchell's death, when Mr. Samuel Orr became 
President. In 1843 the capital of the Bank was increased to 
$150,000, ot which $73,000 was owned by the State. In 1847 Mr. Geo. 
W. Rathbone was made Cashier, and continued in that position un- 
til March 4th, 1857, when the Bank was succeeded by the "Branch 
of the Bank of the Shate of Indiana. " The first Directory Board 
of the new Bank was composed ol" Messers. G. W. Rathbone, 
Robert Parrett, H. Q. Wheeler, R. R. Roberts, and Geo. Foster. 
Mr. Rathbone was chosen President, and Mr. Samuel Bayai'd Cash- 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 459 



li ifSiif ilii iiiiiid liil 



Sloloi 



(Successor to the Evansville Branch of the Bank of the State of Indiana. 



DESIGNATED DEPOSITORY AND FINANCIAL AGENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Authorized Capital, $1,000,000 

Paid in, 800,000 

Surplus, 200,000 



OFFICERS: 

GEO. W. RATHBONE, Prest. SAMUEL BAYARD, Vice Prest. 
HENRY REIS, Assistant Cashier. 

DIRECTORS: 

Geo. W. Rathbone, Samuel Orr, 

Samuel Bayard, David J. Mackey, 

William Heilman, Catlin Preston, 

Robt. Dunkerson, Matthew Dauzell, 

Samuel M. Apcheb, 



460 EVANSVILLE: HEJR COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

ier. January, 1865, the Bank was organized under the National 
Bank Act as the Evansville National Bank, with a capital of 
$300,000, which was subsequently increased to $800,000. Mr. W. J. 
Lowry was made President and Mr. E. R. Eol)erts Cashier, but 
afterward Mr. Samuel Baj^ard was made Cashier, and still later 
all the officers were changed, Mr, Rathbone being elected Presi- 
dent, Mr. Bayard Vice President, and Y. M. Watkins Cashier. Mr. 
J.G.Kennedy succeeded Mr. Watkins, and in 1873 having resigned, 
his place was in turn succeeded tobj^ Mr, Henry Reis, the present 
Assistant Cashier ; Messrs. Rathbone and Baj^ard still retaining 
the Presidency and Vice Presidency, respectivel}'-. Board of Di- 
rectors : Geo. W. Rathbone, Samuel Orr, Samuel Bayard, David J. 
Mackey, William Heilman, Catlin Preston. Robert K. Dunkersou, 
Mathew Dalzell, and Samuel M. Archer. The old Bank 
was conducted without the assistance of a clerical force, the Cash- 
ier keej)ing his own books ; but so greatly has the business in- 
creased in a few years, that it now requires twelve clerks to do 
the work, in addition to the officers. It is the Designated Deposi- 
toi-y and Financial Agent of the United States with a capital and 
surplus of $1,000,000, and is the wealthiest Baking Corporation in 
the State. The Banking House is on Main Street, between Water 
and First, and is one of the largest and best built concerns of the 
kind in the State. 

THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK. 

The Evansville Insurance Company, which was organized in 
1850, with a capital of $250,000, and a charter containing insurance 
and banking privileges of a liberal character, and which, under the 
name of the -'Canal Bank," was for several years conducted un- 
der the Free Banking Law of Indiana, in 1863 was incorporated 
as the First National Bank of Evansville. with a capital stock of 
$500,000. It was the sixth application filed with the authorities 
at Washington for a National Bank charter, under the act passed 
by Congress during the Sessions of 1862-63. Since that time it 
has been in successful operation, and has increased its capital and 
surplus to $825,000. The first Board of Directors was composed ot 
Messrs, Gillison Maghee, Robert Barnes, Chas. Viele.Jno. S. Hop- 
kins, Jno. Ingle, Jr., M. J. Bray, S.M. Archer. H.Q. Wheeler,and 
William Brown. Mr. Wheeler was elected President, and William 
T. Page Cashier. Some changes have occurred since the organi- 
zation of the Bank, the present Board being Messrs. Jno. S. Hop- 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 461 



Capital, $500,000, Surplus^ $300,000. 



First National Bank, 

(Successor to Canal Bank, Incorporated 1850,) 

CORNER MAIN AND FIRST STREETS, 

Evansville, Ind. 



John S. Hopkins, President. Jas. H. Cutler, Cashier. 



DIRECTORS, 



John S. Hopkins, John Ingle, Jr., Cyprian Preston, 

Charles Viele, Dr. F. W. Sawyer, Jas. H. Cutler, 

Dr. M. J. Bray, Alvah Johnson, Thos. E. Garvin. 



462 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

kins, Chas. Viele, Dr. M. J. Bray, Jno. Ingle, Jr., Dr. F. W. Saw- 
yer, Alvah Johnson, Cyprian Preston, Thos. E. Garvin, and Jas. 
fl. Cutler — with Mr. Hopkins us President, and Mr. Cutler as 
Cashier. The Banking Rouse is at the corner of Main and First 
Streets. 

THE MERCHANTS NATIONAL BANK. 

This Bank was organized February 8th, 1865, and opened for 
business on the 3d of the following June. The capital stock was 
.$350,000, all of which was promptly taken, notwithstanding it fol- 
lowed closely on the heels of two National Banks heretofore spoken 
of. The Directors for the first year were Messrs. C. R. Bement, 
Richard Raleigh, W. J. Dallam, J. G. Venemann, W. W. Morgan, 
Jno. A. Reitz, Morris Ranger, and Isaac Keen — Mr. Bement Pi"esi- 
dent, and Jno. D. Roach Cashier. In 1868, the officers were 
Richard Raleigh President, Jno. A. Reitz Vice President, and 
Chas. W. Kerney Cashier. In 1868 H. L. Meadows succeeded Mr. 
Kerney as Cashier ; in 1869 Mr. Bement was again chosen Presi- 
dent, Matt Hennning Vice President, and J. A. Lemcke, Cashier. 
Chas. Decker succeeded Mr. Lemcke as Cashier in 1871. The pres- 
ent officers were elected in 1872 — C. R. Bement President, and Matt 
Henning Cashier. Their capital and surplus at present is $490,000. 
Their Banking Building, at the junction of Main and First Streets, 
is the handsomest, completest and most modern Bank perhaps in 
the West, and was erected, at a cost of $40,000, in 1873. 

THE GERMAN NATIONAL BANK. 

In January, 1873, the charter of the Bast Chester National 
Bank, ofMt. Vernon, in the State of New York, was purchased 
and transferred to this city, and permission granted by Congress 
to change the name to the " German National Bank of Bvansville." 
The capital stock was placed at $250,000, with permission to in- 
crease it to $500,000. The present officers are Samuel Orr, Presi- 
dent ; Jno. A. Reitz, Vice President, and Phil. C. Decker, Cashier. 
Directors : Samuel Orr, Jno A. Reitz, Samuel Bayard, Thomas 
Kerth, Edward Boetticher, H. M. Sweetser, Chas. Schulte, Theo. 
R. McFerson and Phil. C. Decker. Banking House 216 Upper 
First Street. 

THE CITIZENS NATIONAL BANK. 

This Bank was organized during the present year, and com- 
menced business at No. 121 Upper First Street as successors to the 



CITIZENS NATIONAL BANK. 



463 



private Banking House of W. J. Lowry & Co. It began with an 
authorized capital of 1175,000. Officers : R. C. Slaughter, Presi- 
dent ; S. P. Gillett, Cashier — Directors : R. C. Slaughter, Jno. J. 
Roach, L. Swormstedt, Geo. P. Hudspeth. Sam'l Vickery, F. W. 
Cook, Jas. H. McNeeiy, Fred Lunkenheimer, and S. P. Gillett, 

The following tabular statement will show the capital, surplus, 
circulation and average amount of deposits of oiir National Banks : 



Banks. 


Capital. 


Surplus. 


Average 
Discounts. 


Average 
Amount 
Deposited. 


Circulat' n. 


Evan.sville National. 
First " 
iMerchants " 
German " 
Citizen^ " 


$ 800,000 
500,000 
350,000 
250,000 
175,000 


$ 200,000 

325,000 

140,000 

9,000 


$ 1,200,000 
800,000 
525,000 
250,000 
160,000 


1 600,000 

250,000 

200,000 

75,000 

94,000 


$ 640,000 
450,000 
815,000 
225,000 
157,500 








Total 


$ 2,075,000 


$ 674,000 


$ 2,935,000 


$ 1,219,000 


$ 1,687,500 



In addition to the foregoing, the private Banks of Evansville are 
employing a considerable amount of capital, and doing an active 
business. Samuel M. Ai-cher & Co., No. 102 Main Street, and Th. Ven- 
nemann & Sons, foreign Banking House, No. 228 Main Street, and 
The Peoples Savings Bank, No. 220 Main Street. 

THE PEOPLES SAVINGS BANK. 
This Bank opened for patronage May 5th, 1870, and its largely 
increased business yearly, shows the thrift and frugality of our 
working classes. The business and progress of the Bank is best 
shown by the following table : 

Amount deposited December 31st, 1870 | 19,633 

Amount deposited December 31st, 1871 92,533 

Amount deposited December 28th, 1872 210,000 

Amount deposited December 31st, 1873 262,706 

Amount deposited November 1st, 1874 266,310 

Number of Depositors December SLst, 1870 391 

Number of Depositors December 3lst, 1871 1,080 

Number of Depositors December 28th, 1872 1,954 

Number of Depositors December 31st, 1873 1,963 

Number of Depositors November 1st, 1874 3,450 

The present Officers of the Bank are: Gen. Jas. M. Shackelford, 
President; Jas. Steele and Dr. M. Muhlhau3en,Vice Presidents; Jno. 
Laval, Secretary and Treasurer. 

It will thus be seen that the total Banking capital of this city, 
including the amount deposited, which is a tloating capital, will 
amount to nearly four millions of dollars, and, notwithstanding our 
Banks have extended accommodations in the most liberal manner, 



464 EVANSVILLE: HEK COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

the present capital we may say is inadequate to the demands of the 
business of the city. At the door of this fact might be laid a great 
deal of the draw-back to our commercial interests, for with the aid 
of more money our busine^^s men might have been still better able to 
have established themselves in positions in the scale of mercantile 
credit to which the advantages of this locality and their own solv- 
ency and usefulness, entitle them. So while M^e find that the Banks 
have been fostering and encouraging trade, they can proudly refer 
to the fact that no mercantile community in the country has been 
more punctual. With such an endorsement from our Banks, our 
high character in Eastern markets is not to be wondered at. 

Building, Loan and Savings Associations. 

Another prosperous financial element in our midst may be 
found in the Evansville Building, Ldjui and Savings Associations. 
There are two of these institutions, known as Nos. 1 and 2. They 
are incorporated under an act of the Legislature, approved March 
5th, 1857. The objects, as set forth in their Constitution, is "to 
increase capital by accumulation, to assist its members in the ac- 
quisition of real estate, in the erection of buildings, and in the re- 
moval of incumbrances on property ; and for these purposes, to 
enable them to receive the amount of their shares in advance." 
The capital stock of each Association is placed at $100,000, divided 
into four hundred shares of $250 each. 

Association No. 1 was organized in May, 1873, and from the 
books of Secretary J. W. Jenner we obtain the following gratifying 
figures : 

Amount of Money loaned to December 1st, 1874, $25,000 

" " Interest paid m " " " 7oO 

" " FineSj " " '• 700 

" " Premiums realized " " " 7,000 

33,400 
" " Expenses " " " 500 

Total assets " " " $32,900 

The officers of Association No. 1, are Chas. B. Baker, Presi- 
dent; N. B. Hay ward, Vice President; J, W. .Jenner, Secretary; 
H. C. Warren, Treasurer; J. B. Rucker, Solicitor. Directors: C. 
B. Baker, N. B. Hay ward, H. C. Warren, Jno. J. Roach, W. C. 
Turnock, T. J. Grroves, P. W. Raleigh, J. L. Knauss and J. O. Pitt- 
man. 

Association No. 2 was organized July 18th, 1874, and is in a 
fair way of success. The officers are T. J. Groves, President; E. 



INSURANCE BUSINESS. 465 

Linthicum, Vice President; Wm. T. King, Treasurer ; J. W. Jen- 
ner, Secretary; T. J. Mooney, Solicitor. Finance Committee : H- 
C. Warren, Fred Blend and H. J. Grimm. Directors: Thomas J. 
Groves, H. C. Warren, Wm. T King, E. Linthicum, Fred. Blend, 
Theodore Pfafflin, J. J. Kleiner, Henry J. Grimm and Matt. Fitz- 
williams. 

These Associations are each limited to eight years existence, 
unless sooner dissolved, under the provisions of the act of incor- 
poration, but the prospects are that each will pay out in six years. 
Insurance Business. 

We opine, that but few citizens'of Evansville, not connected 
with some one of the Insurance Companies or agencies, have 
the least distinct idea of the extent and importance of the Fire, 
Marine and Life Insurance Business being done here No branch 
of business, surpasses that of Insurance in the amount of attention 
and quiet hard work necessary for its success. And no other soli- 
citors can "drum" with more untiring zeal, or are more assiduous 
in their efforts. This, of course, partl}^ results from the presence 
of so many rival companies in our midst, and j)artly from the gen- 
eral obstinancy or shortsightedness of some people in all branches 
of business to guard against the ravages of time or disaster. 

One point of vast advantage to the merchants doing business in 
Evansville is the comparatively low rates for Insurance. For in- 
stance, the Dry Goods firm here transacting an annual business of 
one million dollars pays a smaller rate than one transacting the 
same amount of business in New York, or Philadelphia or any of 
the larger Eastern cities, from the simple fact that a business house 
here necessar}' to carry forward that amount of trade is appraised 
at a much less value than a house meeting the same requirements 
would in either of the cities indicated. Therefore, an important 
item of contingent expenses having been reduced, the prices of 
goods naturally share the diminution, and the Retail merchant from 
abroad obtains here a benefit unexpected. There are at present sev- 
enty-four Fire Insurance Companies represented in Bvansvile, only 
one of which is Local, and showing the following strength : 
Combined Capital, $ 38,904,710 00 

" Surplus Assets, ... 67,207,180 00 

Total, $106,111,890 00 

The amount of annual Gross Premium Receipts for Fire In- 
surance alone is $195,000, which covers property to the amount of 
nearly twenty millions of dollars. 
59 



466 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

There are twelve Insurance Agencies in the city, located as 
follows: Drew & Bennett, 207 Upper First St.; Frank Basch & 
Co., corner First and Main; J. W. Nexsen & Co., 16 Main; Sam'l 
Loewenstcin, 210 Main; Beyreiss & Bulla, 219 Main; Chas. Hinks, 
26 Main; Herman Pryibil, 212| Main; P. L. Whicher, 12 Upper 
Eighth; Hallock & Patrick, 307 Upper First ; Moses Weil, 309^ 
Upper Third ; Sam'l L. Jones, 313^ Upper Third ; Seelig & McCut-^ 
chan, Upper Third, and C. Tomhemelt, 217 Locust Street. 
EVANSVILLE BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS. 

Officers: J. W. Nexsen, President; Sam'l I. Loewenstein, 
Vice President ; Geo. H. Fish, Secretary ; Chas. Hinks, Treasurer. 

Members: Drew & Bennett, Loewenstein & Eichel, J. W. 
Nexsen & Co., Louis Beyreiss, F. Busch & Co., and H. Pryibil. 

Executive and Rate Committee: J. W. Nexsen, Chairman; 
Frank Busch and H. S. Bennett, 

THE CITIZENS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

The only Local Fire Insurancd Company now in operation in 
Evansville is the one known as the " Citizens Firo Insurance Com- 
pany." In August, 1872, the franchises of an Insurance Company, 
chartered in 1832, was purchased at Lawrenceburg, Indiana, and 
under this charter the Citizens Company organized, with an author- 
ized capital of $250,000. It has proven a worthy successor of the 
faithful old "Evansville Insurance Company" and controls a large 
business, both fire and marine risks. The offic n-s of the Company 
are F. T. Hodge, President; J. W. Bingham, Vice President ; C. K. 
Drew, Secretary ; J. A. Lemcke, Treasurer. Directors : Catlin 
Preston, D. J. Muckey, Jas. L. Orr, F. T. Hodge, F. D. Allen, Peter 
vSemonin,Thos. E. Garvin, Jno. W. Bingham, J. A. Lemcke. Drew 
& Bennett, Managers, No. 217 Upper First Street. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



467 



Citizens Insurance Company, 



,Wlft! 



Authorized Capital, $250,000, 



No. 217 First Street, 



Evansville, Ind. 



OFFICERS: 

F.T.HODGE, J.W.BINGHAM, C.K.DREW, J.A.LEMCKE, 



President. 



Vice Pres't. 



Secretary. 



Treasurer. 



DIRECTORS ; 

Catlin Preston. D.J.Mackey. J. L. Orr. F. T. Hodgb. F.D.Allen. 
Pktkb Semonin. THOS.E. Garvin. Jno.W. Bingham. J.A.Lkmcke. 



DREW & BENNETT, Managers. 



STOCKHOLDERS. 



C. R. Bement. 
M. Henning. 
Jno. Gilbert. 
Jesse Walker. 
"D. J. Mackey. 
Jno. J. Roach. 

A. G. Torian. 

F. T. Hodge. 

N. B. Hayward. 

L. M. Baird. 

F. A. Preston. 

H. M. Preston. 

Jno. D. Preston. 

T. M. Smith. 

Catlin Preston. 

W. G. Brown. 

Frank D. Allen. 



George Shanklin. 
John Shanklin. 
F. A. Owen. 
Albert Steinbach. 
Peter Semonin. 
Geo. L. Dixon. 
Edward Boetticher. 
Anthony Reis. 
Sam'l Orr. 
Jas. L. Orr. 
H. F. Blount. 
Chas. Viele. 
Jno. W. Bingham. 
HoUingsworth Bros. 
F. A. Cook. 
Asa Iglehart. 
J. G. Shanklin. Ira W. 



Thos. E. Garvin. 
Jno. H. Polsdorfer 
W. M. Akin. 
Thos. Kerth. 
Fred. Lunkenheimer 
J. A. Lemcke. 
Geo. H. Start. 
Geo. R. Preston. 
Osborne Reilley. 
Jos. K. Frick. 
Isaac Heimann. 
Bernard Nurre. 
Josiah Gardner. 
H. S. Bennett. 
Alex. Lemcke. 
Cha.s. Leich. 
Lake. C. K. Drew 



468 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



Statistical Department. 



We shall now proceed to recapitulate in detail, the result of 
our investigations, with respect to their aggregate importance, in 
dollars and cents. In some departments we were unable to obtain 
the desired information, unless it were founded on surmises of the 
vao-uest nature, and preferring to make none but reliable reports, 
we have given these departments the go-by. The following 
fio-ures, then, are presented as our own conclusions after laborious 
and careful examination, based partly on information furnished 
by Merchants and Manufacturers as to their own business ; partly 
from a mean of estimates of those having some knowledge as to the 
business of individual firms in the several branches, and partly 
from information furnished from returns made to the Internal 
Eevenue Department. 

Agricultural Implements and Seeds $ 500,000 

Ale Bottled 71,000 

Architectural Castings 40,000 

Auction and Commission 608,723 

Beer and Malt Liquors 690,000 

Books and Stationery 135,000 

Boots and Shoes 1,500,000 

Bottled Sauces, Table ISotions, etc 8,000 

Brass Manufactures 125,000 

Bricks " 200,000 

Brooms " 15,00d 

Building Improvements 3,000,000 

Carpets, Oil Cloths, etc 200,000 

Carriages 130,000 

China and Queensware . ... 500,000 

Clothing 1,250,000 

Coach Trimmings and Horse Goods 100,000 

Coal— Its Local Trade 173,845 

Confectionery 400,000 

Cooperage, Staves, Shingles, etc 150,000 

Cotton Fabrics, manufiictured 150,000 

Dry Goods and Notions 5,100,000 

Drugs and Chemicals 1,100,000 

Engines, Boilers and Machinery 1,091,000 

Enameled Grates and Mantels 10,000 

Edge Tools and Cutlery 40,000 

Furniture and Chairs 825,000 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 469 



FRANK BUSCH & CO., 



INSURANCE AGENCY. 



FIRE, LIFE AND MARINE. 



CORNER FIRST and MAIN STREETS, 



(Under First National Bank,) 



EV^NSVILLE, IND. 



HBNBY HART. JAMES AMOS. 

PROPRIETOBS 

No. aai Locust Street, 

Evansville, Indiana. 



Headquarters for Henry Hart's Celebrated String Band — formerly con- 
nected with Hart's Colored Minstrels. 
Music furnished for Balls, Parties, Picnics, Festivals, etc. 



470 EVANSVILLE: HER COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Grain and Elour $5,075,000 

Groceries 6,000,000 

Galvanized Iron Cornice 60,000 

Hair Goods 15,000 

Hardware, Jobbing 600,000 

Hats, Caps, Furs and Straw Goods 600,000 

Hogs and Provisions 500,000 

Hosiery 13,000 

Ice 140,000 

Iron, Merchant, and Heavy Hardware 350,000 

" Pumps 3,500 

" Railing and Jail Work 15,000 

" Safes and Bedsteads 11,500 

Jewelry, Watches, Silverware, etc 200,000 

Leather, Hides and Oil 50U,000 

Lightning Rods 5,000 

Liquors and Wines 3,500,000 

Marble and Building Stone 135,000 

Millinery 40,000 

Music and Musical Instruments 100,000 

Paper, Blank Books, Binding, etc 260,000 

" Wrapping , 5,000 

Plows '. 145,000 

Produce,— Wool, Feathers, etc 300,000 

Realty Sales 2,307,562 

Saddlery and Saddlerv Hardware 500.000 

Salt, Lime, Cement and Plaster,. 200,000 

Sewing Machines 170,000 

Ship Chandlery. Boat Stores, etc 150,000 

Soap and Candles 60,000 

Steam, Gas and Water Fixtures 45,000 

Stoves and Hollow-ware 640,000 

Sugar Cane Machinery 30.000 

Terra Cotta and Stoneware 30,000 

Tin, Copper and Sheet-Iron Ware 500,000 

Tobacco and Cigars 3,545,000 

Toys, Fancy Goods and Fire Works 50,000 

Trunks 30,000 

Wagons, Wheels, Hubs, etc 75,000 

Wall Paper, Window Shades, etc 100,000 

Wood, Lumber, etc 3,000,000 

Woolen Fabrics, manufactured 125,000 

Miscellaneous Retail Trade Estimate 2,000,000 

Various Manufactures not specially detailed 2,225,000 

Total $52,477,130 

In view of this result — a result as unexpected by the author, 
as it will probably be surprising to the reader — a result perhaps 
understated, but in all candor, as we believe, not enlarged upon, 
and of which the constituents are given with suiScient particu- 
ularity, to enable any one of ordinary intelligence, who doubts its 
correctness, to test the accuracy thereof by a personal investigation; 
in view of this result then, may we not again truthfully, assert 
that Eoansville is already a great Commercial and Manufacturing 
City ! 



STATISTICS— CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 



4T1 



Chamber of Commerce. 

The Evansville Chamber of Commerce was the offspring of a 
sudden and vigorous movement on the part of our leading business 
men, and was organized January 25, 1873, with 164 firms repre- 
sented as members and about $2,400 subscribed to defray the ex- 
penses for the first year. The first board of officers was as follows : 
L. Kuffner, Jr., President; Peter Semonin, First Vice President; 
Wra. M. Akin, Second Vice President; M. Henning, Treasurer ; 
W. T. King, Secretary; H. M. Sweetser, George H. Start and B. 
W. Patrick, Advisory Committee. Daily meetings of Merchants' 
Exchange from 1:30 to 2:30 p.m. in Chamber of Commerce build- 
ing. 125 Main Street. January 1874 the second election occurred, 
Wm. M. Akin being chosen President and A. J. Jagoe Secretary 
and Superintendent. For a time the Chamber of Commerce was 
the scene of considerable business activity, but its usefulness was 
short-lived, and although not totally disorganized needs reconstruc- 
tion badly. 

In order that some account may be given of the annual trade 
of Evansville we present some statistics below. A portion of the 
figures were obtained from the Chamber of Commerce books, but 
we are indebted for a greater portion to our individual industry 
alone. It was impossible for us to ascertain the exports, and yet these 
facts make a fine showing for the city and establish the truthful- 
ness of the assertion that Evansville ranks fourth in commercial 
importance in proportion to population of all the cities in the United 
States — New York being first, San Francisco second and Baltimore 
third. 

The following are the imports to the City of Evansville from 
September Ist 1873 to September 1st 1874 inclusive : 



Apples, bbls 

Ale and Beer, bbls. and kegs., 

Alcohol, bbls 

Bacon, casks and tierces 

" boxes 

" packages 

" pieces 

Bagging, pieces 

Barley, sacks 

" bushels 

Beans, sacks 

" bbls 

Beef, bbls. and tcs 

Bran, sacks , 

Boots and Shoes, cases 

Brooms, bundles. 

Broom Corn, bales 

Butter, pkgs 

Buckwheat, bbls 

" sacks , 

Cordage, coils 

Cattle, he»d „ 



10,727 
11,805 

559 
1,802 

701 

1,429 

22,287 

710 
4,621 

38,455 

1,621 

980 

465 

31.691 

31.794 

6,484 

2,113 

12.547 

984 

780 

1.274 

".393 



Castor Beans, sks „ 1.593 

Cement, bbls _ 16.237 

Cheese, boxes 13.752 

Cider, bbls 1,341 

CofTee, sks 21,708 

Cooperage, flour 13.818 

" pork 2,004 

" whisky 16,512 

" lard tcs 230 

" " kegs 821 

Corn, sks 201,763 

" bush „ 311,298 

Corn Meal, sks '. 9.796 

" " bbls 14,792 

Cotton, bales 8,886 

" sks 712 

" Yarn, pkgs 3,280 

Coal, bus 1,967,704 

Crackers, bxs and bbls 6,125 

Candles, bxs 3.347 

Cracklins, csks 216 

" tcs.....„> $6 



472 EVANS VILLE: HEK COMMEECE AND MANUFACTURES. 



Dried Fruit, sks 3,565 

" " bbls 2,514 

Earthenware, pkgs 1,000 

Eggs, bxs 16,592 

" bbls 3,705 

Flax Seed, sks 2,968 

" " bbls 21 

Flax Tow, bales 239 

Fish, bbls 1,274 

" K bbls 1,861 

" kits '''jSss 

" bxs 3,312 

Feathers, sks 41,678 

Flour, bbls 172,155 

" sks 12,385 

Furs, bales 257 

Furniture, pkgs 33,784 

Grease, bbls 456 

" pkgs 1,390 

Gunnies, bales 1,694 

" bdls 4,750 

Groceries, pkgs 81,511 

Glassware, pkgs 15,620 

Hair, sks 971 

Hay, bales 17,461 

" tons 12,479 

Hardware, pkgs 52,291 

Hemp, bales 312 

Hides, pes 18,416 

" bdls 7,592 

Hogs, head 21,230 

Hoop Poles, bdls 22,346 

Hops, bales 394 

Iron and Steel, bdls 18,589 

" " tons 43,212 

Lard, tcs 1,214 

" l^egs 3,247 

" bbls 182 

" pkgs 394 

Lead, pigs 9,131 

Leather, rolls 3,813 

Lemons, bxs 1,241 

Lime, bbls 42,621 

Lumber, cars 642 

Lumber, M feet 11,986 

pes 32,974 

Lath M 1,475 

." bdls 343 

Liqu